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This book is to be returned on or before the last 

date stamped below 

2 8 JAN 2001 







^0c«tB of ^ntiqaatie& at ^catlantt 




K .\\ ^^^■ 





Notice of ttvo Bronze Masks, dug np at Kanajor, in the Province of Maisnr, 
lodia, and now presented to the Museam by Mr R. C. Sanderson, 
through Dr James Sanderson F.S.A., Scot. By Sir Walter Elliot, 
K.C.S.I., F.S.A. Scot, ... ... 

Notes on "Ane Informatione,'* drawn up by Sir John Dalrymplo, First Earl 
of Stair. By George Loin mer, F.S.A. Scot, . . . . 

Notice of a Small Cemetery of the Bronze Age, recently discovered at 
Shan well, Milnathort, Kinross-shire. By Joseph Anderson, LL.D. 
Assistant Secretary, ...... 

Notice of St Clement's Church at Bowdill, Harris. By Alexander Rosa 
Architect, Inverness, F.S.A. Scot, .... 

On some Brazilian Weapons, and other Articles. By Prof. Duns, D.D. 
F.S.A. Scot, ....... 

Notes on a Mural Monument in the Kirk of Weem. By A. H. Millar 
F.S.A. Scot, . • .... 

Notice of the Discovery, near Broughty-Ferry, of an Antique Ecclesiastical 
Gold Finger Ring. By Alexander Hutcheson, F.S.A. Scot, 
Architect, Dundee, ....... 

Notice of the Discovery of two Cists with Urns of Steatite, in the Parish of 
Sandwick, Orkney, By W. G. T. Watt, of Skaill, Orkney, 

Notice of a Manuscript of the latter part of the Fourteenth Century, entitled 
Passio Scotorum PcrjurcUoruin, By the Most Hon. the Marquess of 
Bute, K.T., F.S.A. Scot, ...... 

Notice of an Artificial Mound or Cairn, situated 50 yards within the Tidal 
Area on the Shore of the Island of Eriska, Argyllshire. By Robert 
Munro, M.A., M.D., F.S.A. Scot, ..... 

The So-called Roman Heads of the Netherbow. By Daniel Wilson, LL.D., 
Principal of University College, Toronto, Hon. Mem. Soc. Ant Scot , . 

Notes resjKJcting the Earl of Moray's Tomb and its Contents in St Giles* 
Church. By Peter Miller, Surgeon, F.S.A. Scot, 

Notice of Unpublished Rentals of the Ancient Lordship of Shetland, and of 
the Earldom and Bishopric of Orkney. By Gilbert Goudie, Treasurer, 
S.A. Scot, ........ 












Notes on Celtic Ornament — The Key and Spiral Patterns. By J. Rom illy 

Allen, C.E., F.S. A., Scot ...... 263 

Notice of a Bronze Caldron found with several Kogs of Butter in a Moss 
near Kyleakin, in Skye; with Notes of other Caldrons of Bronze found 
in Scotland. By Joseph Anderson, LLD., Assistant Secretary, . 309 

Notices of the Discovery of a Stone Coffin and Fragment of a Celtic Cross 
at Lethnott, Forfarshire, and of a Bronze Celt at Durness, Sutherland- 
shire. By Hew Morrison, F.S. A. Scot, . . . .315 

Notice of a Stone, hearing a Roman Inscription, built into a Staircase 
in Jedburgh Abbey. By J. Colling wood Bruce, D.C.L., LL.D., 
Hon. Mem. Soc. Ant. Scot Communicated by the Most Hon. The 
Marquess of Lothian, President of the Society, . . . 321 

Note regarding Cinerary Urns recently discovered at Uddingston. By J. 
Dalrymple Duncan, F.S. A. Scot, Hon. Sec., Glasgow Archaeological 
Society, ......... 337 

Notice of the Excavation of a Chambered Cairn of the Stone Age, at Unstan, 

in the Loch of Stennis, Orkney. By Robert Stewart Clouston, . 341 

Notice of a Cist with an Um and Strike-Light of Flint and Pyrites, at 

Flowerburn, Ross-shire. By Major Colin Mackenzie, F.S. A. Scot, . 352 

Notice of Stone Circles in the Parish of Old Deer. By Rev. James Peter, 

F.S.A. Scot, ........ 370 

Notes on two Additional Runic Ristings in St Molio's Cave, Holy Isle, 

Lamlash Bay, Island of Arran. By J. C. Roger, F.S.A. Scot, . 378 

Cnmbuslang : Some Notes on its Early Lords — The Barons of Drumsargard, 

and other Landowners. By Joseph Bain, F.S.A. Scot, . . 380 

Note of Excavations and Discoveries on the Tafts of Bayann, below Sellafii-th, 

on Bastavoe, Yell, Shetland. By James T. Irvine, F.S.A. Scot, . 385 

Notice of Photographs of Indian Rock- Inscriptions, Amazonas, Brazil. By 

Professor Duns, D.D., F.S.A. Scot, ..... 388 

Notes on Ormond or Avoch Castle, in the Black Isle, Ross-shire, with a Plan 
and Section ; and Notice with Drawings cf Bronze Celts found in its 
Vicinity. By Angus J. Beaton, C.E., F.S.A. Scot, . . .400 

Notes on a Peculiar Class of Recumbent Monuments. By J. Russell Walker, 

Architect, F.S.A. Scot, . . .406 


Flint Knives, from the Calbin Sands, 

Flint Arrow-heads, from the Culbin Sands, . 

Annnlar Brooch of Brass, fonnd in Tiree, 

Qroand Plan of Ancient Structure at Stenabreck, North Ronaldsay, 

Section on line AB of Excavation of Stenabreck, 

Sections of Excavation at Stenabreck, 

Key made of the Bone of a Whale, Stenabreck, 

Wooden Lock and Key, from North Ronaldsay, 

Vessels of Burnt Clay found in the Chambers at Stenabreck, 

Ground Plan of Chambers excavated at Howmae, 

Sections of the Chambers excavated at Howmae, 

Long-handled Comb, found in Chamber D. at Howmae, 

Three Long-handled Combs of Bone, found in Chamber K at Howmae, 

Bone Implements, found in a Kitchen Midden at Holland, . 

Bellarmines or Qrey beards, found in Feltar and at Eyemouth, 

Earthenweare Jar found full of Coins, near Kinghom, Fife, . 

Urn found in a Cist at Bniach, Glenlyon, 

Stone Circle on Findowie Hill, Strathbraan, Perthshire, 

Cup-marked Stone at Little Findowie, Strathbraan, 

Cup-marked Stone at Tomnagaim, Strathbraan, 

Cup-marked Bock, Tomnagaim, Strathbraan, 

Enamelled Bronze Vessel found in Linlithgowshire (Plate L), 

Statuette of Mercury, found at Throsk, Stirlingshire, 

Stone Balls found at Methlick and Dyce, Aberdeenshire, 

Bronze Socketed Celt, found at Strath, Skye, 

Three Socketed Axes of Bronze, found at Forfar, 

* Incised Cross on the west side of the Entrance to St Ninian's Cave, 

Stones, each bearing a double incised Cross, fonnd in St Ninian's Cave, 

'Crosses incised on the west side of St Ninian*8 Cave, 



• Reproduced by permission from Lithographs made for the Ayr and Wigtownshire 
Archseological Association. 




*Small Cross incised on the west side of St Ninian's Cave, ... 86 

•Ground Plan of St Ninian^s Cave, ...... 88 

•Stone with incised Cross, found in St Ninian's Cave, ... 89 

•Stone with incised Cross, found in St Ninian's Cave, ... 90 

•Stone with incised Crosses, found in St Ninian's Cave, ... 91 

•Small Boulder with: incised Cross, found in St Ninian's Cave, . . 93 

*St Ninian's Cave {hderior Fiew, looking outtoards, afUr excavations), . 94 

Bronze Masks dug up at Kanajor, Maisur, India, . . . 100, 101 

Oval Bronze Blade, found with Burnt Bones at Shan well, . . .115 

Urn found at Shan well, . . . . . . .116 

Um found at Shanwell, ....... 117 

View of St Clement's Church, Rowdill, Harris, . . . .119 

Ground Plan of St Clement's Church, Rowdill, . . . .120 

Section through Nave and South Transept of St Clement's Church, Rowdill, 121 
Longitudinal Sections of St Clement's Church {looking north and south), . 122 
Figure of a Man, from the Tower, Rowdill, ..... 123 

Details of Arches and Jambs of Transepts, . . . .124 

Font or Holy-Water Stoup in St Clement's Church, . . .125 

Front View of EflSgy to east of Transept, ..... 126 

Effigy in recessed Arch to east of Transept, ..... 126 

Recessed Arch to east of Transept, showing Sculptured Panels and Voussoirs, 127 
Effigy in recessed Arch to west of Transept, . . . . .128 

Bead of Blue Glass, with White Spirals, found in Fifeshire, . . .133 

Beads of Blue Glass, with Yellow Spirals, found at Cawdor, . . . 133 

Bronze Armlet, found with Jet Beads in a Cist at Melfort, Argyllshire, . 135 

Ecclesiastical Gold Finger-Ring, found near Broughty-Ferry, . 157 

Flanged Celt, found at Canobie, Dumfriesshire, . . . .163 

Flanged Celt, found at Watten, Caithness, . . . . .163 

Enamelled Disc of Bronze found in Dun Mac Uisneachan, . . . 247 

Scrapers of Flint, from Urquhart, Elginshire, .... 260 

Arrow-heads of Flint, from Urquhart, Elginshire, .... 251 

Facsimile of Ornamented Page of Nestorian Manuscript, . . . 257 

Celtic Ornament, ....... 254-308 

Circular Disc of Bronze, ...... 254 

Spiral Patterns in Enamelled Metal-work, .... 255 

Diagram showing subdivision of Space and direction of Lines, . 266 

* Reproduced by permission from Lithographs made for the Ayr and Wigtownshire 
Archeological Association. 




Methods of filling in Squares, ..... 267 

Methods of filling in Triangles, ..... 268 

Methods of connecting Squares filled in with straight line Spirals, . 270 
Methods of connecting S([uares and Triangles filled in with straight 

line Spirals, ....... 272 

Single Border Patterns formed by filling in Squares set parallel, . 273 

Single Border Patterns formed by filling in Squares set parallel, . 274 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares set parallel, . . . 275 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares set diagonally, . . . 276 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares set diagonally, . . . 277 

Celtic and Chinese methods of Ornamentation, . . . 278 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares diagonally, and Triangles, . 279 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares set diagonally, and Triangles, . 280 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares set diagonally, and Triangles, . 281 

Patterns formed by tilling in Triangles or Half Squares, . . 282 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into two Triangles, . 283 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided iuto two Triangles, . 284 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into two Triangles, . 285 

Patterns formed by tilling in Squares divided into two Triangles, . 286 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into four Triangles, . 287 

Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into eight Triangles, . 288 

Patterns formed by filling in Si^uares, with straight lines arranged spirally, 290 

Key Patterns within Circles, ...... 291 

Methods of ornamenting Centres of Spirals, .... 294 

Methods of arranging and connecting Spirals, .... 295 

Methods of connecting two Spirals . . ... . 296 

Spiral Pattern on the Font at Deerhurst, Gloucestershire, . . 297 

Spiral Pattern founded on Squares, ..... 298 

Squares filled in with Spiral- work, ..... 299 

Circles filled in with Spiral-work, ..... 800 

Ornamented Centres of Spirals, . . . . • 801 

Initial Letter in the Book of Durrow, ..... 802 

Spiral Border Patterns, ...... 302 

Half of a Semicircular Border, Psalter of St Augustine, . . 308 

Method of arranging and connecting Spirals, .... 308 

Bronze Caldron, found at Kyleakin, Skyo, . . . . .311 

Bronze Caldron, found in the Moss of Kincardine, .... 318 

Bronze Caldron, from the West of Scotland, . . .314 

Portion of Stone Cross, found at Lethnott (r^wrstf), ^ . . . 317 



Portion of Stone Cross, found at Lethnott (obverse), 

*Stone with Roman Inscription in Jedburgh Abbey, 

*Inscription found at Risingham, Northumberland, 

* Roman Altar, from Risingham, 

Urns found in a Cist at Kincraigie, Little Dunkeld, 

Sculptured Stone from Over Eirkhope, in Ettrick, 

Urn found at Uddingston, 

Urn found at Uddingston, 

Ground Plan of Chambered Cairn at Unstan, 

Urns found in Chambered Cairn at Unstan, 

Urns found in Chambered Cairn at Unstan, 

Urns found in Chambered Cairn at Unstan, 

Urn, from Largie Cairn, 

Flint Arrow-heads, from Unstan Cairn, 

Scraper and Knife of Flint, from Unstan Cairn 

Flaking Tool of Flint, from Unstan Cairn, 

Flint Scraper and Nodule of Pyrites, found at Flowerburn, 

tFlint Scraper and Nodule of Pyrites, found in a grave at Rudstone, Yorkshire 

tMethod of using Pyrites and Scraper of Flint for Striking a Light, 

Recumbent Stone with its two uprights in Strichen Circle, . 

Sketch of White Cow Wood Circle, .... 

Enlarged View of Dolmen in White Cow Wood Circle, 

Recumbent Stone with its two uprights in Loudon Wood Circle, 

Ground Plan of Loudon Wood Circle, 

Ground Plan of the Circle at Aikey Brae, 

Runic Inscriptions in St Molio*s Cave, 

Incised Stones from the Rio Negro, Brazil, 

Ground Plan of Ormond Castle, 

Recumbent Monument at Abercom, 

Recumbent Monument at Brechin, 

Recumbent Monuments at Domock, 

Recumbent Monuments at Govan, . 

Recumbent Monument at Inchcolm, 

Recumbent Monument at Luss, 

Recumbent Monument at Mcigle, 

Group of Monuments at Penrith, 

Recumbent Monuments at Penrith and Hexham, 

* Lent by the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, 
f Lent by John Evans, D.C.L., Hon. Mem. S.A. Scot. 





The Most Hok. the Marquess of Lothian, E.T., LL.D. 

Arthur Mitchell, M.D., LL.D. 

The Right Hon. The Earl of Rosebert, LL.D. 

Sir William Fbttbs Douglas, LL.D., P.RS.A. 

^"^f T?n rTa^^'I ^Representing the Board 

Kt., LL.D., R.S. A., V ^^ TruHees, 

Francis Abbott, ; 
David Douglas. 
Qeorob Hunter M. Thoms. 
Qeoroe Sston, M.A. 
Stair Agnew, M.A., O.R 
Right Hon. The Earl of Stair. 
Robert Herdman, R.S.A. 
Professor Duns, D.D. 


John Ritchie Findlat. 

R W. Cochran-Patrick, LL.D., M.P. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Assistant Secretary, 

WiLLiAV F0EBB8, I Secretariesfor Fordgr^ 

Thomas Dickson, V a>rr«pon«fo«««. 

H.M. Gen. R^. House, ) 



Gilbert Goudie, 39 Northumberland Street 

(,nxnim of i^t ^nutma. 

Robert Carfrae. 
John J. Keid, RA. 

(fXtndQT of <Koin0. 
George Sim. 

John Taylor Brown. 


(Instituted 1874, in terms of a bequest for its endowment by the late 
Alexander Henry Rhind of Sibster^ Hon, Mem, S,A, Scot) 

SESSION 1885-86. 
Rhind Lecturer in ARCHfiOLOOY — J. Romilly Allen, C.E. 





(Revised cmd adopted December 1, 1873.) 

The purpose of the Society shall be the promotion of AROttfiOLOOY, 
especially as connected with the Antiquities and Historical Literature 
OP Scotland. 

L Members. 

1. The Society shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary Fellows, and 
of Corresponding and Lady Associates. 

2. The number of the Ordinary Fellows shall be unlimited. 

3. Candidates for admission as Ordinary Fellows must sign the Fonn 
of Application prescribed by the Council, and must be recommended by 
one Ordinary Fellow and two Members of the Council 

4. The Secretary shall cause the names of the Candidates and of their 
Proposers to be inserted in the billet calling the Meeting at which they 
are to be balloted for. The Ballot may be taken for all the Candidates 
named in the billet at once ; but if three or more black baUs appear, the 
Chairman shall cause the Candidates to be balloted for singly. No Can- 
didate shall be admitted unless by the votes of two-thirds of the Fellows 

5. The number of Honorary Fellows shall not exceed twenty-five ; and 


shall consist of men eminent in Arcbsdological Science or Historical 
Literature, and they shall not be liable for any fees of admission or 
annual contributions. 

6. All recommendations of Honorary Fellows must be made through 
the Council ; and they shall be balloted for in the same way as Ordinary 

7. Corresponding Associates must be recommended and balloted for in 
the same way as Ordinary Fellows, and they shall not be liable for any 
fees of admission or annual contributions. 

8. The number of Lady Associates shall not exceed twenty-five. 
They shall be elected by the Council, and shall not be liable for any 
fees of admission or annual contributions. 

9. Before the name of any person can be recorded as an Ordinary 
Fellow, he shall pay Two Guineas of entrance fees to the funds of the 
Society, and One Guinea for the current year's subscription. Or he may 
compound for all future contributions, including entrance fees, by the 
payment of Twenty Guineas at the time of his admission ; or of Fifteen 
Guineas after having paid five annual contributions; or of Ten Guineas 
after having paid ten annual contributions. 

10. If any Ordinary Fellow who has not compounded shall fail to pay 
his annual contribution of One Guinea for three successive years, due 
application having been made for payment, the Treasurer shall report the 
same to the Council, by whose authority the name of the defaulter may 
be erased from the list of Fellows. 

11. Every Fellow not being in arrears of his annual subscription shall 
be entitled to receive the printed Proceedings of the Society from the 
date of his election, together with such special issues of Chartularies, or 
other occasional volumes, as may be provided for gratuitous distribution 
from time to time under authority of the Council Associates shall have 
the privilege of purchasing the Society's publications at the rates fixed 
by the Council for supplying back numbers to the Fellows. 

12. I^one but Ordinary Fellows shall hold any office or vote in the 
business of the Society. 


Offiob-Bbabers and Counoil. 

1. The Office-Bearers of the Society shall consist of a President, who 
continues in office for three years ; three Yice-Presidents, two Secretaries 
for general purposes, and two Secretaries for Foreign Correspondence, a 
Treasurer, two Curators of the Museum, a Curator of Coins, and a 
Librarian, who shall be elected for one year, all of whom may be re- 
elected at the Annual Greneral Meeting, except the first Vice-President, 
who shall go out by rotation, and shall not be again eligible till he has 
been one year out of office. 

2. The Council shall consist of the Office-Bearers and seven Ordinary 
Fellows, besides two annually nominated from the Board of Manufactures. 
Of these seven, two shall retire annually by rotation, and shall not be 
again eligible till they have been one year out of office. Any two Office- 
Bearers and three of the Ordinary Council shall be a quorum. 

3. The Council shall have the direction of the affairs and the custody 
of the effects of the Society ; and shall report to the Annual Geiieral 
Meeting the state of the Society's funds, and other matters which may 
have come before them during the preceding year. 

4. The Council may appoint committees or individuals to take charge 
of ])articular departments of the Society's business. 

5. The Office-Bearers shall be elected annually at the General Meeting. 

6. The Secretaries for general purposes shall record all the proceedings 
of meetings, whether of the Society or Council ; and conduct such corre- 
spondence as may be authorised .by the Society or Council, except the 
Foreign Correspondence, which is to be carried on, under the same 
authority, by the Secretaries appointed for that particular purpose. 

7. The Treasurer shall receive and disburse all moneys due to or by the 
Society, and shall lay a state of the funds before the Council previous to 
the Annual General Meeting. 

8. The duty of the Curators of the Museum shall be to exercise a 
general supervision over it and the Society's Collections. 

9. The Council shall meet during the session as often as is requisite 


for the due despatch of business ; and the Secretaries shall have power to 
call Meetings of the Council as often as they see cause. 

III. Meetings op the Society. 

1. One General Meeting shall take place every year on St Andrew's 
day, the 30th of November, or on the following day if the 30th be a 

2. The Council shall have power to call Extraordinary Greneral 
Meetings when they see cause. 

3. The Ordinary Meetings of the Society shall be held on the second 
Monday of each month, from December to April alternately at Eight p.m. 
and at Three p.m., and in May and June at Three p.m. The Council 
may give notice of a proposal to change the hour and day of meeting if 
they see causa 

IV. Byb-Laws. 

1. All Bye-Laws formerly made are hereby repealed. 

2. Every proposal for altering the Laws as already established must be 
made through the Council ; and if agreed to by the Council, the Secretary 
shall cause intimation thereof to be made to all the Fellows at least three 
months before the General Meeting at which it is to be determined on. 




NOYEMBER 30, 1885. 


1863.»Abbott, Fbakcib, 25 Moray Place. 

1879. Abbrcbombt, Hon. John, 21 Chapel 
Street, Belgrave Square, London. 

1853.*Abbbdbin, Francis, Eeithock House, 

1858.* Adam, Robert, City Accountant , 
Council Chambers. 

1881. Aqnxw, R Vans, of Bambarroch, 
Kirkinner, Wigtownshire. 

1884. Agnbw, Stair, H.A, C.B., 22 Buck- 
ingham Terrace. 

1877. AiNSLiB, David, of Costerton, Black- 

1884. Aitkrn, Qeorob Shaw, Architect, 
Fern Villa, Pirbright, Surrey. 

1878. Aitkbn, Thomas, M.D., District 

Asylum, Inverness. 

1879. Allbn J. RoMtLLY, C.E., 11 Bentinck 

Street, Cavendish Square, London. 
1864.*Andbr80N, Archibald, Advocate, 44 

Connaught Square, London. 
1865.*Anderson, Arthitr, M.D., C.B., 

Sunnybrae, Pitlochry. 
An asterisk (*) denotes Members who have 

1884. Anderson, Charles M., Woodland 
Villas, Heaton Moor, Stockport 

1882. Anderson, John, M.D., LL.D., Super- 
intendent of Indian Museum, and 
Professor of Comparative Anatomy, 

1885. Anderson, P. J., M.A, LL.B., 2 East 
Craibstone Street, Aberdeen. 

1871. Anderson, Robert Rowand, LL.D. 
Architect, 19 St Andrew Square. 

1865.*Anderson, Thomas S., lingarth. New 
buTKli, Fife. 

1882. Annandalb, Thomas, Professor of 
Clinical Surgery, University of IVlin 
burgh, 34 Charlotte Square. 

1863.*Appleton, John Reed, Western Hill, 

1850.*Abotll, His Grace the Duke of, 

1885. ABMrTAQB, Albxandbr Boasb, Ac- 
countant, 14 Dick Place. 

1878. Armstrong, Robert Bruce, 22 AthoU 

compounded for their Annual Contributions. 


861.*Baikik, Bobxrt, M.D., of Tankemess, 

50 MelviUe Street. 
877. Bailxt, J. Lambkbt, Solicitor, Ard- 

868. Bain, Joskph, 24 Chesilton Boad, 

Falham, London. 

879. Bain, Sir J amis, KB., 3 Park Ter- 

race, Olasgow. 
838.*Balfoub, Col. David, of Balfour and 

Trenaby, Orkney. 
873. Balfour, JoHN,of Balbiinie, Bfarkincb, 

888. Balfoub, Chablbs Babbinoton, of 

Newton Don and Balgonie, Scots 

GnardB, London, 21 Hans Place. 
886. Baltour, Major Fbanois, Femie 

Castle, Fife. 
888.*BALF0UB-MELvnxB, John M., of Pil- 

rig and Strathkinnes, W.S., Mount 

MeMlle, St Andrews. 

876. BALLANTiNX,ALSXANDERfl^2 George St 
883. Ballingall^ Andbbw Huntxb, W.S., 


877. Bannxrman, Rev. D. Douglas, M.A., 

Free St Leonard's Manse, Perth. 
877.*Bannkbman, H. Campbell, M.P., 6 

Grosvenor Place, London. 
865.*Babnwell, Rev. Edwabd Lowbt, 

M.A., Melksham, Wilts. 

880. Babron, Jahxs, Editor of Inverness 

Courier, Inverness. 
883. Baxtbb, Jambs Cubbix, S.&C., 45 

Heriot Bow. 
881 Bxaton, Anoxts J., CE., Engineer's 

Office, L. and N.-W. Railway, Bangor, 

North Wales. 
877. Bbaumont, Chablbs G., M.B., Shirley, 

863.*Bbok, Rev. Jambs, A.M., Rector of 

Bildeston, Suffolk. 
872. Beeb, John T., Thieapland House, 

Fulneck, Leeds. 
877. Bbgg, Robebt BuBN8,Solicitor, Kinross. 
875. Beith, Donald, W.a, 16 Grosvenor 

877. Bell, Robert CBAioiE,W.S.,lCUfton 

877. Bell^ William, of Gribds, Kirk- 


879. Bbbbt, Rev. David, F.C. Minister, 


884. Bbtt, Jambs, Factor for the Earl of 

Breadalbane, Bolftncks, Aberfeldy. 
878.*Bbveridge, Jambs A., 9 Bel^ve 

877. BiLTON, Lewis, W.S., 21 Hill Street 

880. Black, Jambs T., Gogar Park, Cor- 

882. Black, William George, 1 Alfred 

Terrace, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
847.*Blackie, Walteb G., Ph.D., 17 

Stanhope Street, Glasgow. 

882. Blackwood, James, GiUsbum, Kil- 


885. Blaikib, Walteb Biggab, 22 Heriot 


883. Blaib, F. C. HuNTEB, B.A., Blairquhan, 

879. Blanc, Hippolttb J., Architect, 73 
George Street 

883. Bloxsom, William G., 25 St Andrew 


879. Bltth-Mabtin, Wiluam Young, 

Blyth House, Newport, Fife. 

885. BoMPAS, Chablbs S. M., 121 West- 
bourne Terrace, London. 

880.*BONAB, HoRATius, W.S., 15 Hill St 

876. BoNNAR, Thomas, 127 Geoiige Street 

880. Borland, John, Etruria Bank, Kil- 

873.*BoTD, WnuAM, M.A., Solicitor, 

884. BoTNTON, Thomas, Ulrome Grange, 

Southorpe, Hull. 
883. Brand, David, Advocate, 9 Albany St 
884.*Breadalbanb, The Most Hon. the 

MarquiB of, Taymouth Castle. 
869. Brewster, Rev. David, Kilmeny, Fife. 
857.*Brodie, Thomas Dawson, W.S.. 9 

Ainslie Place. 

877. Bboun, Archibald, Principal Clerk of 

Session, 12 Oxford Terrace. 

878. Bboxtn-Morison, John Broun, of Fin- 

derlie, Harrow-on-HUL 

885. Brown, Rev. George, Bendochy Manse, 

Coupar- Angus. 
849.*Brown, a. J. Deniston, Balloch 
Castle, Dumbarton. 


884. Brown, Q. Baldwin, M.A., Professor 

of Fine Art, University of Edinbnigh. 
871. Brown, John Taylor, Gibraltar 

House, St Leonards, — Librarian, 
882. Brown, Robert, Underwood Park, 

865.«Brown, WiLLLUf, F.R.C.S.E., 26 

Dublin Street. 

884. Browns, Rev. Q. F., B.D., St 

Catherine's Ck>llege, Cambridge. 
882. Browns, Qsorqs Wabhinqton, 
Ar^itect, 19 St Andrew Square. 

885. Brucs, Charlbs, J.P., Mount Hooly 

House, Wick. 
863.*Brucb, Hsnbt, of Ederline, Lochgilp-' 

882. Brucb, Jambs, W.S., 23 St Bernard's 

880. Bruob, Rev. William, Dunimarle, 

880. Brtdbn, Robbrt, Waltham Lodge, 

885.*Buchanan, Thomas Rtburn, M.P., 

10 Moray Place. 
882. BniST, John R, M.D., Lecturer on 

Pathology, 2 Qrosvenor Street. 

882. BoRNBT, John Jambs, Architect, 167 

St Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

863.*6urnbtt, Gborgb, LL.D., Advo- 
cate, Lyon King-of-Arms, 21 
Walker Street. 

874. Burns, Edward, 3 London Street. 

867.*BuTS, The Most Honourable the 
Marquis of, K.T., LL.D. 

880. Caldwsll, Jambs, Craigielea Place, 

883. Cambron, Rev. Albxandbr, F.C. 

Manse, Brodick, Anun. 

886. Camfbbll, The Lord Colin, M.P., 

Argyll Lodge, Kensington, London. 
866.*Camfbbll, Rev. Jambs, D.D., The 
Manse, Balmerino, Fifeshire. 

884. Campbell, JAMBS,Constitutional Club, 

Regent Street, London, S.W. 
877.*Campbbll, Jambs, of Tillychewan, 

Alexandria, Dumbartonshire. 
874.*Camfbbll, Jambs A., LL.D., M.P., 

of Stracathro, Brechin. 

1860.*Camfbbll, Rev. John A. L., Helpston, 

1882. Campbbll, Patrick W., W.S., 49 
Melville Street. 

1884.*Campbbll, Richard Vary, Advocate, 
87 Moray Place. 

1878. Campbell, William, M.D., Dep. 

Inspector-General of Hospitals, Bom- 
bay Army, 2 Manor Road, Folkestone. 

1883. Campbell, Walter J. Douglas, of 

Innis Chonain, Loch Awe. 

1862.*Carfrab, Robert, 77 George Street, 
— Cwrator of Museum. 

1867. Carltle, Thomas J., Templehill, 

1869.*Carmichabl, Sir W. Gibson, Bart., 
of Castlecraig, Dolphinton. 

1871. Cabtwiuobt, Thomas Lbslib Mbl- 
viLLE,Melville House, Ladybank, Fife. 

1874. ♦Chalmers, David, Redhall, Slateford. 

1866.*Chalmbbs, James, Westbum, Aber- 

1869. Chalmers, Patrick Henderson, Ad- 
vocate, 13 Union Terrace, Aberdeen. 

1886. Chambers, Robert, Publisher, 10 
Claremont Crescent. 

1877. Chapman, Thomas, jun., 1 Dundas St 

1776. Chisholm, James, 16 Claremont C^es. 

1881. Christie, John, of Cowden, 19 

Buckingham Terrace. 

1882. Chbistison,David, M. D. , 40 Moray PI. 
1882. Clark, David Bennett, 16 Douglas 

1886. Clark, George Bennett, W.S., 16 

Douglas Crescent. 
1871. Clark, Sir John Forbes, Bart, of 

Tillypronie, Aberdeenshire. 
1867.*Clark, Robert, 42 Hanover Street 
1874. Clark b, Wiluam Bruce, M. A. , M. B. , 

46 Harley St, Cavendish Sq., London. 

1879. CiJELAND, John, M.D., Professor of 

Anatomy, University of Glasgow. 

1880. Clouston, Thomas a, M.D., Tip- 

perlinn House, Momingside Place. 
1870.*Coghill, J. G. Sinclair, M.D., St 

Catherine's House, Ventnor, Isle of 

1879. Colebbooke, Sir Edward, Bart , M.P., 

Abington, Lanarkshire. 


1886. CJONNAL, William, yr., 27 Grange 
Road, Middlesbro'-on-Tees. 

1885. CoNNAL-RoWAN, PATRICK F., Meiklc- 
wood, Stirling. 

1862.«CooK, John, W.a, 11 Great King St 

1884. Ck)OKB, Rev. Edward Alesandkr, 

RA., The Rectory, NewmarketK)n- 
Fei^gns, County Clare, Ireland. 

1885. Cooper, John, Burgh Engineer, 25 

Warrender Park Terrace. 
1867. Copland, James, Assistant Curator, 

Historical Department, General 

Register House. 
1851.*CouLTHART, JoHN Ross, of Coulthart 

and Collyn, Greenlaw Park, Castle- 
1849. •Cowan, Charles, of Valleyfield, 

Westerlea, Murrayfield. 
1879. Cowan, Rev. Charles J., B.D., 

Morebattle, Kelso. 
1865. ♦Cowan, James, 85 Royal Terrace. 
1879. Cowan, Lachlan, 160 West George 

Street, Glasgow. 
1888. CoyfAJftSAMVELtPerthshireAdvertiseTf 


1876. Cox, Jambs C, The Cottage, Lochee,. 


1877. Cox, Robert, 34 Drumsheugb Gardens. 
1882. Crabbie, Gkoroe, 56 Palmerston PL 
1879. Crabbib, John M., 83 Chester Street 
1826.*Craio, James T. Gibson, 24 York PL 

1879. Craik, George Lillib. Publisher, 29 

Bedford Street, Covent Garden, 

1880. Cran, John, Kirkton, Inverness. 
1861.* Crawfurd, Thomas Macknioht, of 

Cartsbum, Lauriston Castle. 
1876. Crichton, James, 5 Lennox Street 

1878. Croal, Thomas A., 17 Hope Crescent 
1882. Crolb, David, Solicitor for Inland 

Revenue for Scotland, 1 Royal Circus. 

1882. Crombib, John, 74 Union Street, 

1867.*CuMiNO, H. Syer, 63 Kennington Park 
Road, Surrey. 

1879. Cunningham, Gborgb G., Advocate, 

45 Manor Place. 

1883. Cttnningham, Carub D., 84 Melville 


1867. CuRLB, Alexander, of Moniston, 

1884. CuRRiE, Walter THOMSON,S.S.C.,Glen- 

doick House, Glencarse, Perthshire. 
1879. Cursitbr, Jambs Walls, Albert St* 


1879. Dalgleish, J. J., of Westgrange, 8 
Atholl Crescent 

1883. Dalrtmple, Hon. Hew Hamilton, 

Oxenfoord Castle, Dalkeith. 

1857. •Dalrtmple, Charles E., Kinellar 
Lodge, Blackburn, Aberdeenshire. 

1866. Davidson, C. B., Advocate, Roundhay, 
Fonthill Road, Aberdeen. 

1879. Davidson, Henry, Muirhouse, David- 
son's Mains. 

1872.*David30N, Hugh, Procurator-Fiscal, 
Braedale, Lanark. 

1879. Day, St John Vincent, C.E., 33 

Lynedoch Street, Glasgow. 
1882. Deuchar, David, of Momingside, 
. Harelaw, Hope Terrace. 

1881. Dewar, James, Balliliesk, Dollar. 

1884. Dick, J. Proudfoot, Kilellan House, 

Campbelton, Argyllshire. 
1862.*DicKSON, David, Osborne Bank, 
Spylaw Road. 

1876. Dickson,Robert, Surgeon, Carnoustie, 

1870. •Dickson, Thomas, Curator of the 
Historical Department H.M. General 
Register House, —Foreign Secretary. 

1870. Dickson, Walter George, M.D., 8 

Royal Circus. 
1882. •Dickson, Wujjam Traquaib, W.S., 
11 Hill Street 

1871. Dishington, Thomas, Lark Villa, 

Laverock Bank, Trinity. 

1877. DoBiB, John Shedden, of Morishill, 


1882. D0BiE,Capt W. A. , 4 North Manor PI. 

1880. Donald, Colin Dunlop, jun., 172 St 

Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
1867. •Donaldson, Jambs, LL.D., Professor 

of Humanity, University of Aberdeen. 
1879. Douglas, Archibald Sholto, 2 

Middleby Street 
1861.^DouGLAS, David, 15 Castle Street. 


878. DOUQLAB, BoBBBT, Frankfield, Kirk- 
885. Douglas, Rev. Sholto D. C, 23 

Hanover Square, London. 
878. Douglas, Sir William Fettbs, LL.D., 

P.R.S.A-, 6 Lynedoch Place,-— 

881.*DouoLAS, W. D. Robinson, Orchardton, 

874. DowELL, Albzandbb, 18 Palmerston 

874. Dbbnnan, Rev. Hugh, Shoeburyness, 

Southend, Essex. 
878. Dbuuhond, William, 4 Learmonth 

872. DuDGBON,FATBicK,ofCargen,Duxnfries. 
881. Duff, £dwabd Gobdon, Park Nook, 

Princes Park, Liverpool. 
887.*DuFF, M. B. Gbant, of Eden, Banff. 
872. Duke, Rev. William, M. A. ,St Yigeans, 

878. Dunbab, Abohibald Hamilton, 

of Northfield, Bournemouth. 
880. Duncan, Jambs Dalbtmflb, 223 West 

Qeorge Street, Glasgow. 
850.*DuNCAN, Jambs Matthews, M.D., 

LL.D., 71 Brook Street, Grosvenor 

Square, London. 
874. Duncan, Rev. John, Abdie, Newburgh, 

877.*DuNDAS Ralph, C.S., 16 St Andrew 


874. DuNLOP, Rev. Jambs Mebcbb, Charles- 

wood, Pollokshaws. 

875. Duns, John, D. D. , Professor of Natural 

Science, New College, 14 Greenhill 
880. Dtbon, William Colb eck. Rock House, 

885. Eldbb, William Nicol, L.R.C.P. and 
S.E., 10 West Maitland Street. 

885. Elliot, CoL Chablbs, C.R, Hazel- 
bank, Mnrrayfleld. 

880. Eluot, John, of Binks, 7 Chamberlain 

862.»Elliot, Sir Waltbb, K.C.S.L, of 
Wolfelee, Roxburghshire. 

884. Ellis, James, 54 Castle Street. 

1874. Faibweathbb, Albxandbe, 22 Peirse 

Street, Brechin. 

1856.*Fabquhaiison, Robbbt, of Haughton, 
Alford, Aberdeenshire. 

1880. Faulds, a. Wiu^on, Knockbuckle 
House, Beith. 

1883. Febguson, Albxandeb A., 11 Gros- 
venor Terrace, Glasgow. 

1880. Febguson, Richabd S. , Lowther Street, 

1875. Febguson, Robbbt, M.P., Morton, 

1872. Febguson, William, of Kinmundy, 

Mintlaw, Aberdeenshire. 
1875. Febgusson, Sir James R., of Spital- 

haugh. West Linton. 
1878. Febgusson, James, D. C. L.,20 Langham 

Place, London. 
1873.*FiNDLAY, John Ritchie, 3 Rothesay 

Terrace, — Secretary. 
1880. FiNLAT, John Hope, W.S., 26 Glen- 
cairn Crescent. 
1885. FiNLAT, KiBKMAN, of Duulossit, Islny. 
1875. FiSHEB, Edwabd, Abbotsbury, Newton 

Abbot, Devonshire. 
1885. Fleming, D. Hat, 173 South Street, 

St Andrews. 
1875. Foots, Albxandeb, 7 Belgrave 

1862.*Fobbb8, William, of Medwyn, 17 

Ainslie Place, — Foreign Secretary. 
1880. FoBLONG, Major-Gen. J. G. Roche, 11 

Douglas Crescent 
1883.*FosTEB, Walteb Kidman, 45 Leinster 

Gardens, Hyde Park, London. 
1883. Fox, Chablbs Hbnby, M.D., The 

Beeches, Brislington, Bristol. 
1862.*Fbaseb, Albxandeb, CanonmiUs 

Lodge, Canonmills. 
1857.*Fbaseb, Patbick Allan, of Hospital 

Field, Arbroath. 
1864.*Fba8eb, The Hon. Lord, 8 Moray 

1851.»Fbaseb, William, C.B., LL.D., De- 
puty Keeper of Records, 32 Castle 

1883. Fbasbb, Rev. William Ruxton, M.A., 

Minister of Maryton, Montrose. 
1882. Fbeeb, John, Solicitor, Melrose. 


884. Qalbbaith, Thomas L., Town-Clerk, 

884. Gbmmill, Wiluam, M.B, CM., 

Dnimmore, Stranraer. 
877. GiBB, John S., 8 Buccleuch Place. 

876. Gibson, Albxandbb, Advocate, 12 

Great King Street 
867. GiLLBSPiB, David, of Mountqubanie, 

881. GiLLON. WiLLUM, Captain 71st High. 

Light Infantry, Wallhoose, Bathgate. 
870. •Glasgow, Right Hon. The Earl of,' 
LL.D. ,Ix>rd Clerk Register of Scotland. 

885. Glen, Robert. 10 Duncan Street. 
885. GOLDSMQ), Edmund, Lnfra Hoose, 

Granton Road. 

884. Gordon, Jambs, W.S., 8 East Castle 

Road, Merchiston. 

877. Gordon, Rev. Robert, of Free Buc- 

cleuch Church, 11 Mayfield Gardens. 
872. Gordon, Wiluam, M.D., 11 Mayfield 

883. Gordon, R. B. Wobiugb, Grenadier 

Guards, London. 

869. GouDiE, Gilbert, 39 Northumberland 

Street, — Treasurer. 

885. GouDiB, Jambs T., Janefield, Albert 

Drive, Pollockshields. 

878. Gow, James M., Union Bank, 66 

George Street. 
851.*Graham, Willlam, LL.D., 11 Eildon 

882. Graham, James Maxtone, of Cnlto- 

quhey, Crieflf. 
885. Grant, John, Marchmont Herald, 42 

Ann Street. 
882. Grat, George, Clerk of the Peace, 


884. Grat, J. Miller, Curator, National 

Portrait Gallery of Scotland, 25 York 
877. Grat, Robert, Bank of Scotland 

870. Grbenbubt, Rev. Thomas, 16 Upper- 

head Row, Leeds. 
866.*Greenshieldb, John B., Advocate, 

of Kerse, Lesmahagow. 
872. Grieve, David, Lockharton Gardens, 

Colinton Road, Slateford. 

1880. Grieve, Syminoton, 7 Queensberry 

863.*Grigor, John, M.D., Larkfield, Nairn. 
878. Grosart, Rev. Alex.' Balloou, D.D., 

LL.D., Brooklyn House, Blackburn. 
871. Grub, Rev. George, The Parsonage, 


880. Guild, J. Wyllie, 65 St Vincent St., 

888. Gunning, Robert Hallidat, M.D., 

30 Hazlett Road, West Kensington 

Park, London. 
884. Guthrie, Charles J., Advocate, 54 

Northumberland Street. 
878. Guthrie, Rev. D. K., P. C. Manse, 


884. Guthrie, James, 11 Stafford Street. 

874. Guthrie, Rev. Roger R. Lingard, 

Taybank House, Dundee. 

861. ♦Haddington, Right Hon. The Earl of, 

Tynninghame, Prestoukirk. 
846.*Hail8TONb, Edward, of Walton Hall, 

882. Halkbtt, Sir Arthur, Bart., of Pit- 

firrane, 14 Rothesay Place. 
876. Hallen, Rev. Arthur Washington, 

M.A., The Parsonage, Alloa. 

881. Hamilton, The Honourable Robert 

Baillie, Langton, Duns. 

880. Hamilton, George, Sheriff-Clerk, 

876. Hamilton, John Alexander, 8 May- 
field Street, Newington. 

875. Hamilton, John G. C, M.P., of Dal- 

zell, Motherwell. 
867. Harris, Alexander, City Chambers. 

882. Hawlet, Willlam, 187 George 


885. Hat, Andrew, Oriental Club, Hanover 

Square, London. 

875. Hat, George, R.S.A., 9 Castle 

882. Hay, George, The Snuggery, Arbroath. 

880. Hay, George H. B. , Hayfield, Lerwick. 

884. Hat, J. Marley, Queen Street, Aber- 
1874. Hay, J. T., of Whitmuir, 18 North 
Manor Place. 


866.*Hat, Bobbbt J. A., of Nunraw, Pres- 

882. Hat, William, Architect, Rabbit HaU, 


871. Huton, Andrew, Architect, Damick, 


880.*Hender8ON, Jomr L., 8 Minard Ter- 
race, Glasgow. 

872.*Hbndkb80n, John, 14 Athole Oardens, 
Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

873.*Herdman, Robert, R.S.A., 12 Bnints- 
field Crescent. 

878.*HBuaH, John, of Holmewood, Kent. 

881. Hill, Giorgb W., 6 Princes Terrace, 

Dowanhill, Glasgow. 
1860.*HoMB, David Milne, LL.D., HQn- 

graden, CJoIdstream. 
888. Hood, Thomas H. (Jookburn, Walton 

Hall, Kelso. 
874.*H0FB, Henrt W., of Lofhess, Drem, 

874.*HoRNiMAN, Fredbriok John, Surrey 

Mount, Forest Hill, London. 
861. ♦Howe, Alexander, W.S., 17 Moray PI. 
880. HowoRTH, Daniel Fowler, Stamford 

Terrace, Ashton-under-Lyne. 

872. Hunter, Oapt Charles, Plas CUch, 
Llanfair P.G., Anglesea. 

867. Hunter, William, Westbank House, 

882. Hutcheson, Alexander, Architect, 

Herschel House, Broughty Ferry. 

871. Hutchison, John, R.S.A., 10 Manor PL 
860.*HuTCHi8ON, Robert, of Cariowrie, 29 

Chester Street 

872. Htslop, James M'Adam, M.D., 22 
Palmerston Place. 

884. Ingram, John, Mitchell Library, 

882. Innes, Charles, Solicitor, Inyemess. 

866. Irvine, James T., Architect, 90 Crom- 
well Road, Peterborough. 

884. Irvine, K W., M.A., M.B., Pitlochry, 

884. Isles, Jambb, St Ninians, Blairgowrie. 

888. Jackson, Mi^or Handle, The Priory, 
St Andrews. 

879. Jackson, Magnus, Marshall Place, 

867. Jambs, Rey. John, 68 Grange Road, 

880. Jamieson, Gborob, Ex-Lord Provost 

of Aberdeen. 
859.* Jamieson, George Auldjo, 87 Drum- 

sheugh Gardens. 
871. Jamieson, James Auldjo, W.&, 14 

Buckingham Terrace. 
885. Jamieson, Andrew, Advocate, 3 St 

Colme Street 
884. Japp, William, aau. Royal Bank, 

877. Jeffrey, John, of Balsnsney, 

Laiigo House, Largo. 
849.MOHNSTONB, Thomas B., 9 Claremont 

877. JOLLT, WiLLL^M, H.M. Inspector of 

Schools, Ardgowan, Pollockshields. 
864.* Jones, Morris Charles, Gungrog, 


865. *Kate, Robert, Fountain Bank, Partick, 

870. KELTns, John S., 52 Cromwell Avenue, 

Highgate, London. 

877. Kennedy Hugh, RedoIyfTe, Partick 

Hill, Glasgow. 

880. Kennedy, John, M.A., 88 Parliament 

Street, Westminster. 
848.*Kebr, Andrew, Architect, 3 Findhom 

883. Kerr, James R, Banker. Kelso. 

878. Kerr, William, Solicitor, Nethergate 

House, Dundee. 
874. Kino, Rev. Edward, B. A., Werrington 

Vicarage, Launceston. 
878. Kino, James, LL.D., of Campaie, 12 

Claremont Terrace, Glasgow. 
861. ♦King, Col. William Ross, of Tertowie, 

Kinaldie, Aberdeenshire. 

884. Kinloch, Sir John G. S., Bart, Kin- 

loch House, Meigle. 

881. KiRKB, Robert, Greenmount, Burnt- 

880. Kntsop, John, 6 Queen's Crescent, 


1866. Laidlat, J. W., SeaclifF, North 

1856.*LAiNa, ALKSAtTDER, LL.D., Newburgh, 

1882, Laino. Albxandbr, S.S.C., Qlenord, 

Spylaw BoacL 
1864.*Laino, Samxtsl, M.P., 5 Cambridge 

Oate, Regent's Park, London. 
1878.*Lamb, Alsxandbb Cbawford, 8 Gar. 

land Place, Dundee. 

1884. Lamb, Jambs H., Viewbank, Brechin. 
1882. Lang, David, LL.R, Advocate, 28 

Northumberland Street. 

1885. Law, Thomas Qravbs, Librarian, 

Signet Library. 
1882. Lbadbbttbb, 1*homas, Architect, 122 

George Street 
1871.*Lbi8HMan, Rev. Thomas, D.D., Linton, 

1873.*Lbith, Albxakdbb, Glenkindie, Inver- 

kindie, Aberdeenshire. 

1882. Lbith, Rev. Jambs* Forbbs, S.J., 85 

Rue de Sevres, Paris. 
1888. Lbith, William Forbes, Stonyhurst 
College, Blackburn, Lancashire. 

1884. Lbnnox, James, Eden Bank, Dumfries. 
1857.*Lbslib, Charles Stephen, of Bal- 

quhain, 11 Chanonry, Aberdeen. 
1873. LiNSSAT, Rev. Thomas M., D.D., Pro- 
fessor of Divinity, Free Church Col- 
lege, Glasgow. 

1881. LiTTLB, Robert, 15 Shandwick Place. 

1885. Littlbjohn, David S., Solicitor. Bal- 

gillo Cottage, Broughty Ferry. 
1884. Livingston, £. R, 22 Great St Helens, 
London, E.C. 

1878. LrviNQSTON, Josiah, 4 Minto Street. 

1883. Lockhart, Rev. William, M.A., 

Minister of Colinton. 

1882. LoRiHRR, George, 2 Abbotsford Cres. 
1870. ♦Lothian, The Most Honourable the 

Marquess of, ILT.,LL.D., — PresidenL 

1879. LowsoN, William, Solicitor, 28 Con- 

stitution Street, Leith. 
1 879. Luis, John H enrt, Cidhmore, Dundee. 
1878.*LnMSDBN, Hugh Gordon, of Clova, 

1873. LuMSDEN, Lt-Col. Henrt William, 

34 Roland Gardens, London. 

1880. LuMSDEN, James, Arden House, Alex- 

1875.*Maoadam, Stbvbnson, Ph.D., Lec- 
turer on Chemistry, Surgeons' Hall. 

1882. Macandrew, Henrt Cookburn, 
Sheriff-Clerk, Inverness. 

1884. Macbain, Alexander, M.A., Rector 

of Raining's School, Inverness. 

1877. Macbeath, James Mainland, Lynn- 

field, Kirkwall. 

1885. M'Call, James, 6 St John's Terrace, 

Hillhead, Glasgow. 
1873. M'CoMBiB, William, of Easter Skene, 

1873. M*Dlarmid, William R, 8 Palmerston 


1884. Maodonald, Alexander, 28 Lynedoch 

Street, Glasgow. 

1885. Macdonald, Charles R , M. D. , Beith, 

1885. Macdonald, John, Solicitor, Buckie, 

1882. Macdonald, Kenneth, Town Clerk of 


1874. Macdonald, Jambs, LL.D., Rector of 

Kelvinside Academy, 14 Kingsbury 
Gardens, Kelvinside, Glasgow. 

1879. Macdonald, Jambs, W.S., 21 Thistle 

1872. M'DowALL, Thomas W., M.D., Nor- 
thumberland Co. Asylum, Morpeth. 

1885. M'DowELL, WiujAM, 17 Cresswell 
Terrace, Dumfries. 

1882. Macoeoroe, B. B., 19 Woodside Cres- 
cent, Glasgow. 

1862.*Macgibbon, David, Architect, 93 
George Street. 

1878. Macgillivbat, William, W.S., 3 Bel- 

ford Park. 
1885. M*Glashan, Stewart, Sculptor, 1 

Brandon Street. 
1849.*Macgrigor, Alexander Bennbt, 

LL.D., of Caimoch, 19 Woodside 

Terrace, Glasgow. 
1884. Macgregob, George, 30 Roselea Drive, 

Dennistoun, Glasgow. 
1884. Macinttre, Alexander C, Merchant, 

99 Renfield Street, Glasgow. 


1877. BCaokat, Alkxandeb, Trowbridge, 


1876.*BiACKAT, ifiNKAS J. Q., LL.D., Advo- 
cate, 7 Albyn Place. 

1872. Mackay, F. a., 3 Bnckingham 

1882. Maokat, William, Solicitor, Inver- 


Orosvenor Crescent. 
1880. BiAOKiNzii,ALKXANDEB, Editor of the 

Celtic Magaxine, Inverness. 
1882. BiAOKXNZiB, Rev. ALEXAia>iB, M.A., 

6 Fettes Row. 
1879. MAOKBNZis,Ain)BEW,Dalmore, Alness. 
1877.*BiAOKKNZiB, Major Cous, 49 Pall Mall, 

1872. Mackknzib, Rev. James B., Kenmore, 

1882. Mackbnzis, R. W. R., Stormontfield, 

1870. IfACKBNziB, Thomas, Sberifif-Sabsti- 

tnte, Tain. 

1878. M'Kbblib,P. H.,26PembridgeVilla8, 

Bayswater, London. 

1876. M'KiB, Thomas, Advocate, 1 Gloucester 

1864.*MAOKiirrosH, Chablbs Fraseb, of 

Dnunmond, M.P., 16 Union Street, 

1865.*lfACKiBON, William, Architect, 8 Ck)n- 

stitution Terrace, Dundee. 

1878. BCaclaoan, Robebt Cbaio, M.D., 5 

Coates Crescent. 
1864.*M1iABBN, Duncan, Newington House. 

1877. Maclabek, John, 6 Chamberlain Road, 

1856.*M'Lac7chlan, Rev. Thomas, LL.D., St 

Columba's Manse, Viewforth. 
1885. Maolehose, James J., 61 St Vincent 

Street, Glasgow. 
1875. Maomath, William, 16 St Andrew 


1879. IfACMiLLAN, Alexandeb, M.A, Knap- 

dale, Upper Tooting, Surrey. 
1884. IfACMiLLAN, Rev. Hugh, D.D.,LL.D., 

70 Union Street, Greenock. 
1855.*Maonab, John Munbo, Killin House, 
St Thomas Road, Grange. 

1874. M'Neill, IfALOOLM, 5 North Manor 

1882. Maophail, Rev. J. C, Pilrig Manse, 

1878. IfACPUEBSON, NoBMAN, LL.D., Pro- 
fessor of Scots Law, University of 
Edinburgh, Sheriff of DumMes and 

1882.*BiACBiTCHiE, David, C. A., 4 Archibald 

1878.*Makellab, Rev. William, 8 Charlotte 

1882. Mabjobibanks, Rev. Geobge, B.D., 
Stenton, Prestonkirk. 

1872. Mabshall, David, Loch Leven Place, 

1885. Mabshall, William Hunteb, W.S., 
25 Heriot Row. 

1873. Mabtine, William, M.D.,Haddington. 
1861.*Mabwiok, Jambs David, LL.D., City 

Clerk, City Chambers, Glasgow. 
1871. Maxwell, Alexandeb, 9 Viewforth 
Street, Dundee. 

1884. Maxwell, Sir Hebbebt Eustace, Bart, 

M.P., Monreith, WhauphilL 

1885. Maxwell, Fbanois, Gribton, Dum- 

1873. Melvin, James, 2 West Drumsheugh 

1853.*Mbbceb, Gbaems R., of Gorthy, Glen- 

tulchan, Perth. 
1878. Mebceb, William Lindsay, of Hunt- 

ingtower, Perth. 
1885. Metcalfe, Rev. W. M., South Manse, 


1882. MiLLAB, Alexandeb H., 6 Norman 

Terrace, Downfield, Dundee. 
1876. MiLLAB, William Whttb, S.aC, 16 
Regent Terrace. 

1883. MiLLEB, Geobqb, C.A., Acre Valley, 

Torrance, Stirlingshire. 
1878. MiLLEB, Geobge Andebson, W.S., 

Knowehead, Perth. 
1866. BinxBB, Petbb, Surgeon, 8 Bellevue 

1851.*MiLLEB, Samuel Chbistib, of Craigen- 

tinny, 21 St James's Place, London. 
1883. MiLLEB, William, S.S.C., 59 Geoige 



886. MiLLiDOB, Edwin, Jeweller, 28 Princes 

867. MrroHELL, Abthub, M.D., LL.D., 

Cummissioner in Lunacy, 84 Dram- 

mond Place, — Viee-PresideTU, 
880. MiTOHBLL, Chablbs, Kintrockat, 


884. Mitchell, Hugh, Solicitor, Pitlochry. 

885. MoMTEiTH, Rev. John, Glencaim 

Manse, Thomhill, DumfHesshire. 
851.*MoNTaoMBRT, Sir Graham G., Bart., 

Stobo Castle, Peeblesshire. 
867.*M0RAY, Charles Hoins Drummond, 

of Abercaimy, Perthshire. 
877. •Moray, Henrt E. H. Drummond, yr. 

of Blair-Dnimmond. 
867. MoRiCB, Arthur D., Advocate, 34 

Marischall Street, Aberdeen. 
882. Morris, Jambs Archibald, Architect, 

16 Adamson Road, St John's Wood, 

882. Morrison, Hew, Smith's Listitution, 

877. Mudie, James, Craiggowan, Bronghty 

888. Mudie, David Cowan, 10 Dalrymple 


877. Muirhrad, Andrew, 23 Northomber- 

land Street 
872. MuiRHEAD, J. J., 97 Princes Street 
874. MuNRO, Charles, 18 George Street 
879. MuNRO, Robert, M.A., M.D., Kilmar- 

884. MuNRO, Rev. Robert, M.A., B.D., Old 

Kirkpatrick, Glasgow. 

885. Murdoch, Rev. A. D., All Saints' Par- 

sonage, Brougham Street. 
879. Murdoch, James Barclay, Hamilton 
Place, Langside, Glasgow. 

878. Murray, David, M.A., 169 West 

George Street, Glasgow. 

884. Murray, Patrick, W.S., 12 Ann St 
853.*MuRRAY, Thomas Graham, W.S., 11 

Randolph Crescent 
863.* Mylnb, Robert William, Architect, 
7 Whitehall Place, London. 

885. Naibmith, Robert, Cross, Stone- 


864.*Neiubon, John, W.S., 28 East Clare- 

mont Street 
876.*Nbpban, Sir Molynbaux, Bart, Loders 

Court, Dorset 
861.*NicOL, Erskine, RS.A., Torduff House, 

875. NicoL, George H., Tay Beach Cottage, 

West Ferry, Dundee. 
875. NicoLBON, Alexander, LL.D., Sheriff- 
Substitute, Greenock. 
885. NiooiJBON, David, M.D., Broadmoor, 

Crowthome, Berks. 
877. NrvEN, Alexander T., C.A, 8 Foun- 

tainhall Road. 
867. NoRTHESK, Right Hon. The Earl of, 

76 Geoige's Square, London. 
867. Northumberland, His Grace The 

Duke of. 

877. Goilvib, William M., Bank House, 
Lochee, Dundee. 

882. Oliver, Rev. John, Belhaven, Dunbar. 
882.*Omond, Rev. John Reid, Monzie, 

881. OuTRAM, David £., 16 Grosvenor Ter- 
race, Glasgow. 

880. Panton, George A., 12 Osborne 

880. Park, George Harbison, 6 Shand- 

wick Place. 
885. Parker, Charles Arundel, M.D., 

Gosforth, Cumberland; 

883. Parlane, James, of Appleby, Rush- 

holme, Manchester. 

880. Patbrson, Alexander, M.D., Fern- 
field, Bridge of Allan. 

862.*Pater80n, George A., M.D., 15 
Merchiston Park. 

859.*Paton, John, 8 BUckford Road. 

859.»Paton, Sir Joseph Noel, R.S. A., Knt., 
LL.D., 33 George Square. 

869. Paton, Waller Hugh, R.S.A., 14 

George Square. 

870. •Patrick, R. W. Cochran, LL.D., 

M.P., Woodside, Beith,^ Secretary. 
880. Patterson, Jambs R., Ph.D., Presi- 
dent of the Agricultural College, 
Lexington, Kentucky, U.S. A. 


871. Paul, Okobos M., W.3., 16 St 
Andrew Square. 

879. Paul, J. Balfoub, Advocate, 82 Great 

King Street. 
882. Paul» Bey. Robkbt, F.C. Manse, 

874. Paxton, William, S Fonntainliall 


880. Peacb, Maskkll William, Ashfield, 


879. Peddtb, J. S£ DiOK, Architect, S South 

Charlotte Street. 

855.*PitNDSB, John, M.P., 18 Arlington 
Street, London. 

874. Petbb, Bev. James, Deer, Aberdeen- 

878. Pbtkrs, Bev. W., M.A., The Manse, 

882. Peteib, David, 28 Nelson Street 
884. PiKB, Albert, Cooncillor-at-Law, 

Washington, D.C., U.S.A. 
885.*PiRRiB, BoBEBT, 9 Buckingham Ter- 
race, HUlhead, Glasgow. 

883. Prrr-BiVBBS, Major-General A. H. L. 

Fox, 4 Grosvenor Gardens, London. 
878. Pbevost, Colonel T. W., 26 Moray 

881. Prichabd, Bev. Hugh, Dinam, 

Gaerwen, Anglesea. 
860.*Primbo8B, Hon. Bouyebie F., C.B., 

22 Moray Place. 
878. Prikglb, John, M.D., Dep.-Inspector- 

General of Hospitals, 27 Bntland 


878. Pbtdb, David, LLuD., 10 Fettes 


8G5.*Baint, Bobebt, D.D., Principal and 
Professor of Theology and Church 
History, New College, Edinbuiigh, 23 
Douglas Crescent. 

873. Bamfini, Chables, Sheri£f-Subetitute, 
Springfield House, Elgin. 

864.*Bamsay, Major John, of Straloch and 
Barra, Aberdeenshire. 

880. Bamsat, John, of Kildalton, M.P., 

879. Bankine, John, Advocate, 10 Mel- 
ville Street. 

1874. Battbat, Jambb Clebk, M.D., 61 

Grange Loan. 
1883. Bbadman, Jambs B., 9 Moray Place. 
1882. Beid, Alexandeb Geoboe, Solicitor, 

1860.*Beid, James, Banker, Edinburgh. 

1882. Beid, John J., Advocate, Queen's and 

Lord Treasurer's Bemembrancer in 
Exchequer for Scotland, 15 Bel- 
grave Place,— Owrcrfor of Mvaeum, 
1880. BicHABDSON, Adam B., 16 Coates 

1875. BiNTOUL, Lt.-Col. BoBEBT, Kinross 

House, Carlyle Square, London. 

1878. Bivett-Cabnao, J. H., CLE., 

Ghazipur, India. 

1883. BoBEBTB, Andbew, 8 Millbrae Cres., 

Langside, Glasgow. 

1885. Bobebtbon, Chables, Bedfem, Colin- 
ton Boad. 

1^79. Bobebtson, Geoboe, Abbey Gate, Dunfermline. 

1884. Bobebtson, J. Stewabt, Edradynate, 

Ballinluig, Perthshire. 
1880. Bobebtson, Bev. W. B., D.D., West- 
field House, West Calder. 

1879. Bobebtson, W. W., Architect, H.M. 

Board of Works. 
1865.*BoBiNSON, John Btlet, LL.D., 
Westgate, Dewsbury. 

1880. BoBSON, William, S.S.C., Marchholm, 

Gillsland Boad. 

1885. Bodgeb, Bev. John Wtlie, The Manse, 

1854. *BoGEB, James C, The Grange, Higham 

HiU, Walthamstow, Essex. 
1850.*BoGEBS, Bev. Chables, D.D., LL.D., 

6 Bamton Terrace. 
1871. BoLLO, Bight Hon. Lord, Duncrub 

House, Dunning. 
1874. BoMANES, Bobebt, Harrybum, Lauder. 
1883. BosE, Bev. Donaldson, F.C. Manse, 

1872.*BosEBEBT, Bight Hon. The Earl of, 

Dalmeny Park, — Vice^PresiderU, 

1876. Boss, Alexandeb, Architect, Biver- 

field, Inverness. 
1885. Boss, Andbew, S.S.C., 4 Warrender 
Park Terrace. 



1881. Boas, JOBBFH Carnb, M.D., Shian 
Lodge, Penzance, Ck)mwalL 

1867. Ross, Rev. William, Cowcaddens Free 
Church, CUabhan House, Hill Street, 
Gamethill, Glasgow. 

1869. RossLTN, Right Hon. The Earl of, 

Dysart House, Dysart 

1877. Sanderson, James, Dep. -Inspector- 

General of Hospitals, Madras Army, 
8 Manor Place. 

1884. Sandison, Albzandkb, St Fillans, by 


1885. Scott, Albxandbb Malcolm, 156 St 

Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

1879. Scott, Rev. David, F.C. Manse, 

1881. Semple, Andrew, M.D., 8 Abercromby 

1848.*Sbton, Gboroe, M.A., Advocate, St 

fiennet*s, Greenhill Gardens. 
1869.»Shand, Hon. Lord, 30 Heriot Row. 
1864.*Shand, Robert, 45 Mill Street, 

1873. Shields, John, 11 Melville Street, 


1878. Shibll, John, Solicitor, 19 Windsor 

Street, Dundee. 

1880. Shiblls, R Thornton, Architect, 4 

St Margaret's Road. 

1879. SiBBALD, John, M.D., Commissioner 

in Lunacy, 3 St Margaret's Road. 
1879. SiBBALD, John Edward, 8 Ettrick 

1878. SiDET, James A., M.D., 20 Heriot 

1860. *SiM, George, 9 Lauriston Lane,— 

Curator of Coins. 
1871.*SiMP80N, Alex. R, M.D., Professor of 

Midwifery, University of Edinburgh, 

52 Queen Street. 

1870. Simpson, George Buchan, Seafield, 

Broughty Perry. 

1880. ♦Simpson, Robert R, W.S., 8 Brunts- 
field Crescent. 

1884. Simpson, Sir Walter G., Bart, 
Advocate, 5 Randolph Cliff. 

1883. Sinclair, Jambs Auqustxts, 20 Bon- 
Accord Terrace, Aberdeen. 

1878. Skebte, Horace, Solicitor, Perth. 
1833.*Skene, William Forbes, LL.D., 

D.C.L., W.S., 27 Inverleith Row. 

1876. Skinner, Wiijjam, W.S., City Clerk, 

35 George Square. 

1877. Skirvino, Adam, of Croys, Dal- 


1879. Smail, James, Secretary, Commercial 

Bank of Scotland, 7 Bruntafield 

1873. Small, John, M.A., Librarian to the 

University, 10 Carlton Terrace. 

1880. Small, J. W., Architect, Beith, 


1874. Smart, John, RS.A., 13 Brunswick 

Street, Hillside. 
1877. Smith, James T. ,Duloch, Inverkeithing. 
1882. Smith, J. Guthrie, Mugdock Castle, 

1874. Smith, J. Irvine, 20 Great King St. 
1858.*Smith, Robert Mackay, 4 Bellevue 

1866. SMTTHB,WiLLiAM,of Methven^Methveu 

Castle, Perthshire. 

1874. SouTAR, Thomas, Solicitor, Crieffl 
1864.*SouTAR, William Shaw, Banker 


1882.*SouTHBSK, Right Hon. The Earl of, 
K.T., Kiimaird Castle, Brechin. 

1873.*Spowart, Thomas, of Broomhead, 7 
Coates Crescent 

1882. Spraoue, Thomas B., M.A., 29 
Buckingham Terrace. 

1872.*Stair, Right Hon. The Earl of. Loch- 
inch, Wigtownshire. 

1875. Starke,Jame8Gibson,M. A., Advocate, 

Troqueer Holm, Dumfries. 
1885. Steedman, Thomas, Clydesdale Bank, 

1874.*Stebl, Major Gavin, 17 Abercromby 

1872. Steel, Neil, Merchant, Constitution 

Terrace, Dundee. 
1872.*STEyENSON, Alexander Shannan, 

1875. Stevenson, John A., M.A., 87 Royal 

1867.*Stevbnson, John J., Architect, 8 

Bayswater Hill, London. 


856.*Stevbn80H, Thomas, C.E., 17 Heriot 

876. Stewart, Rev. Alkxandkb, LL.D., 

Manse of Ballachulish, Nether 

883. Stewart, Charles, Tigh'n Doin, 


879. Stewart, Charles Poti^tz, Oxford 

and Cambridge Club, Pall Mall. 
874. Stewart, Charles, Sweethope, Mossel- 

881. Stewart, James R, Exchequer 


880. Stewart, J. A., 6 Confititotion Ter- 

race, Dundee. 
871.*Strwart, Col. J. H. M. Shaw, R.E., 

Madras, India. 
878. Stewart, Rorert Buchanan, 11 

Crown Terrace, Dowauhill, Glasgow. 
885. Stewart, Robert King, Murdos- 

tonn Castle, Newmains, Lanarkshire. 

881. Stewart, T. Orainger, M.D., Pro- 

fessor of Practice of Physic and 

Clinical Medicine, 19 Charlotte Sq. 
880.*Stirling, Capt. Patrick, Kippenross, 

883. Stitt, John J., Woodbum House, 


882. Stort, Rev. R Herbert, D.D., 

Roseneath, Helensburgh. 

883. Strachan, John, M.D., Dollar. 
867.*Strathmore, Right Hon. The Earl of, 

Glamis Castle, Forfarshire. 

884. Strong, W. R., C.A., 9 Belmont 

Crescent, Hillhead, Glasgow. 
850.*Strx7THBR8, Rev. John,LL.D., Minister 

of Prestonpans. 
883. Stuart, George Balunoal, M.B., 

Surgeon, Grenadier Guards, London. 
885.*Stuart, Jambs Meliss, 11 Queen 

Victoria Street, London. 
878. Sturrook, John, Engineer-Surveyor, 

3 Rustic Place, Dundee. 

882. Sturrook, Peter, Provost of Kilmar- 


867.*Sutherland, His Grace the Duke of, 

876. Sutherland, Rev. George, The Par- 
sonage, Portsoy. 

1880. Sutherland, George Miller, Soli- 
citor, Wick. 

1884. Swallow, Rev. H. J., M.A., Brance- 
peth, Durham. 

1861.*SwiNTON, Archibald Campbell, of 
Eimmerghame, LL.D., Advocate. 

1863.*SwiTHiNBANK, George E., LL.D. 
Ormleigh, Mowbray Road, Upper 
Norwood, London. 

1884. Tait, George, 87 Lothian Road. 

1873. Taylor, Rev. James, D.D., Stonyhill 

House, Musselburgh. 

1880. •Taylor, James, Starley Hall, Burnt- 


1881. Taylor, Michael W., M.D., 202 

Earl's Court Road, S. Kensington, 

1884. Temple, Rev. William, M.A., St Mar- 

garet's, Forgue, Huntly. 
1870.*Tennant, Sir Charles, Bart., M.P., of 
the Glen, Innerleithen. 

1874. Thoms, George Hunter MacThomas, 

A d vocate, Sheriff of Caithness, Orkney, 
and Shetland, 13 Charlotte Square. 

1885. Thomson, Alexander, 85 Chester St 
1867. Thomson, Lockhart, S.S.C, 114 

George Street. 

1882. •Thomson, Mitchell, 7 Carlton Terrace. 
1875.*Thom80N, Rev. Robert, LL.D. 

Niagara Falls, South Ontario, Canada. 
1878. Thomson, William, 23 Great King 

1885. Traill, William, M.D., 83 North St., 

St Andrews. 
1865.»Thoup, Willloi, Eastwell, Bridge of 

1877. TuKB, John Batty, M.D., 20 Charlotte 

1882. TuLLOCH, Rev. John, D.D., LL.D., 

Principal of the University of St 

1869.*TuRNBULL, John, of Abbey St Bathans, 

W.S., 49 George Square. 
1880. Turner, Frederick J., Mansfield 

Woodhouse, Mansfield, Notts. 
1866. ♦Turner, William, M.B., Professor of 

Anatomy, University of Edinbui^h, 

6 Eton Terrace. 


1881. TwKBDDALB, The Most Honourable The 
Marquess of. Tester House, Had- 

878. Ubquhabt, Jambs, H.M. General 

Register House. 
882. Usher, Rev. W. Nbvillb, 27 Walker 

862.»Vbitch, Gbobob Sbton, Bank of Scot- 
land, Paisley. 

873. Vbttch, John, M.A., LL.D., Professor 

of Logic, University of Glasgow, The 
Loaning, Peebles. 

877. Vbbnon, J. John, Hawick. 

874. Walkbr, Albzandbb, 25 Dee Street, 


869. ♦Walkbr, Fountainb, Ness Castle, In- 


879. Walkbr, Jambs, 74 Bath Street, 


881. Walkbr, J. Russbll, Architect, 45 
York Place, 

871.*Walkbr, Pbtbr Gbddbs, 2 Airlie 
Place, Dundee. 

884. Walker, R. C, S.S.C, Wingate Pkce, 
Newport, Fife. 

861. ♦Walker, William Stuart, of Bow- 
land, 125 George Street. 

879. Wallace, Thomas D., Rector of High 
School, Inverness. 

872. Warden, Alexander Johnston, West 
Ferry, Dundee. 

879. Warden, Major-Gen. Robert, C.B., 4 
Lennox Street. 

849. ♦Ware, Trrus Hibbert, 1 Bell Place, 
Bowdon, near Altrincham, Lanca- 

876. Watebston, Gborqe, jun., 24 Forth 

870. Watson, Charles, Writer, Duns. 

878. Watson, John Kippen, 14 Bhickford 


875. Watson, William, 6 Douglas 

884. Watson, W. L., 7 Wetherley Gardens, 
South Kensington, London. 

1856. ♦Webster, John, Advocate, 42 King 
Street, Aberdeen. 

1879. Wedderbubn, J. R. M., M.A., W.S., 

82 Albany Street. 
1877. Weir, Hugh F., of KirkhaU, Ard- 

1877. Welsh, John, S.S.C, 1 Regent Terrace. 
1872.^Wemt88 and March, Right Hon. The 

Earl of, Gosford, Longniddry. 
1885. Wemtss, Randolph Erskinb, of 

Wemyss Castle, Fife. 

1880. Wbnley,Jamb8 Adams, SDrumsheugh 

1884 Whu'B, Cecil, 23 Drummond Place. 
1880. White, John Forbes, 107 King Street, 


1869. White, Lieut-Col. T. P., RE., 7 

Carlton Crescent, Southampton. 
1867. Whitb, Robert, Procurator-Fiscal, 

1885. Weotelaw, David, Mansfield House, 

1884. Whtte, William, 8 Merchiston 


1871. Williams, Wiluam Edward, Archi- 

tect, 2 Ludgate Hill, London. 
1884. Williamson, Rev. Alexander, 32 
Blacket Place. 

1870. Wilson, Charles R, LL.D., H.M. 

Inspector of Schools, 19 Palmerston 

1872. Wilson, George, S.S.C, 16 Minto 

1875. Wilson, William, West Lodge, Pol 

1861. ♦Wilson, Wiluam, of Banknock, Stir 

1852. ♦Wise, Thomas A., M.D., Beulah HUl 

Upper Norwood, London. 
1868.^Wi8HART, Edward, 1 York Road 

1884. Wodbow-Thomson, Charles W. 

C.A., 16 Lennox Street. 
1883. Wood, Thos. A. Douglas, Viewforth 

Brunstane Road, Joppa. 
1880. Wood, John Muir, 22 Belhaven Ter 

race, Glasgow. 
1875. WoODBURN, J., M.A-, Drumgrange 

Patna, Ayr. 


1878. Woodward, Rev. John, Union Place, 

1884. Wright, John P. , W. S., 44 Palmerston 

1867. Wright, Rev. Robert, D.D., Starley 

Bom House, Burntisland. 

1881. Young, Alexander, 9 Lynedoch PI. 

1881, Young, John William, W.S., 22 

Royal Circus. 
1878.* Younger, Robert, 15 Carlton 






NOVEMBER 30, 1885. 

[According to the Laws, the number is limited to twentt-fitb.] 

Daniel Wilson, LL.D., Principal and Professor of English Literature, 
University College, Toronto, Canada. 

Major-General Sir Henry C. Rawlinson, K.C.B., D.C.L., 21 Charles 
Street, Berkeley Square, London. 

William Reeves, D.D., Dean of Armagh, The Rectory, Tynan, Armagh. 

His Royal Highness Albert Edward, Prince op Wales. 

5 The Prince Louis Lucibn Bonaparte, 8 Norfolk Terrace, Notting Hill, 


Alexander J. Beresford Hope, LL.D., D.C.L., M.P., Arklow House, 
Connaught Place, London. 

Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, Canons Ashby, By field, Northamptonshire. 


M. Francisque Michel, Paris. 

QsoBOE Stepheks, LL.D., Professor of the English Language and Literature, 
University of Copenhagen* 


10 Sir John Lubbock, Bart, LL.D., D.C.L., M.P., High Elms, Farnborough, 
Sir Samuel Ferguson, Q.C, LL.D., Public Record Office, Dublin. 
John Evans, D.C.L., &c., Nashmills, Hemel-Hempstead. 

Rev. James Raine, M.A., Hon. Canon of York. 


Rev. Canon William Gbeenwell, M.A., D.C.L., Durham. 
16 Augustus Wollaston Franks, M.A., British Museum. 


Dr LuDWio Lindenschmidt, Mayence. 
Professor Olap Rtoh, Christiania. 
Professor Rudolf Vibchow, M.D., LL.D., Berlin. 
Colonel Hbnbt Yule, LL.D., Royal Engineers. 

20 Rev. J. CoLLiNowooD Bruce, LL.D., D.C.L., Newcastle-on-Tyne. 




NOVEMBER 30, 1885. 

[According to the La/ws, the numher is limited to twenty-fivb.] 

The Lady A. A. John Scott of Spottiswoode, Berwickshire. 

Miss C. MaclAoan, Bavenscroft, Stirling. 

The Baroness Burdett Coutts. 


Lady Dunbab of DoflFus, Elginshire. 
Lady Clark, Tillypronie, Aberdeenshire. 
Miss Maboaret M. Stores, Dublin. 

Mrs Ramsat, Eildalton, Islay. 





Annivebsaey Meeting, Ist December 1884 

ARTHUR MITCHELL, M.D., LLD., Vice-President, 

in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken^ the foUowing Gentlemen were duly 
elected Fellows : — 

Walter Biooar Blaikie, 22 Heriot Row. 

Rev. Qeorge Brown, Miuister of Bendochy. 

T. R. Buchanan, M.P., 10 Moray Place. 

The Lord Ck>LiN Campbell, M.P., Inveraray Castle. 

William Connal, yr. of Solsgirth. 

Patrick F. Connal-Rowan of Meiklewood. 

Rev. Sholto D. C. Douglas of Douglas Support, Coatbridge. 

D. Hay Fleming, St Andrews. 

Robert Glen, 3 North Bank Street 

Edmund Goldsmid, Lufra House, Grauton. 

Andrew Jameson, Advocate, 3 St Colme Street 

Thomas Graves Law, Signet Library. 

David Stewart Littlejohn, Solicitor, Dundee. 

John Macdonald, Solicitor, Buckie. 

William M'Dowall, 17 Creswell Terrace, Dumfries. 



Robert Naishith, Croat), Stonehonse. 
David Nicholson, M.D., Broadmoor, Berks. 
Stewart M'Glashan, Sculptor, 1 Brandon Street. 
Edwin Millidgb, Jeweller, 28 Princes Street. 
Rev. John Monteith, Minister of Glencaim. 
Robert Pirie, 9 Buckingham Terrace, Glasgow. 
Jambs Meuss Stuart of Eriska. 
Robert K. Stewart of Murdostoun Castle. 
Alexander Thomson, 35 Chester Street 

The OflSce-Bearers for the ensuing year were elected as foUows :- 


The Most Hon. The Marquis op Lothian, K.T., LL.D. 


Arthur Mitchell, M.D., LL.D. 

The Right Hon. Tlie Earl of Rosebert, LL.D. 

Sir William Fettes Douglas, LL.D., P.RS.A. 


Sir J. Noel-Paton, Kt, \ Representing 
LL.D., R.S.A., I the Board 

Francis Abbott, ) of Trustees, 

David Douglas. 
George Hunter M. Thoms. 

George Seton, M.A. 
Stair Agnew, M.A, C.B. 
Right Hon. The Earl of Stair. 
Robert Herdman, R.S.A. 
Professor Duns, D.D. 


John Ritchie Findlay. 

R. W, Cochran-Patrick, LL.D., M.P. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Assistant Secretary, 

William Forbes, } Secretaries for Foreign 

Thomas Dickson, H.M. General Register House, ji Correspondence', 


Gilbert Ooudie, 39 Northumberland Street 

Curators of the Museum, 

Robert Carfbae. 
John J. Reid, B.A. 

Curator of Coins. 
George Sim. 

John Taylor Brown. 

The following list of the names of Honorary Members and Fellows who 
have died since the date of the last Annual Meeting was read by the 
Secretary : — 

Honorary Members, 


Dr Richard Lepsius, Berlin, 1860 

John Henry Parker, C.B., D.C.L., Keeper of the Ash- 

molean Museum, Oxford, % 1869 

Dr B. £. HiLDEBRAND, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, 
President of the Royal Academy of Science and Archae- 
ology, Stockholm, 1876 


John Hutton Balfour, M.D., LL.D., Emeritus Professor 

of Botany, 1861 

His Grace The Duke of Buocleuch and Qubensberry, 

K.G., 1846 

W. S. Cooper of FaUford, 1876 

WiLUAM Dickson, Accountant, 1844 

Ralph Carr Ellison of Dunstanehill, Northumberland, 1866 

Walter Ferguson, 1848 

Alexander Hamilton, LL.B., W.S., The Elms, Morning- 
side, 1833 



Charles Henderson, S.S.C., 1881 

George H. M. Binnino-Home of Argaty, Doune, . . 1867 

David Luusden of Fincastle, Perth, .... 1883 

James Marshall, Carlston, Qreat Western Boad, Glasgow, 1880 

John Whitbfoord Mackenzie, W.S., .... 1844 

BoBERT I. J. Monteith of Carstairs, .... 1851 
BoBERT Angus Smith, LLD., H.M. Inspector of Alkali 

Works, Manchester, 1874 

Hope J. Stewart, Stoneyhill House, Musselburgh, . 1848 

The meeting resolved to record their sense of the loss the Society has 
sustained in the deaths of these members. 

Professor Karl Richard Lbpsius, Principal Librarian of the Royal 
Library, Berlin, bom at Nanneburg in 1810, educated at the public 
school of Pforta and the Universities of Leipzig and Gottingen, studied 
Egyptology at Paris and Rome, under ChampoUion and Bunsen, con- 
ducted the well-known expedition to Egypt, 1842-46, and on his 
return became Professor of Egyptian Archaeology at Berlin, -and sub- 
sequently organised and arranged the magnificent Museum of Egyptian 
Antiquities there. In 1866 he again visited Egypt. The materials 
accumulated on these expeditions, atnd systematised and illustrated in 
his numerous works, have made a new era in the study of Egyptian 
Literature and Antiquities. 

John Henry Parker, C.B., Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum, 
succeeded his uncle as bookseller at Oxford in 1832, published his well- 
known Glossary of Architecture in 1836, and his elaborate work on the 
Domestic Architecture of the Middle Ages in 1859. He subsequently 
devoted himself to excavations at Rome, and to the publication of a series 
of volumes on The Archceology of Rome, illustrated by a valuable series 
of photographs. He was appointed Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum 
at Oxford in 1870, and was nominated C.B. by Mr Gladstone in 1871. 

Bror Emil Hildebrand, Royal Antiquary of Sweden, bom in 1806, 


became ABsistant in the Historical Museum of the University of Lund 
in 1830, and a few years afterwards went to Stockholm as assistant 
at the Royal Academy of Arts. In 1837 he received the important 
appointment of Riksantiquarien or Royal Antiquary of Sweden, implying 
the directorship of the National Collections and general promotion of 
the science of Archaeology throughout the kingdom, — an office which he 
held for forty-seven years. He was best known out of Sweden by his 
numismatic works and his large work on Swedish Seals, which are much 
valued by scholars. 

John Hutton Balfour, M.D., LL.D., bom in 1808, appointed 
Regius Professor of Botany in the University of Edinburgh in 1845, 
continued actively to dischaige the duties of that office, along with those 
of Director of the Royal Botanic Garden, till 1877, when he retired. 
He was also for the greater part of that time Dean of the Medical 
Faculty of the University, and one of the Secretaries of the Royal 

Walter Francis Montaou-Douglas Scott, fifth Duke of Buccleuch 
and Queensberry, K.G., took a lively interest in the objects of the 
Society. In 1862 he succeeded the late Marquis of Breadalbane as 
President, and continued in office with much acceptance till 1872, when 
he was succeeded by His Grace the Duke of Sutherland. 

Ralph Carr Ellison of Dunstanehill was remarkable for the zeal and 
assiduity with which he studied the ancient Anglo-Saxon and cognate 
languages. He occasionally contributed papers to the Society's Pro- 
ceedings, principally in connection with the interpretation of tlie ancient 
inscribed and sculptured monumental stones in Scotland. 

John Whitbpoord Mackenzie, W.S., well known in legal and literary 
circles as the possessor of one of the lai^est and choicest private libraries 
in the city, was formerly for a considerable time an active office-bearer 
of the Society, and Vice-President, 1847-49. 


Robert Angus Smith, Ph.D., LL.D., bom near Glasgow in 1817, 
studied chemistry in Liebig's laboratoiy at Giessen 1839-41, and 
settled in Manchester, when he was employed first as a teacher of 
chemistry, and latterly as Inspector-General of Alkali Works. He was 
author of many important papers on the subject of Chemical Climatology, 
a science which he may be said to have created. Having become a 
Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland in 1874, he seldom 
permitted a session to pass without contributing something of importance 
to its Proceedings, His researches in Argyleshire, which first appeared 
as communications to the Society, were subsequently re-cast and pub- 
lished as a volume entitled Loch Etive^ or the Sons of Uisneach, He 
also wrote a MeDwir of John DcUton and History of tlie Atomic Theory-y 
and in conjunction with Mr Thomas Young he edited the collected 
papers of the distinguished chemist and physicist Thomas Graham. 

The Treasurer submitted the audited accounts with a general abstract 
of the Society's Funds, which was ordered to be printed and circulated 
among the Fellows. 

The Secretary read the Annual Report of the Society to the Boanl of 
Trustees, approved by the Council, and ordered to be transmitted to the 
Lords of H.M. Treasury as follows : — 

Annual Report of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland to the 
Honourable the Board of Trustees for Manufactures in Scotland 
for the year ending 30th September 1884. 

The Museum during the past year has been open as formerly, except 
during the month of November, when it was closed as usual for cleaning 
and rearrangement. 

The following table shows the number of visitors for each month 
during the year, distinguishing between day visitors and visitors on the 
Saturday evenings, viz. : — 








October, . 




































August, . 












Previous Year, . 




Increase, . 



During the year there have been presented to the Museum 4181 
articles of antiquity; the Donations to the Library amount to 84 
volumes of books and pamphlets. 

Among the various Donations there may be specially mentioned 
the valuable Collection of Greek and Roman Antiquities presented by 
I^y Ruthven, consisting of 488 Vases, &c., 84 Bronzes, and 3487 
Coins, Medals, and Tokens. 

During the year 3277 articles of antiquity have been also added to 
the Museum, and 68 volumes of books to the Library, by purchase. 

J. R. FiNDLAY, Secretary, 


Monday, Sth December' 1884. 

ARTHUR MITCHELL, M.D., LL.D., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were unani- 
mously elected Fellows : — 

John Cooper, Burgh Engineer, Edinburgh. 

Francis Maxwell of Qribton, Dumfries. 

Alexander Malcolm Scott, 156 St Vincent Street, Glasgow. 

The following articles, acquired by the Purchase Committee for the 
Museum and Library, during the recess from 8th June to 30th 
November 1884, were exhibited to the meeting : — 

1. Collection of Flint Implements, &c., consisting chiefly of Scrapers 
and Flakes, worked and unworked, from Drainie, Elginshire, amounting 
to about 80 specimens. 

2. Polished Whetstone of quartzite, 2f inches in length, quadrangular, 
with slightly rounded ends, from Caimsmore, parish of Kells, Kirkcud- 

3. Iron Collar, jointed in the centre and armed with spikes pointing 
to the inside, supposed to have been a " Witches' Bridle.*' 

Twelve pairs of Shoe-Buckles, some gilt and set with pastes. 

4. Keg of Butter, the keg hollowed out of a single piece of wood, 
14 inches high and 13 inches diameter, found in a moss in the neigh- 
bourhood of Kyleakin, Skye. 

Caldron of thin bronze, semi-globular in shape, measuring 20 inches 
wide and 10 inches high, found in the same moss near Kyleakin. 

5. Highland Brooch of silver, slightly convex, 2f inches diameter, 
ornamented with stags' heads and foliage engraved, and having on the 
back the initials l m, i m*r, rudely engraved, with the stamps t b, a camel, 
and INS for Inverness. 

6. Highland Pistol, 12 inches in length, with brass barrel and in- 
laid stock of steel, the butt scroll-ended, and having on each side an 
oval plate of silver, with engraved motto now illegible. 


7. Enamelled Cup or Patera of bronze, found in Linlithgowshire. 
[See the subsequent communication by Dr Joseph Anderson.] 

8. Polished Celt of felstone, 6 J inches in length by 2| inches 
across the cutting face, unsymmetrical in outline, having a considerable 
bulge on one side, from Lamington, Lanarkshire. 

Old iron Key, also from Lamington. 

9. Bronze Flanged Celt or Palstave, 5 inches in length, If inches 
across the cutting face. It has a well-developed stop-ridge, and the 
flanges are hammered over from the sides. Said to have been found in 
the west of Scotland, but the precise locality xmknown. 

Two spiral Rings, formed of a band of thin flat bronze. 

Four Fibulae, one of bronze wire, wound into a double spiral, similar 
to those found in Central Europe, and the other three bow-shaped, 
similar to many continental specimens. 

SmaU penannular Ring of bronze. 

Small circular Ring of bronze, with projecting knobs. 

These objects are said to have been found in the west of Scotland, 
but may probably have come from the Continent. 

10. Celt of chipped flint, with ground cutting edge, 5f long by 2 
inches across the cutting face, from the neighbourhood of Beauly, Ross- 

H. Scottish Pistol with wooden stock. 
Small Powder Flask of horn. 

Medal, in commemoration of the Victory of Admiral Vernon over the 
Spanish Fleet at Porto Bello, 22nd November 1739. 

12. Stone Crusie-Mould, a roughly triangular boulder of gneiss, 
measuring about 12 inches along each side and 7 inches in thickness, 
with two hollows corresponding to the upper and under shells of an iron 
Crusie or Oil-lamp, from North Uist. 

13. Polished Celt of serpentine, 2^ inches in length by 2 inches across 
the cutting face, and not exceeding J inch in thickness, from Inverness- 

Four stone AVhorls — one ornamented with concentric circles, and 
another with roughly scratched radiating lines, the others plain — from 


Lnckenbooth Brooch of silver, a crowned lieart, with the initials a. d. 
on the bock. 

Small Steel, with a leather pocket attached for the Flijit, as used 
by the Hill Tribes of the Himalayas. 

14, Collection, chiefly of Flint Implements and Flakes, worked and 
nnworked, the implements including Scrapers, Knives, Saws, Borers, 
Arrow-heads, &c., — amounting in all to upwards of 1000 specimens, from 
the Culbin Sands. (See figs. 1 and 2.) 

15. Collection from the Findhom Sands, amounting in all to upwards 
of 1200 specimens, and consisting chiefly of Flint Arrow-heads, 
Implements ami Flakes, workpil and unworketl. 

Fig. I. Flint Knives from the Calbin Sands (kctiul aize). 

16. Flag of embroidered silk, yellow, with the Union Jack in the 
comer. In the centre within a wreath of the Rose, Thistle, and 
Shamrock, are the initials 6. R., with the crown over the wreath, and 
underneath the motto nbho hk Ihpune lacessbt; on the other side the 
arms of Glasgow, surrounded by a wreath of the Thistle and the Rose, 
with the motto let olasoow FLOVHiaH, and in the upper part of the 
field the words, 1st reoihent olasoow voluntbbrb. 

17. Polished Celt of greenstone, 7 inches in length by 2j inches 



Fig. 3. Flint Arrow-headB from tbe OnlbiD Ssuda {ictual »\zr). 


across the cutting face, tapering to a conically rounded butt, found at 
Hermiston, Mid-Lothian. 

18. Scottish History and Literature, to the Period of the Reformation. 
By John M. Ross, LL.D. 8vo. Glasgow, 1884. 

19. Ameth's Gold Ornaments in the Vienna Museum, folio. 1832. 

20. The Aberdeen Printers, Edward Raban to James Nicol, 1620. 
By J. P. Edmond. 8vo. Aberdeen, 1884. 

21. Nenia Britannica, or a Sepulchral History of Great Britain, from 
the Earliest Period to the Establishment of Christianity. By Rev. 
James Douglas, folio. London, 1793. 

22. Orkney Documents, i^c, MS. copied by George Petrie — Extracts 
from Minutes of the Sheriff and Justiciary Court of Orkney, held at 
Birsay 11th November 1629 ; Sute Roll of the County of Orkney, 1711. 

There were exhibited through Dr Arthur Mitchell, V.P. : — 

(1) By the Marquis op Lornb. 

Annular Brooch of brass, 3 inches diameter, formed of a flat circlet of 
brass J inch in width. The pin, which is as usual somewhat shorter 
than the extreme diameter of the brooch, is slit in the head so as to be 
easily slipped on to the narrow portion of the circlet, on which it moves 
freely. The surface of the annular band forming the body of the brooch 
is ornamented with engraved figures of animals, and a simulated form of 
black letter inscription treated as part of the ornamentation. The brooch 
(see fig. 3) was found in the sands of Barrapol, in the island of Tiree. 

(2.) By the Lady Constance Campbell. 

Full-sized Drawings of a Hoard of Bronze Objects, found together in 
Kintyre, and now at Inveraray Castle, consisting of — 

1. Bronze Spear-head, 13 inches in length, the blade leaf-shaped, 
unpierced, and measuring 2| inches across the widest part. The socket, 
which extends 3f inches beyond the base of the blade, is IJ inch 
diameter at the butt, and pierced with two rivet holes in the plane of 
the blade a little below its junction with the socket. 

2. Bronze Sword, leaf-shaped, 24 inclies in length, the blade 


measuring 1§ inch extreme width at about two-thirds of its length, 
and narrowing to 1^ inch between the widest part and the junction 
with the hilt, which is pierced by two rivet holes in the wings and three 
iu the handle plate, the sides of which are nearly straight. 

3, Bronze Sword, leaf-shaped, 25^ inches in length, greatest width 
of the blade 1 J inches, least width between the widest part and the 
hilt 1 J inch, the hilt pierced by two rivet holes in the wings and three 
in the handle-plate, the aides of which are curved slightly outwards. 

Fig. 3. Annnlar Brooch ol Brass, found in Tiree (actual avee). 

4. Bronze Sword, leaf-shaped, 21 j inches in length, greatest width 
of the blade If inch, least width between the widest part and the hilt 
I^ inch, the hilt pierced with two rivet holes in the wings and two in 
the handle-plate, the sides of which curve slightly outwards. 

5. Bronze Sword, broken across the blade, 25^ inches in length, 
greatest width of the blade 2 inches, least width between the widest 


part and the hilt 1 J inch, the hilt pierced by two rivet holes in the 
wings and two in the handle-plate. 

6. Portion of the blade of a bronze Sword, 17 inches in length. 

7. Bronze Scabbard-End of the form shown in the description of a 
similar find of bronze swords at Cauldhame, near Brechin, in the 
Proceedings^ vol. L p. 181. It is slightly broken, and measures 6 J 
inches in length. 

These drawings have since been presented to the Society. 

The following Communications were read : — 




The Mound of Stenabreck is situated in North Ronaldsay, the most 
northerly of the Orkney Isles (known, I daresay, to many members of 
this Society as the island in which the Broch of Burrian was dis- 
covered). It is about a mile N.N.E. from Burrian, and like it, situated 
close to the sea-shore. 

We had long suspected, from its appearance, and also from the 
presence of a layer of ashes exposed on the sea face of the mound, that 
it was an artificial one ; and when walking one evening on the beach 
below, we were confirmed in this impression by finding a portion of the 
shank bone of a sheep, sawn across, as if for the purpose of making 
beads of it. We also observed many dead specimens of the Helix 
nemoralis^ a land mollusc which is now extinct in the island, although its 
shells are found so abundantly in most of the prehistoric structures, 
as to suggest that it may have been used as an article of food by the 
occupants. We commenced operations on the 9th August 1883, by 
getting two men to dig a trench near the top of the mound towards the 
sea. This trench was dug about 24 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 2 feet 


deep, but no sign of building was discovered, although vre came upon 
numerous flat stones which looked like building stones. 

The following day a new portion was dug to the south of this trench, 
but without finding anything. 

The mound being more extensive to the north, we then dug a trench 
at right angles to the first one, and leading from it in a northern 
direction ; we were rewarded, after two days' labour, by coming upon the 
face of the southern waU of room A. in the plan. The work of tracing 
out the rest of the building was then quite simple. The letters marked 
on the several chambers in the annexed ground plan (fig. 1), show the 
order in which they were excavated. The sections (figs. 2 and 3) on the 
lines indicated in the ground plan show the elevation of the walls. 
Room A. is nearly of a rectangular form, 1 1 feet long and 6 feet wide. 
In the southern waU are three square holes or presses ; the eastern one 
is 1 foot 3 inches wide, 1 foot 5 inches high, and extends back into the 
wall 1 foot 3 inchea In this press was found a long polished bone of, 
I think, a deer. There are no actual signs of workmanship on it, but 
its articulating extretnities are much worn or rubbed away, and the 
high polish on it points to its having been very considerably handled. 
What its use may have been, is of course a mere matter of conjecture ; 
but its appearance, and the place in which it was found, leave no room 
for doubt as to its having been utilised as an implement of some sort. 
The next press was much smaller, being only 7 inches wide by 9 inches 
high, and extending 1 foot into the wall In this we found one valve 
of a large mussel shell, and also of a fine specimen of the Cyprina 
islandiea. From their position they had evidently been put aside for 
use — possibly as lamps or ladlea The third press was empty ; it was 
1 foot 5 inches wide, by 1 foot 9 inches high, and 1 foot 2 inches back 
into the wall; it differed from the others in having the sides and back 
built with stones laidflaty the others being lined by flat stones set on 

At the east end of the room was a long flat stone, placed as if for a 
seat. It was 3 feet long, 8 inches wide, and 1^ inch thick, laid on its 
flat side, a few inches above the floor ; below this stone we found some 
fragments of jwttery and a rounded flat stone about 4 inches in diameter, 

Fig. 1. Ground Dan of Ancient Stnictarc at Stenabmk, Kortll RoiinliUny. 




•o - 
















Fig. 3. SeutinDK orEicovktiuu nl Stenabm-'k. 


which has apparently been used as a cover for a pot; it is blackened 
round the edge as if by fire or smoke, and a small projection is left, 
perhaps intentionally, to serve the purpose of a handle. Portions of 
several clay vessels were found in this room, principally along the edges 
of the north and south walls, and close to the floor, which in this, as well 
as all the other rooms, was roughly paved with flat stones. 

We also found a spindle whorl of stone, and two or three fragments 
of iron, so much oxidised as to render it almost impossible to say what 
they have been. One piece, however, much resembles the blade of a 
knife, of which the haft seems to have been inserted into a bone or horn 
handle, some remains of which may still be seen attached to the oxide. 
Another piece is shaped something like a hook. At the west end of 
room A. we found a doorway or passage leading into room B., which is 
about 10 feet square, and has three passages leading from it into rooms 
G., F., and C. respectively. The passage into C. is 6J feet long, and 
between 2 and 3 feet wide. In the portion of wall separating the 
passages into room G. and room F. there is a press similar to those 
already described in room A.; the dimensions are 1 J foot square on the 
flat and 1 foot 7 inches high. At the south-west comer there is a 
recess about 2 feet square, which was perhaps a fireplace; it is parti- 
tioned oflf from the main room by a stone on edge rather more than a 
foot high. Nothing was found in this yoom except fragments of earthen 
cooking pots. 

Room C, which was 6 feet long by 5 feet wide, has four entrances — 
(1) from the east, (2) from D. on the south, (3) from room I. on the 
west, and (4) from the outside, also on the west. This last appears to 
have been the main entrance to the building, and we have every reason 
for believing that it was closed by a wooden door. A flat stone on 
edge with its upper surface nearly level with the floor defines the 
lK>8ition of the doorway, and at the north end of this stone, touching it 
and at the inner side of it, was a water-worn boulder of red freestone 
embedded in the earth. This stone was a flattish oval; long diameter 
about 7 1 inches, and short diameter about 5 inches, and had near the 
centre of it a hollow about 1 J inch deep, and the same or rather more 
in diameter. Round about the hollow there were concentric marks and 


scratches, occupying about a quadrant of a circle, and corresponding 
exactly with the marks which would be made by the swinging of a 
heavy rough door of hard wood if the door-post were embedded in the 
hollow of the soft freestone. This idea is strengthened by the discovery, 
within a few feet of the place, of a rough key (tig. 4) made of the bone 
of a whale. Few persons perphaps would recognise a key in this 
curiously carved specimen of bone, but a comparison of it with a wooden 
key of oak belonging to a modem North Ronaldsay lock will satisfy 
any one of the identity of their uses. To make this as clear as possible, 
I cannot do better than quote the following description of a wooden lock 
from Noi-th Ronaldsay, now in the Museum:^ — 

Fig. 4. Key made of the Bone of a Whale. 

This lock consists of the following combination of fixed and movable parts. 
In the first place, there is the fixed frame, which is fastened to the outside of 
the door by means of four stout wooden pins. The shape of the frame will l>e 
l>est understood by the perspective view shown in fig. 5. It is a solid block of 
wood, 1 foot long by 4 J inches broad by 2 inches thick, which is hollowed out 
to receive the movable parts thus ; four vertical grooves, 1 inch deep and J inch 
wide, are cut to receive the tumblers at equal distances apart. A horizontal 
groove, 2 inches broad by 1 inch deep, is formed at the bottom of the tumbler 
grooves, to receive the bolt There is a second horizontal groove, 1 J inch 
broad by f inch deep, higher up, just large enough to allow the key to be 
inserted. Now come the movable parts. The bolt is 1 foot long by 2 inches 
by 1 inch, and has four notches cut in its upper surface for the ends of the 
tumblers to fall into. The key is 6 inches long by 1 inch by J inch, and has 
four lifting teeth on the top corresponding to each of the four tumblers. The 
tumblers are rectangular pieces of wood, 6 inches long by 1 inch by J inch, 
having notches cut in the sides to enable them to be lifted by means of the 
key. The working of the lock is as follows: — When the tumblers are resting 
by their own weight in the notches of the bolt it is impossible to move it. 

* This extract is taken from an admirable paper on Wooden Locks, by Mr J. 
Romilly Allen, in the Proceedings of this Society, vol. xiv. 


The tuDiLlt;ra uTe lifted by means ot the key, each tooth nf which when it is 
inserted comeB juat under eauh one of the notchea before described. The key 
is held with one hand and pushed first forwards as far us it will go, and then 
moved vertically upwards to the extent of the depth of the teuth of the key 
(which is eqiinl to the throw of the tumblers). When this has been done the 
bolt is drawn with the other hand. 


Kig. S. Wooden Lock ind Key, from North Bonalduy. 

These locks are known to be of considerable antiquity; they are now 
as far as Orkney, or I believe Scotland, is concerned, peculiar to the 
island, and they have in all probability been in use in North Konaldsay 
with hardly any niodifications or improvement since the time that 
they were inventeJ or introduced by the primitive inhabitants of the 

Room T). is liardly more than a recess in the eastern side of the 
passage connecting C. with R Room E. is about 10 feet long by 5 or 
6 wide, and has a passage into F. which is of a very irregular shape, 
n3itheT round nor square, but from 5 to 6 feet across, whicliever way it 
is measured. 

On lifting the pavement of this room just where it emetgea from 
room R, we come across a mass of consolidated sand, which seems to 
have been stuck together by some cementing material which had run 


down the crevices between the paving stonea. I nin}' here mention timt 
we found dry gliell snnd almost immediately below the paving stones in 
all the rooms. The stones were all lifted, and dicing continued as long 
as ashes or black earth wns found, but this seldom extended more than 
a few inches below the pavement. The only entrance to room G. is 
from the pnssiige connecting A. and R 

It will be seen from the section C. D. that this floor was not level, 
but sloped upwards from the entrance to the room. It is not easy to 
s»y either where the ]>assage ends and tlie room begins, as the former 
gradually widens out into a sort of [>car-shaped room. 

In the doorway of the room we picked up a rough lione pin, the only 
one found during the excavations. The rooms remaining to be described 

Fig. S. Vessels of burnt Clay, founil in tli« CimDibera al ijtciialireuk (4 siiil 

are H. and I. The former is curious, as liaving no ajiparent entninoe; 
it is in shape an irregular oval, 8 feet long by 4 J widej and in the wall 
dividing it from G. there is a press, 1 foot 2 inches wide, 1 foot higli, 
and 1 foot 6 inches deep. Room I. is a sort of porch to the building; 
it is nearly square, being 6i feet long by 7 feet wide. It has one 
entrance from the outside, and a passage into C, 

Having thus described each chamber in detail, it may be as well lo 
notice some peculiarities of the building as a whole. A glance at the 


plan will show tlie extraordinary thickness and massiveness of the walls, 
not so much of the outside walls as some of the division walls, and other 
bits of building altogether detached from the outer walls. In fact, the 
walls take up more space than the chambers, the area occupied by the 
walls of the building being 501 square feet, whereas the total area of all 
the rooms does not exceed 463 square feet. I may add, that although 
the ititter face of the outside wall was comparatively smooth, its outer 
surface was so roughly put together as to lead us to infer that it had 
originally been supported or banked up with earth and turf. 

From the fragments of the potter}' found in the floors of the chambers, 
eight vessels have been partially reconstructed. Two of the most entire 
of these are shoiioi in fig. 6. They are coarsely made and imperfectly 
fired, and api)ear to belong rather to the more recent varieties of home- 
made pottery, of which examples are still to be found in the Western Isles, 
than to the class of vessels and style of manufacture commonly found in 
the brochs. The whole circumstances of the structure and its contents 
indicate that it belongs to a period less remote than that of the brochs. 
In point of fact, it seems to present the typical characteristics of the old 
Orkney house. 


This mound, known locally as Howmae, is situated in the island of 
North Ronaldsay, about 5 furlongs N.N.W. from Burrian, and about 
IJ mile in a south-westerly direction from Stenabreck. The sketch 
map of the island now before you will show the relative positions of the 
three tumuli. Like both Burrian and Stenabreck, this mound is close 
to the sea-beach, the top being about 20 feet above the sea-level at 
ordinary high water, and about 10 feet above the general level of the 
links in which it is situated. It extends about 250 feet N. and S., and 
alx)ut 150 feet E. and W. 

We commenced the excavations on the 22nd July 1884 by digging 
a trench in a direction running £. and W. through about the highest 
part of the mound. After a couple of days we came upon a number of 
flat stones on edge, fixed in the sand by means of others driven in along- 
side of them, one or two on each side. The stones resembled rude 
gravestones; and it will be seen from the plan (fig. 7) that most of them 


were in pairs, one opposite the other, and 2 or 3 feet apart. They 
measured from 1 to 3 feet or rather more in height, 1 to 2 feet wide, 
and 2 to 3^ inches thick. The soil in which they stood seemed almost 
pure shell sand, and on digging xindemeath a few of the stones we found 
a thin layer of a whitish substance, resembling lime or wood ashes, of 
which a small portion is on the table for examination. 

Changing the direction of our digging now to a northerly one, we 
came in a few days upon the outside curve of room B., having found 
amongst the ashes outside several bone pins and borers, a quantity of 
pottery in fragments coarse and unomamented, several stone pounders, 
and one or two pieces of pumice-stone. We then proceeded to clear 
out room B., finding in it little of interest except broken pottery, which 
was in considerable quantity. 

The room is of an irregular shape, difficult to describe, and reference 
to the plan will be necessary. I have marked in dotted lines the posi- 
tion of a partition which I believe existed, though the wall, if it really 
did exist, was in ruins. A small piece of building will be seen to pro- 
ject about 3 feet from the south wall of the room, and opposite to it the 
north wall showed by some gape and projections that a wall had been 
built into it There is a small recess at the S.W. end of the room about 
3 feet square, probably a fireplace; the back of it is a large stone on 
edge about 3 feet high, which forms one side of the small room A. The 
south wall of this room was partly faced on the inside by two large stones 
on edge, built into the wall. 

There was a stone on end about IJ foot high in the centre of the 
room, for what purpose it is not apparent, unless it had originally been 
much higher, and used for supporting the roof. Proceeding to trace out 
the back or outside of room B., we came upon C, and cleared it out, 
finding it partitioned off by flat stones on edge 2 to 3 feet high, as 
shown on the plan. Several bone pins and a quantity of broken 
pottery were found here. For some days after this we had our labour for 
nothing, finding only detached pieces of wall or nothing at all. Even- 
tually, however, we struck upon room D., the floor of which was 7 or 8 
feet below the surface of the mound. This chamber was 6 J feet long, 
by 4 or 5 wide, two of the sides being faced by entire stones on edge, 


vuiiiiing the wholu length uf the walls, and extending iipwards from the 
floor for about 2 feet. Above this the building was in the ordinary 
fashion, the atones being kid flat. In this room we found a good 
specimen of a long-handled comb, made of the boue of a whale. It was 
sliiiped something like a human hand, and was almost {>crfect, having 
13 teeth left out of the origimd 14. Its length was nearly 5 inches, 
its width 2J inclies, the teeth rangiug from \ inch to IJ inch in 
length. It wiis slightly ornamented, a curved groove being cut on the 
handle, just below the tctith, with its convexity towanls the teeth, and 
two diagonal lines from the extreme end of the comb were drawn from 
the corners till they met and slightly crossed each other near the middle 
of the comb. We also found in this room a Ifig hone, apparently of ii 

jiig, sawn across for some pnrtioso or other, a small rouml bone alxjut 
1 j inch in diameter, perforated nearly through by a round hole alxnit 
J inch in diameter, and much polislied on one sitle as if by constant 
rubbing. The u»e of tins Itone is unknown. There was also a small 
bone of a whole about 6J inches long, perforated at one end with a hole 
about \ inch in diameter. In the same chamber we found, lying side by 
side, as if they hail been tied tip in a bundle, seven shank bones of a small 
kind of sheep. This was a favourite lM)ne for making Iwring implements 
of, and it was ]iml>ably with that intention that they had been laid 


together. Passing from chamber D. we proceeded to clear out E This 
work was very tedious, owing to the depth of the floor level below the 
surface of the mound being nearly 10 feet. About 2 or 3 feet down 
from the surface the soil was sandy, but below that it was rubbish, con- 
sisting of stones that had fallen from the upper part of the walls, ashes, 
and black earth. The chamber was only about 5 J feet by 4. There was 
a drop of about 1 ^ foot into E. from D. A doorway led from the south- 
west into some chamber not explored till afterwartls, and then but 
partially; another led into F. by a passage about 4 feet long and 2 J feet 
wide. On lifting one of the paving stones in E. we found what appeared 
to be a built drain nmning across the chamber from below the wall on 
north-east side in direction of the passage to the south-west. 

We could not thoroughly explore this drain, as some of the paving 
stones were fixed in below the walls of the chamber, and could only have 
been removed by breaking them, we therefore left this alone in the 
meantime, but I shall have more to say concerning it further on. We 
found in this room a bone needle or bodkin 4 inches long — broken 
across at the eye ; a fine pointed awl of bone, 5 inches in length ; and 
two other awls or borers of the same kind of sheep shank bones, 
described as having been found in chamber D. We also found a skull 
of an otter in good preservation, and several rat skulls. This latter 
discovery is of some interest, as there are now no rats on the island. 
We then passed into room F., the floor of which is on the same level as 
E. It is an irregular oval, 24 feet long and 15 broad, and, as will be 
seen from the plan, is divided off" into stalls by partitions of flagstones 
set on edge. These stones were from 2 to 4 feet in height, but some 
of them had been higher and wei-e broken ; they all seemed to have 
been nidely dressed on the edges, which were also smoothed consider- 
ably as if by cattle rubbing against them. Two of them had holes 
bored through them about IJ inch in diameter, and about 1^ foot from 
the ground. In this room we found some fragments of pottery, several 
rude stone flakes or knives made of flagstone, four bone awls and a bit 
of a fifth, and seven small bone pins, also portions of several otter skulls 
and one skull of a crow. The walls of the room averaged about 6 J feet 
in height, their tops being about 2 J feet below the surface of the mound. 


The curved walls were built with the stones gradually overlapping 
those below them so as to converge inwards. This convergence was at 
about the rate of IJ foot in 6 feet of height. A doorway led from the 
south-west end of this room, but we did not explore to see where it 
led, having, more by chance than for any particular reason, selected the 
passage into apartment G. This room proved to be the most interest- 
ing of the whole, both from the greater number and variety of the 
implements found, and from the fact of a secondary occupation of it 
Toeing clearly established. We at first thought that there was a parti- 
tion wall running nearly east and west, and dividing the room into 
two almost equal parts ; but on digging down along the sides of it for 
about 4 feet we ascertained that it was founded upon rubbish, probably 
the ruins of the part of the walls of room G. which had fallen in during, 
or after, a previous occupation. It was in clearing away this rubbish, 
which was about 3 J feet thick, that we found a number of curious flat 
implements of considerable size made from the bones of a whale. We 
also found three long handled combs (figs. 10, 11, 12), not so fine as that 
from chamber D., but tolerably perfect, and interesting from their being 
of a different type from it. The heavy wedge-shaped one with six teeth 
is, I think, different in form from any in the Museum collection at present. 
If (as I believe is pretty well established) these combs were used in 
weaving, the great strength of the teeth in this specimen, and their 
distance apart, would perhaps indicate some unusually coarse fibre that 
was being woven ; while the comb with the longest handle has the 
teeth very close together, and was probably used for some much finer 
material. We also found, amongst the rubbish, pieces of a cup or vessel 
of some sort, made from the vertebra of a whale, two bone awls, one 
small scrai)er, a shank bone of a sheep with two marks of a blunt knife 
or saw on it, several bone pins, and two rounded stones about J a foot 
in diameter, and nearly 2 inches thick, each with a hole J inch in 
diameter bored through the centre. This was the largest room dis- 
covered, being somewhat circular in shape with an average diameter of 
25 feet. On the eastern side of the room we found two long flat stones 
set on end with their flat sides parallel to the face of the wall, and 3 
or 4 feet from it. One stone was 8 feet 8 inches high, and the other 



exactly 8 feet above the floor level; they were over 2 feet wide and 3 to 
4 inches thick, and they stood about 7^ feet apart from centre to centre. 
One stone was shored up or supported by masonry built between it and 
the wall, and both are also kept in position by smaller stones on edge 
driven in round them at different angles. One long flat stone running 
between the two high ones forms the back of three fireplaces, which 
are separated from each other by more flat stones on edge at right angles 
to the back. 

There is a sort of curved recess at the north-west of the room, par- 
titioned off" from the rest by two flat stones on edge, meeting each other 
at an obtuse angle. These stones were about 1 foot high, reckoning 
from the floor of the main room, or about 2 feet above the floor of the 
small compartment, which was at a lower level than the rest. 

Inside the space thus partitioned off" was found a cist about 3 feet 
long, 1 foot wide and about 1^ deep, formed by flat stones on edge, 
projecting from the wall, and joined by another which formed the front ; 
immediately above the cist were two small presses in the wall, one 
about 1 J foot square, and the other about 9 inches. 

To the north of these, supported by a flat stone on edge at one end, 
and by a small block of masonry at the other, was laid a flat stone 4 
feet long by 1 foot wide, apparently to form a seat with a keeping place 
below it. 

At the south of the main room there is a stone on edge, shown on 
the plan. There was nothing remarkable about the stone itself, but all 
the paving stones for several feet on both sides of it, on being lifted, 
were found to overlie a layer of 3 inches deep of limpet shells, the only 
reason that we could think of for their presence there being that they 
might tend to keep off" damp. After completing the clearing out of this 
room, we had but a day to spare before being obliged to leave the 
island, and this day we devoted to exploring the drain through room 
K previously referred to. We first removed the rubbish from the 
passage leading south-west down to the floor level, for a distance about 
12 feet 

This ilisclosed the fact that the passage was paved with flagstones built 
into the walls on each side. We managed, however, to lift the fourth 


one, and found a hole, partly filled with rubbish, almost large enough 
to admit a man. We sent in a boy, who managed with some trouble to 
clear it out ; we could then see that the flagstones covered an undcr- 
groxind passage or drain 5 feet deep, 1 foot wide at the bottom and 2 
feet at top ; these at least were the dimensions for about 5 feet m length 
of the passage measuring from room E., but at this distance the southern 
wall of the passage turned in towards the northern one, meeting it at 
a very acute angle, about 8j^ feet from the entrance to the room. We 
had not time to trace the drain (if such it can be called, having no 
apparent outlet), but we hope next year, or on some future occasion, to 
complete the exploration of this and of the other unexplored passages 
from F. and G. On one of the flagstones at the far end of the under- 
ground passage just described we foxind a large intervertebral plate of a 
whale, 1 foot 2\ inches long diameter and 1 foot \ inch short diameter. 
It is pierced by four rectangular holes chiselled out with some sharp 
instrument, and looks remarkably like the top of a stool with the legs 
wanting. This excavation, commenced on 22nd July, was stopped for 
the season on 3rd November 1884, the area excavated being 3296 
square feet, and the quantity of rubbish removed about 15,000 cubic 
feet. To preserve the building as much as possible, and also to prevent 
stray cattle from falling down into the rooms, wo enclosed the excava- 
tions before leaving with a stout wire fence. 

III. Kitchen Midden at Holland. 

There are also on the table a few articles of stone and bone whicli did 
not come from either of the above moimds, but were found lately when 
levelling the ground about my own dwelling-house at Holland or High 
land, so called because, although under 50 feet, it is the highest 
eminence in the island of North Ronaldsay. 

It is now ascertained that at least 1 2 feet in depth of that elevation 
consists of compressed ashes, mostly black in colour or nearly so, of the 
consistence of clay, and, like it, of a greasy feeling when rubbed between 
the finger and thumb. There were some burnt stones amongst the ashes, a 
few stone whorls (one of which was slightly ornamented), and a fragment 
of some vessel of steatite blackened on one side. There were many bones 


of ox, slieep, and pig, of whkh the marrow bones were as nsual broken 
across. Some bone implements of unusual fonu were also found, the 
uses of which are unknown to us. 

The mound is of a rounded form, and in rough numbers measures 
about 140 yards across; consisting, so far as we have examined it, 
whoUy of ashes; and it is the most extensive Kitchen Midilfti in 
North Roniddsay. 

Fig. 13. Bone Implement found in t Kitchenr Midden at Holland. 

I may add, that a large proportion of the farm-houaea on the island 
are built upon artihcial mounds. The ground is so uniformly low and 
flat that, wherever it was possible to do so, such eminences appear to 
liave been taken advantage of for building purposes. 





The laiger of the two veaaols now exhibited {fig. I) was found filled 
with quicksilver in the year 1882 (Sept.), having been expoaed to view 
on the surface of a piece of mossy ground near the sliore, after a stomi of 

Ki(C"- 1, 2. BvlUruiiiics or Grcybpnnli, fouml in FHlxr ami nt Eyemouth. 

!>ea Spray followed by much rain, in the island of Ketlar, one of the Shet- 
land group. The siualler vessel (fig. 2) I have obtained from the Society's 
collection. It was founcl in digging the fonndntionH of a house at Eye- 
mouth ill 1S03, and is evidi'ntly a production of the siime class as the 


other. The dimensions of the two vessels are as follows : — Fig. 1 , 
height, 11 inches; diameter of mouth, 1 J inch; circumference, 26 inches; 
gi^eatest diameter, 8 J inches; diameter of base, 4 J inches. Fig. 2, 
height, 8 inches; diameter of mouth, 1 inch; circumference, 15^ inches; 
greatest diameter, 5 inches; diameter of base, 2 J inches. As regards 
capacity, the larger holds a gallon, and the smaller one a quart. 

There seems no doubt whatever that these objects belong to a class 
of mediaeval pottery known as Greybeards, Longbeards, or specially 
Bellarmines, Some descriptions of these jugs may be summarised; and 
it wUl be apparent that they apply well to the two pieces before you. 
Ranging in capacity from J a pint to 2 gallons, the material of which 
l^Uarmines are made is described as a greyish stoneware covered by a 
mottled brown glaze. The body or belly is rotund, and the neck narrow ; 
while the jug, in front often ornamented with a Silenus-like mask, has a 
loop handle at the back, and sometimes is furnished with a spout. Later 
specimens have ornamented devices in place of the grotesque face, but 
the mask in many varies much. In some it scarcely can be said to have 
a human resemblance; in others the features are not only worked out 
with care, but present a grave and dignified aspect. In many instances 
there occurs below the face a seal, either circular or oval, and bearing 
a crest or an armorial coat, sometimes, though rarely, of families, and 
more frequently of cities and towns in the Low Countries and parts of 
Germany. These coats may give an indication of date, but occasionally 
the actual date is given on the jug itself, and those so dated range from 
1580 to 1610. Some are further ornamented by medallion busts of 
warriors wearing " salades " of various fashions, or by foliated designs, 
such as those upon the larger jug now before us. 

So much for the general characteristics of the class of mediaeval 
pottery to which these vessels belong. It may, however, be interesting 
to trace, very briefly, the existence of similar pottery combined with 
grotesque faces down from early times. 

Among the most ancient remains of Egypt and Greece are to be 
found jugs of a type not very dissimilar; and, yet more curious to 
relate, Mexico and Peni furnish us with allied specimens. That the 
Romans were acquainted with what are called in the north of England 


"boggle" or "boggart" (goblin) drinking^ cups, we learn from their 

literature — 

'^ Sum figuli lusus, rufi persona Batavi. 
Qu8B tu derides, haec timet era puer." 

— Mart, xiv. 176. 

Where, oddly enough, the reference seems to take us to the Low 
Countries; or again — 

'* Ebrius haec fecit terris, puto, monstra Prometheus 
Saturnalitio lusit et ipse luto." 

—Mart., xiv. 182. 

In our own literature the allusions refer to the period of Elizabeth, 
James VI., and Charles I. No doubt, if it be true that the grotesque 
face was intended to be a caricature of the features of Cardinal Bellar- 
mine, the jugs would be popular in this country at a time when King 
James was engaged in disputes theological with that prelate, and when 
also the controversy between the Roman and Reformed Churches had 
been, if possible, intensified by the able writings of the Cardinal. 

Bellarmine, from whom these vessels take a generic name, was bom 
in 1542, and died in 1621. He is described by Fuligati, his biographer, 
as "very short of stature, and hard featured"; but assuredly, whatever 
had been his personal appearance, these grotesques would have represented 
as ill a face as they could. Probably the attempt at caricature would 
not last long, though the fashion of placing a face on the jug still con- 
tinued. Ben Jonson says of a landlord (" New Inn "), 

** Who's at the best some pound grown thing, ajtig 
Fac^d with a heard that fills out to the guests." 

And again {Bartholometo Fair, iv. sc. 3) — 

^ He hash wrashled so long with the bottle here that the man with the beard 
hash almost streek up his heelsh." 

They are both evidently allusions to jugs of this kind. Again, it seems 
likely that we have a reference to this particular species of pottery in the 
Inventory of Jewels in Edinburgh Castle, 1578, and also in the List of 
the Queen of Scots' movables, 1562. 


We gather that in England such jugs were known of four distinct sizes; 
the "gallonier," holding a gallon; the "pottle pot," holding two quarts; 
"pot," holding a quart; and "little pot," with a capacity of one pint. 
An imitation of the continental jugs very soon began, and in 1671 
Dwight of Fulhani took out a patent in connection with this manufacture. 
The further history of the patent is not known, though in 1737 the 
death of a Dr Dwight, possibly a descendant, is recorded, Fulham 
pottery works, however, still exist. Dwight's jugs were just the same as 
those from CJologne of that perioil. 

In the Oenileman^s Magazine for 1831 there is an accoimt of a jug 
which may probably have been of the Bellarmine type. It was dug up 
from 14 feet below the surface in a chamber in a rath at Doone Glebe, 
Limerick. At the same time and place were found several silver coins, 
a gold spur, and other jars, of which this alone was left. It was 7 inches 
high and 16 inches in circumference at the thickest part. The engrav- 
ing appended to the description shows a very finely wrought face, with a 
flowing beard. Besides this face, the body of the jug at its thickest 
part was ornamented with foliated scroll work between two defining 
parallel bands, and divided at equal intervals by two small medallions 
with human heads. From these parallel bands projected in relief above 
and below four feather-like sprays of work, and below in the spaces 
between the sprays were medallions of larger size, representing a man with 
a helmet and raised visor. There is no sign of a spout in the engraving. 

In 1810, similarly when a rath at Cork was levelled (Bally volane), a 
fragment of a jar of this kind was found, but it was of a very rough 
class indeed. The face had no beard, and generally the work was quite 
inferior to the Limerick jug. 

Marryatt, in his Notes towards a History of Pottery (p. 75, fig. 36), 
figures a Bellarmine very like the Limerick jug, but with an inscription 
in place of the bands of foliation. This jug has also sprays and medal- 
lions like the other, but the pottery is fine, of a whitish-yellow, and 
without glaze. It may be of earlier date, as I am inclined to think is 
the Limerick one. Possibly, from the style, these may be referred to a 
I>eriod about 1450, and to Jacqueline of Hainault, who died in 1436, 
and was celebrated for making this kind of jittery. 


Jfwilt, iu Ilia work vu I'utterj-, also reffcs to ISelkruiiiico (p. 92), auJ 
f^ives us engmvuigi; of s«veraL Thfs^- are of lat«r (lat«, as I thiuk u 
shown 113- the use of riu-pi niuiiJ the neck aud bi^anl, nn elaboration Hot 
ul)senable iii earlier fonns, and aim b_v the siilislitutioD of coats of arms 
and wroll work for the uiedidlinns, aud the use of a funnal and repeated 
inarkin<r ini^teail of foliations iHi'tweeu the j>arallel lines. 

Bellartniues continued to tw made, es|H-eially in Holland, whence they 
re'-eived the name of " Duteliiuen " down to a |'n.'tty recent period, and 
they are now r»'i>roduced iu of the pottery works in Germauy 
fruiu tlie old desiyns. They were uo doubt in <juit« common use aa 
ordinary receiitacles for wine, lK?er, Ac, during a long jjcriod. Sir 
Walter Scott (if www/cry, cliap, ix.) makes reference to one of Oieae 
jugs: — "Ye may kee|i for the u<-xt pilfirim that comes over, tlie gruns 
of the gieybeard." 

In the case of the larger jug before us there is no doubt that it was 
ailuolly full uf i|uicksilver when found; indccil, when examining it, I 
liiul occasion to invert it, and several minute globules of that metal rolled 
out on to the table. Why or how it should have l>een put to this use 
it in not easy to say. 

F,Bilhen»-»re J«r found full of Coinn, chiefly of Edn*»rd I. , near Kinghor 






On the 19th of July last I received a letter from Mr Gorrie, post- 
master, Glenlyon, stating that the Messrs MacDonald, Bruach, in cutting 
through a gravelly knoll, had come upon a stone cist, and requesting me 
to go and see it opened. This, along with my antiquarian friend Mr 
Haggart, I did on the following Monday. On opening up the knoll 
further we found that the cist was made of eight flags, — three in the 
front, two at the back, one at each end, and one above. They were 
carefully and neatly placed. The knoll itself was about 60 feet long, 
by an average of about 14 broad. The cist would be about the centre 
lengthways, and four feet from the upper side, and lay from east to 
west. The dimensions are as follow : — 

5 feet 9 inches. 





Length of flagstone covering. 
Thickness do. 

Maximum breadth, . 
Minimum do. 
Liside length. 

Do. breadth. 

Do. depth, 

The cist was covered by the usual burial cairn, 2 feet in height, 
and made of gathered stones. Above the cairn there were two feet of 
earth. In front there was a retaining wall, built of the larger stones in 
the knoll, and which were of a yellow colour, contrasting with the grey 
stones in the cairn. In the cist we found a skeleton lying on its leit 
side, with the knees doubled up. The side next the earth was some- 
what decayed, but the right side was nearly perfect. Strange to say, the 
skull was wanting. On submitting the skeleton to Dr Hamilton Hodges 
of Killin, he pronounced it to be that of a large and i>owerful man about 
6 feet 2 in height. Dr Crerar, Tirarthur, who has since examined 


it, practically conftmiB Ur Hodges, We found an um near the north- 
eaatem sidn of the cist, lying on its aide. The um is of burnt clay, of 
the class known na " food vessul," ornamented ivitli the " lierring bone" 
pattern, aud bands of oblique and jiarallet linos going round the vessel. 
I'urt of its contonts were analysed by Mr MacGregor, chemist, Killin, 
iind were found to consist of about 90 per cent, of dark earth, mixed with 
which was some of the gravel at the Itottoin of the cist, and with a trace 

Uru round in a ciiit at Bnwch, Glentyon (7] iucbcs hijjli.) 
of iron, and about 10 per cent, of unburnt bones. One side of the urn 
is perfectly whole, the other got a little broken at the edge. I exhibit 
a beautiful drawing of it, kindly done for me by Miss Cameron of 
Sunderland, and three photographs by Mr MacGregor of KiUin, which 
give an excellent idea of its appearance. 

Such then are the facts connected with this find. I will not indulge 
in many conclusions, but I think the following may safely I>e drawn, 
that the burial belongs to very ancient times, and may be placed consider- 
ably beyond the Cbristian era. This is evidenced by three things — first, 
the manner of the burial is evidently pre-Christian ; second, the form of 
the um associated with it is characteristic of the Bronze period, and has 
often been found deposited with weapons and implements of bronze ; and 


third, the character of its ornamentation is not what we know as Celtic, and 
must therefore l>e referred to the period of that historically unknown race 
which preceded all the known manifestations of Celtic art within the 
Scottish area. Again, if we judge from this one skeleton, that race must 
have had some very tall and powerfully developed men amongst them. 
By and by perhaps, from records of old customs, we may get some 
explanation of the fact of the head being wanting. The contents of the 
urn were probably the remains of food. Urns of this shape are, as already 
said, known as " food vessels," but in this case it is not evident from the 
nature of the contents that such was really the intention of the vessel. 

Mr Bullough of Meggemie, on whose property the cist was found, and 
who has now the urn in his keeping, is, I am glad to find, to enclose 
the cist with an iron railing. I owe my best thanks to Messrs Alexander 
and John [MacDonald, and to Mr Gorrie, for their kindness in allowing 
me to see the cist opened, and for the valuable assistance they 



During a holiday in the month of Septeuil>er 1884, in Btrathbraan, I 
took the opportimity to examine a stone circle on the hillside above the 
farm of Meikle Fandowie. It is on Lord Mansfield's property, and 
situated 5 miles west from Dunkeld, on the south side of the River 

The hill is named on the Ordnance Map " Airlich " (a name perhaps 
having reference to the circle), and is easily distinguished by its 
remarkably conical shape; the summit is 1026 feet above the sea-level. 
The stone circle (fig. 1) is also marked on the map, about half-way up 
the hill, and is on the slope, facing north, to the south-west of the farm- 
house. Six of the stones are standing in their original positions, and 
other four are thrown down, one being in several pieces ; but the circle 
does not appear to have consisted of more than the ten stones, and. 



roughly speaking, is about 25 feet in diameter. The stones, which are 
still standing are about 3 feet above ground. The circle is little 
known in the district, and no tradition exists regarding it. 

My next excursion was to the farm of Little Fandowie, about a mile 
further west, on the same side of the river, and also on Lord Mans- 
field's property. The tenants of the farm are very old people, and 
although they have lived nearly all their days within a mile of the 
circle above referred to, they had never seen it. I was informed, how- 
ever, that in a corn-field about 400 yards west from the farm-house, there 
w^as a group of stones called in Gaelic Clachan Aoradh, and on proceed- 
ing there I found the remains of a circle which probably had been 



Fig. 1. Stone Circle on Findowie Hill, Strathbraan, Perthshire. 

nearly of the same dimensions as the one already described, but all the 
8t<mes, with one exception, have been thrown down and huddled 
together, and some of them broken. The only one left standing, which 
appeared to be in its original position, is 4 feet above ground. It 
resembles the tnmk of a large tree, about 2 feet in diameter, and is 
]>erfectly flat and smooth on the top. The name applied to this group 
of stones, Clachan Aoradhy which is understood as " worshipping stones," 
has no doubt prevented their total destruction or removal from culti- 
vated ground. There is a mountain ash tree of considerable age standing 
beside the only remaining upright stone. 

Near the steading of this farm of Little Fandowie, there was pointed 
out a stone enclosure of comparatively recent date, in which there was 
said to be an old burial-place. On examining it, I found that it con- 
tained what appeared to be the foundation of a chapel, about 33 feet 
long from east to west, by about 20 feet }>road at tlie east end. The 



ground was deeply covered with grass and weeds, and no headstones or 
other marks of burial were visible. 

Outside of the enclosure, however, and scattered about, were several 
large whinstone boulders, on one of which (fig. 2), near the entrance, 
were nine cup marks. This stone is 6 feet long by 3 feet broad, and 
2 feet 6 inches deep ; the largest of the cups is 4 inches in diameter. 

Mr Anderson, one of the tenants of the farm, who is about ninety 
years of age, informed me that his father had told him of the last in- 
terment made in this burial-place. It was that of a child belonging to 


' /V 

Fi^. 2. Ciip-markvil Stone at Little Fandowie, Strathbraan, Perthshire. 

a soldier (perhaps one of General Wade's sapjiers), who worked at the 
wad from Crieflf to Dunkeld, some time after the period of the Rebellion. 
Mr Anderson liimself had seen a person of the ntime of Macduff, who 
lame to the spot to bury one of his teeth, as he said the ground was the 
burial-place of the family. The chapel had probably given the name 
** Fandowie " to the place, meaning the church or burial-place of the 
DuflFs, which may be synonymous with " Kilduff," a name which occurs in 
other parts of Scotland. 

The foundations of the house or castle of a Baron Macduff, who 
flourished in the time of James V., were also pointed out, quite near 
and east from the chapel, and all round were marks of buildings, as if 
a considerable number of people had lived imder the baron's wing. His 
traditionary fame as a warrior still remains. He was the best bowman 


far or near, and many stories are told of his exploits. A tree, on which 
he hanged his people, stood near the house. The king, in one of his 
frolics and disguised aa a beggar, had visited the baron, and was 
hospitably entertained, the baron being afterwards summoned to Scone 
to dine with the king, who then made himself known as the visitor at 
Fandowie, and gave Macduff a grant of land, " from the one bum to the 
other," in token of his regard for the kindness he had received. King 
James had a hunting seat at Trochrie, three miles further east in the 
Strath ; the remains of one of its towers are still standing. 

On inquiring at the farm of Tomnagaim, also in Strathbraan, on the 
north side of the river, and nearly opposite to Little Fandowie, Mr Macduff, 
the tenant, mentioned a stone with cup markings (fig. 3), on which he 

Fig. 8. Cup-marketl Stone at Toinnagairn, Strathbraan, Perthshire. 

had played when a boy, — " making," as he said, " the gathered rain run 
from one cup to the other." It lies on the top of a stratified rock, which 
juts out of the ground in one of the fields, half-way between the farm- 
house and the road to Amulree, and slightly east from the six-mile stone. 
There are twenty-eight cups of various sizes on the stone, which is harp- 
shaped, 4 feet 8 inches in length, 3 feet 8 inches broad at the top, 3 feet 4 
inches across the centre, 1 foot 6 inches deep at one side, and 8 inches at 
the other. On showing this stone a few days afterwards to the Rev. Mr 
Maclean, Grand tully, who happened to be in the district, ho suggested that 


it was part of the rock on which it lay, and this was confirmed by our 
finding three additional cups on the rock itself (fig. 4). Endeavours 
had evidently been made to remove the obstruction from the field in 
the course of reclaiming the ground, but these had gone no further than 
detaching the top of the rock, and leaving it where it now remains. 

Fig. 4. Cup-marked Rock, Tomnagairn, Stratlibraan, Porthshire. 


By JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D., Assistant Secretary and Keeper of 
THE Museum. (Plate I.) 

The enamelled bronze patera, which is the subject of the present 
notice, was found a considerable number of years ago in Linlithgow- 
shire, the precise locality being unknown. It was exhibited to the 
Society in 1865 by Mr James Nicolson, Kirkcudbright, and has now 
been acquired by the Purchase Committee for the National Museum. 

It is a shallow bowl-shaped vessel of bronze, 4 J inches diameter, and 
2 J inches deep, with a flat handle 3 J inches in length, attached to the 
brim of the bowl. The body of the bowl is of one piece, the bottom, 
which is soldered on, seems to have been renewed, and the handle is 
also attached by solder to the side of the cup. The form is that of the 
ordinary Roman patera of bronze, but it diflFers from the prevailing 
Roman form in the shallow and globular shape of the bowl, and in the 


peculiar shape of the handle. Its most remarkable features are the 
enamelled decorations of the exterior of the bowl and of the upi)er 
surface of the fiat handle. Representations of these in the colours of the 
original are shown in Plate I. 

The bowl has a plain hollow moulding round the outside of the rim. 
Beneath this it is encircled T>y a band of enamel of a light green 
colour tniversed by a wreath, the stem and leaves of which are formed 
by the metal, showing in relief on the ground of the enamel. Under- 
neath this band, and separated from it by a narrower band of red, there 
is a wider band of dark blue, traversed with a wavy scroll with leaf-lik»j 
ornaments of pale green in the alternate spaces of the scroll. The 
leaves are serrated with jx)ints of pale yellow. Under this band, and 
separated from it by another narrow band of red, is a band of van- 
dyked ornament of bluish-green, each Vandyke of green alternating with 
one of yellow. The upper part of the flat handle is decorated with 
heart-shaped and scroll-like ornaments in red and green on a blue 
ground within a yellow bonier. The process employed in the enamel- 
ling is that which is known as champlevSj in which the spaces to be filled 
with the enamels are chiselled or hollowed out of the metal Tlie 
patterns of the decoration are a wreath, a wavy scroll, and a vandyke; 
and the colours blue, retl, and green, with a slight admixture of a faint 
yellow. The combination of these peculiar colours and patterns imparts 
to the object a certain individuality of character sufficiently marked to 
l>e distinctive. Apart from the singular beauty of its decoration, it is 
possessed of this special interest that it is the only vessel of its kind and 
character known to exist in Scotland. It is, however, one of a class of 
objects, which though few in number, are pretty widely distributed over 
the area, which may be termed the outskirts of the Roman Empire, towards 
the north and west — that is Britain, Xorth Germany, and Scandinavia. 
We look in vain for anything like it within the area of the Empire 
proper, and it may therefore be regarded as a product of the culture of 
some portion of the area of north-western Europ)e, where it was touched 
and modified by the Roman culture. 

Within this area there are other three objects presenting the same 
essential features of character, and no more than three are at present 


known to exist anywhere. Of these two are in England and one in 
Denmark. The two that are in England are — a cup found at Braughing, 
and a vase found in a sepulchral tumulus at Bartlow, in Essex. 

The cup from Braughing is similar in form to the patera from Lin- 
lithgowshire, except that it wants the handle.^ It is 3^ inches diameter, 
and 2^ inches high. Beneath the plain moulded rim is a band of 
bluish-green enamel traversed by a wreath, the stem and leaves of 
which are formed by the metal showing in relief on the groumi of the 
enamel. Beneath this is a broad band of blue, traversed by a wavy 
scroll, with leaf-like ornaments placed alternately in pale green. 
Between this band and the foot of the cup is a broad band of triangular 
sjiaces or Vandykes of alternate blue and green. 

The same style of ornament and the same combuiation of colours (red, 
blue, and light green) are seen in the decoration of the splendid 
spheroidal vase of bronze found in a tumulus at Bartlow, in Essex.^ 
The tumulus was the largest of a group of four situated in a lino, with 
a apace of from 13 to 15 feet between their bases. In form they were 
truncated cones, the diameter of the smallest being 80 feet and its 
height 18 feet, and that of the largest being 144 feet and the height 
45 feet. In the centre of the tumulus there was foimd a chest or 
coffer of oak, 4 feet 2 inches in length, 3 feet 8 inches in width, and 2 
feet deep, made of planks about 4 inches thick listened together with 
stout iron nails. It contained several squarish bottle-shaped vases of 
green glass, one of which was filled with calcined human bones. It 
wjis a largish vase, shaped like a case bottle, having S(iuarish sides and a 
bottle-neck, with a flat loop-handle from the neck to the shoulder. It 
stood altogether 1 5^ inches high, 1 1 J inches to the shoulder, and the 
lip 5 J inches diameter, admitting the hand freely. It was thus capable 
of containing the cremated bones of a human body. There was also a 
small vase of clay and several of the slender long-necked unguent or 
perfume vessels of glass, which are misnamed "tear-bottles." The 
objects in bronze were a small patera with a reeded handle, terminating 

* Engraved and desrribed by A. W. Franks, iu the Proc. Soe. Antiq. Lond.^ 
.Hecoiid series, vol. iv. p. 514. 

* Described and figureil m ArchtEologia^ vol. xxvi. p. 300, pi. xxxv. 


in a ram's head; a bronze lamp, with an acanthus leaf -shaped handle; 
two narrow-necked vases of bronze, with looped side handles; two 
strigils; a large bronze vase, with an elegant pattern in relief round 
the neck, and a looped handle surmounted by a sphinx-like figure ; and 
the splendidly enamelled spheroidal vase, with a rectangular handle 
across the mouth fitting into loops at the sides. It is of small size, 4 j 
inches in extreme diameter and 3| inches high. The moulding round 
the lip is decorated with narrow parallel bands arranged in groups of 
six, each group filled with enamels of the same colour — red, green, or 
blue. Under the hollow of the neck, which shows the plain bronze, is 
a band of double triangular spaces, the lower arranged in threes of red, 
green, and blue, each separate Vandyke of the lower series alternating 
with those of the upper, which all show the plain bronze. A similar 
band of double Vandykes is repeated at the bottom of the vase. The 
space between them is filled by two wide bands of blue separated from 
each other by a band of pale green traversed by a wreath formed by the 
bronze coming up to the surface of the green ground. The two wider 
bands of blue are traversed by a wavy scroll of red, with pale green five- 
pointed leaves in the alternate spaces of the scroll. 

An enamelled cup, found in a moss at Maltbeck in Denmark,^ has a 
close similarity to that found at Braughing. Under a plain moulded 
rim, there is a band of bluish-green enamel traversed by a wreath, the 
stem and leaves of which are formed by the metal showing in relief on 
the ground of the enamel. Below this is a wider band of blue enamel, 
traversed by a wavy scroll, with leaf-like ornaments placed alternately, 
each having a centre of red, surrounded by a rosette of pale green; the 
space between this band and the bottom of the cup is filled with 
Vandykes of blue, green, and red. The cup measures 5 inches in 
diameter and 3 inches deep. It had been deposited in a clay vessel, of 
which only a portion was preserved. 

Describing this cup, M. Engelhanit remarks of the style of it«i 
decoration, that it is unique among the objects of the early Iron Age in 
Denmark. But in point of fact, the descriptions of all the four objects 

' Described ond iiguretl in the Meinoires de la SocieU Royah dea Anliquaires dn 
Nord, 1866-71. p. 151. 


show that they are identical in the manner and motive of their decora- 
tion. They are all in the same process of enamelling — a process applied 
to no work of pure Roman art- workmanship that I know. They all 
possess the same scheme of colour — blue, red, and light green ; and they 
all present absolutely the same combination of patterns — a wreath, a 
wavy scroll, and a band of Vandykes. 

I have said that this process of enamelling is not of Roman origin. 
No work of the palmy days of the Empire exhibits it. No con- 
temporary writer notices it as one of the arts practised by Roman 
artificers. But, on the other hand, we have the testimony of Philo- 
stratus, that in his time — that is about a.d. 200 — this art of enamelling 
was practised by the barbarians in the Ocean. In his work called the 
Icofies,^ in describing a painting of a boar-hunt, he refers to the 
harness of the horses as enriched with gold and various colours ; and in 
order to account for his reference to diversity of colours in the harness 
of horses, he adds these remarkable words — " For it is told that the 
barbarians in the Ocean pour these colours upon heated brass, and that 
they adhere to it, and become as hard as stone, and so preserve the forms 
which they thus represent." This is as distinct a description of 
champlevS enamelling as could be exi)ected from one to whom the pro- 
cess and its products were known only by hearsay. The barbarians in 
the Ocean by whom it was practised are not more distinctly indicated 
as to their nationality. But we now know for certainty that horse- 
trappings enriched with champleve enamel, and pertaining to a period 
before the time of Philostratus, are peculiar to Britain. There is not a 
single example in Scandinavia. The Gauls as well as the Britons — of 
the same Celtic stock — practised enamel-working before the Roman 
conquest. The enamel work8hoi>s of Bibracte, with their furnaces, 
cmcible^, moulds, and polishing stones, and with the crude enamels in 
their various stages of preparation, have been recently excavated from 
the ruins of the city destroyed by Caesar and his legions. But the 
Bibracte enamels are the work of mere dabblers in the art compared 
with the British examples. The home of the art was in Britain, and 
the style of its patterns as well as the associations in which the objects 

* Iconiunif lib. i. xxviii. 
VOL. XIX. r) 


decorated with it are found, demonstrate with certainty that it had 
reached its highest stage of indigenous development before it came into 
contact with the Roman culture. But in the objects which I have 
described in this paper there is palpable evidence of the influence of a 
foreign culture, although in style and execution we may still claim for 
this peculiar variety of enamelled work the distinctive name of the opus 
Bnlannicuni, first bestowed upon it by Mr Franks, who has always 
maintained the Celtic origin of the art of enamelling, so far as the west 
of Europe is concerned. 

An enamelled patera of similar character, though differing some- 
what in form as well as in the style of its ornamentation, was found at 
Pyrmont, in the Rhine valley.^ It was found at a depth of 10 feet 
under the surface, near a mineral spring, in the close vicinity of which 
there were also found about 300 fibulae of various forms, 12 belt- 
buckles, and coins of Domitian, Trajan, and Caracalla. It appeared 
from the observations made during the excavations that these objects 
had been deposited at different times as offerings to the divinity of 
the well — not thrown into the water, as was the Roman custom, 
but deposited beside it, at the foot of an aged tree. The vessel, 
which is of bronze, is 4 J inches diameter and 2 J inches deep. The 
handle, which is similar to that of the Linlithgowshire patera, is 3J 
inches in length and 1^ inch in greatest breadth. The cup has a plain 
moulded rim; and the enamelled part, which reaches from the rim to 
the bottom, is divided into a series of pentagonal spaces, bordered by a 
simple line or scroll, and enclosing a scroll-like ornament with leafy 
terminations. The triangular spaces between the tops of the pentagons 
are filled with triplets of leafage. The ground is blue, the leafage 
green and red. The flat upper part of the handle is ornamented with 
a wavy scroll of similar leafage, also on a blue ground. 

* Figured and described by R. Liidwig, in the Jahrhucher der Vercins von 
AlUrthumsfreunden in Rheinlande, Heft xxxviii. p. 68, pi. i. Bonn, 1866. 


Monday, 12/// January 1885. 

Professor DUNS, D.D., in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly 
elected Fellows : — 

C. S. MuRCHidON-BoMPAS, 121 Westbourne Terrace, London. 

Robert Chambers, Publisher, 10 Claremont Crescent. 

William Nicol Elder, L.RC.P. and S.E., 10 West Maitland Street. 

John Grant, Marchmont Herald. 

C. R. Macdonald, M.D., Beith. 

Rev. W. M. Metcalfe, South Parish Manse, Paisley. 

William Traill, M.D., of Woodwick. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By George H. Stevens, Gullane. 

Um of the so-called "food-vessel" type, measuring 4 J inches in 
height, 5 J inches diameter across the mouth, narrowing to 3 inches at the 
base. It is rudely ornamented on the upper part by a band of irregu- 
larly parallel lines of impressions of a twisted cord encircling the vessel 
in a direction parallel to the rim. Below, on the upper part of the 
slope towards the bottom, there is a band of short vertical lines of the 
same character. The inside of the rim is bevelled, and ornamented 
with a band of similar impressions encircling it horizontally. 

The um was found in 1880 in excavating for a quarry on the rise of 
LuflEhess Links towards Gullane Hill. It has been well figured in 
the Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists* Club, vol. x. p. 306. 

(2) By Thomas Jeffrey, Farmer, Throsk, Stirlingshire. 

Statuette of Mercury in bronze, 4^ inches high, found in ploughing 
on the farm of Throsk, parish of St Ninians, Stirlingshire. The figure 


b nude, with the it^aiia or winged saotlals, and the winged petaius or 
head-dress as usually represented. The 
right hand, which probably bore the cadMeiw, 
is gone; the left ann sustains a few simple 
folds of drapery. 

(3) By E. Van8 AoKBW of Bambarrodi, 

F.S.A. Scot 

Flat oval Pebble of grey sandslouc, 10 
inches in length by 7j inches in greatest 
width, having a shallow circular cavity 3J 
inches in diameter, and not exceeding J an 
inch in depth, in each of its opposite flat 
aides. The cavities are smooth, and scuin to 
have been produced by friction. 

(4) By Charles "Wallace of Dolly, 

Kirkcolm, through Rev. Gborgb 

_, . . „ „ , . Wilson, Corr. Mem. S.A. Scot., 

atatuetle of Mercuiy fonnd ^, , 

«t Throak, StirlingBhire (4) Glenluce. 

inches liigii). 

Fragment of Sandstone Slab, measuring 1 1 
inches ui length by 9 inches in breadth, and not exceeding 2 inches in 
thickness, having a nidely incised Maltese cross on one face, from the 
site of Chapel Donnan, Kirkcolm, Wigtownshire. 

(5) liy John M'Mbkkis, Knocknecn, Kirkcolm, throngh Kev. 
Gboroe Wilson, Glenluce, Corr. Mem. S.A. Scot. 
Quadrangular Block of Sandstone, 10 inches in length, 5 inches in 
hreadtli, antl 3 inches in thickness, having a faintly incised Maltese cross 
on each of its broad faces, from the neighbourhood of Chapel Donnan, 
Kirkcolm. Both this and the stone previously noticed from Cliapel 
Donnan may probably have been boundary marks. 

Three Spindle "rtliorls, viz. (1) of sandstone, l^ in 


on one face with two incised circles concentric with the spindle-hole; 
(2) of grey shale, 1 J inch in diameter, similarly ornamented with three 
slightly incised circles; (3) of steatite, IJ inch in diameter, plain, with 
rounded edges. 

Socket-Stone, an oval pebble of quartzite, 3 J inches in length by 2 J 
inches in breadth, with hollows worn to the depth of J inch by the 
revolutions of a vertical iron spindle. 

(6) By Rev. George WilsoK, Glenluce, Corr. Mem. S.A. Scot. 

Two Upper Quern Stones of granite, from Barlockhart Loch, Glenluce 
(one broken). 

Grinding or Polishing Stone, from Barlockhart Loch. 

Rubbing Stone of grey granite, from Machennore, Glenluce. 

Grinding Stone, being half of an oval pebble with hollows, from Mid 
Torrs, Glenluce. 

(7) By Jambs M. Strachan, M.A, St Andrews. 

Bronze Spear-head and Gouge, found at Torran, near Ford, Ix)ch Awe, 
[See the previous communication by Mr Strachan, vol. xviii. p. 207.] 

(8) By Eustace Balfour, Esq., through Dr Arthur Mitchell, 


Circular Cake of Adipose, found in a meadow on the bank of the 
Conon, Strathconon, Ross-shire. 


(9) By the Senatus op the University of Edinburgh. 

Medal in Bronze of the Tercentenary of the University of Edinbui^h. 

(10) By James Cruikshank Roger, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 
Celticism a Myth. 8vo, 89 i)p. London, 1884. 

(11) By Rev. J. Collingwood Bruce, LL.D., Hon. Mem. 

S.A. Scot., the Author. 

Tlie Three Bridges — Roman, Mediseval, and Moilem — over the Tyne 
at Xewcjistle. 4to. Reprinted from ArehifuJotjia ^h'ana. 


(12) By Professor Gborgk Stephens, LL.D., Hon. Mem. S.A. Scot., 
Copenhagen, the Author. 

The Old Northern Runic Monuments of Scandinavia and England. 
Part III., folio. CoiKJuhagcn, 1884. 

The following Communications were read : — 



GIUDI. By peter MILLER, F.S.A. Scot. 

Various o])inions have been held })y learned antiquaries respecting 
the identity of the site of Bede's ancient city Giudi, mentioned by him 
in his Ecclesiastical History of EnglaTuI,^ Those of them who support 
the opinion that this city was situated on the island of Inchkeith 
appear to do so chiefly because of that island answering in some 
measure to Bede's notice of the city as being situated in the midst of 
the eastern inlet of the sea, which runs in far and broad into the land 
of Britain. But this argument is equally applicable to other three 
islands in the Firth of Forth, namely, Inchcolm, Cramond Island, and 
Inchgarvie, so that little or no importance can be given to it unless 
supported by some other and more specific evidence. Before entering 
iqK)n the evidence I am about to submit in support of another site that 
hiis never, so far as I am aware, been suggested, it will l>e as well to 
give Bedels account of the city, and also the only two otlier incidental 
notices of the same place, by two other ancient writers. Bedo, in the 
passage quoted, is 8i)eaking of the inroads made by the savage foreign 
nations uikhi the Romanised Britons south of tlie Roman wall con- 
structed between the Forth and Clyde, about the year a.d. 140, by 
Lollius Urbicus, in the reign of Antfjninus Pius. "We call these 

* Macphei-bon and Skeue both express the opinion that tins city may have been 
on Inchkeith, while Cnmden 8Upi>oses it to have been on the Roman Wall at Kirkin- 
tilloch. Roy, in his Military Aniiquifies, places it nt Camelon. Gordon, in his 
Itinnarium Srptcntrionalc, and Stuart, in his Caledonia Boinaiw, also place it there. 


foreign nations," he says, " not on account of their being seated out of 
Britain, but because they were remote from that part of it which was 
possessed by the Britons, two inlets of the sea lying betwixt them, one 
of which runs in far and broad into the hind of Britain, from the 
eastern ocean, and the other from the western, though they do not 
touch one another ; the eastern has in the midst of it the City Giudi, 
the western has on it, that is on the right hand thereof, tlie City 
AJcluith, which, in their language signifies the Rock Cluith, for it is 
close by the river of that name." The incidental notice is from 
Xennius. " He (Oswy) slew Penda, in the field of Gai Campi, and the 
kings of the Britons, who went out with Penda on the expedition as 
far as the City ludeu, were slain." — "Then Oswy restored all the 
the wealth which was with him in the city to Penda, who distributed 
it among the kings of the Britons, that is, Atbret ludeu." The second 
reference is from an old tract of the ninth century, ascribed to Aengus 
the Culdee, and rendered thus by Dr Skene : — " The Sea of Giudan in 
the Firth of Forth, so called from the City of Giudi, which Bede says 
was in the middle of it, and which may be identified with Inch Keith." 
It is very obvious that all these three notices refer to one and the 
same city, whatever may have been its actual site. The identification of 
that site is imquestionably surrounded with diflBculties, but it is only by 
taking into account all the circumstances of the very limited informa- 
tion which these old writers have supplied us with, that the question 
can be determined, if ever it can be determined. It is not very 
apparent, whether Bede has given us the name of the city in its purely 
British or Welsh form, or in a Latinised form. It seems certain, from 
Bede*s reference to the two cities, Alcluith on the western inlet of the 
sea and the City Giudi on the eastern inlet, that he was describing two 
well-known landmarks of his time, in the regions of the Firths of 
Clyde and Forth, and that the character of the one on the western 
inlet was equally applicable to that on the east. Bede does not always 
use the same Latin word for city. In the passage quoted, however, he 
uses the Latin word urhs with reference to both Alcluith and Giudi, 
which is translated city in English. It is l>eyond question, from what 
is known respecting Alcluith, Dumbarton Castle, that it was not a city 


or town in our sense of the English word, but was only a strength or 
stronghold in a military sense, for the area of Dumbarton Castle is of 
very limited extent, and is quite inaccessible except on one side, and 
incapable of accommo<iating any large number of people. This remark 
is equally applicable not only to Inchkeith, but to the three other 
islands in the Firth of Forth — Inchcolm, Cramond, and Inchgarvie. It 
so happens, however, that Bede leaves us in no doubt whatever as to 
the actual sense he meant to convey by the word urhs as applied to 
Alcluith; for, in another chapter of his History, he describes Alcluith 
as a " civitas munitissima,*' a fortified city, "ubi est civitas Britonum 
munitissima usque hodie, quae vocatur Alcluith."^ This descrip- 
tion of it by himself establishes the fact that Alcluith was a fortified 
stronghold, and the idea he obviously meant to convey in mentioning the 
City Giudi on the eastern hilet was, that it also was a stronghold or 
fortified place, like Alcluith on the west, and like the latter had a 
certain relation to the Roman wall. 

The expression used by Bede with reference to Giudi as being 
situated in medio of the eastern inlet is susceptible of various renderings, 
and here, I apprehend, has arisen one of the difficulties in determining 
with certainty its actual site. Some of the authorities on the subject 
seem to hold that it could only T)e on an island in the very middle of 
the Firth of Forth. Had that been the case, would not Bede have used 
a different expression ? In medio may either mean in the middle of the 
inlet of the sea, as between the two opposite shores, or it may mean in 
the middle lengthways, as between its two extreme ends. The one 
expression is just as correct as the other, or it may mean that it was 
situated on the extreme end of a long peninsula that projected itself far 
in towards the middle of the sea, and appeared to be so situated, whether 
as seen from the high land on the shore, on either side of the Firth, or 
as seen from the sea itself. The idea that the city was on an island 
situated in the middle of the Firtli receives no support whatever from 
the reference made to the City ludeu by Nennius. That writer, in 

^ Est autem sinus maris perraaximus, qui antiquitus gentem Brittoiiuni a Pictis 
seccrnebat, qui ab occidente in terras longo spatio erumpit, ubi est civitas Brittonuin 
munitissima usque hodie, <|Ufe vocatur AlcUiitli. — Bcdp^ B. i. c. 1. 


referring to the City ludeu, is narrating the events that took place 
between the cruel Penda, king of the Mercians, and Oswy, king of the 
Northumbrians, about the year 655, when Oswy slew Penda in the 
field of Gai, along with the kings of the Britons who went out with 
him on this expedition as far as the city of ludeu. Previous to this, 
Oswy is said to have given up to Penda all the wealth that was with 
him in the city, who distributed it among the kings of the Britons. 
Bede's narrative of the same event corresponds very much with Nennius. 
He says that Penda himself was slain, and his army that invaded the 
kingdom of Northumbria was completely vanquished in the battle of 
Vinwed, and the thirty princes who were with him were slain, the 
war being concluded in the country of Loidis. Now the idea that 
ludeu (Giudi) was situated on an island such as Inchkeith, is altogether 
inadmissible, if Bede's or Nennius' description of those events is to be 
taken as correct, the idea of going as far as Inchkeith would not be 
applicable. If we further consider the modes of warfare, either for 
defence or offence, that were used in these early times a fortified strength 
on Inchkeith for either of these purposes appears to be altogether 
useless. If this city was situated on an island, Inchgnrvie is a much 
more likely place. Before and during the Koman occupation, and long 
after the Romans had left this coimtry, this small island must have 
formed a very important military position, from its commanding the 
narrow strait of the Firth of Forth between the two projecting head- 
lands at Queensferry. If the City Giudi was situated on an island, this 
one was far more likely to be the site than any of the others, because 
of its commanding the strait, on either side of which dwelt hostile peoples. 
Five miles above Queensferry, on the Firth of Forth, stands the 
grim-looking Castle of Blackness. Nothing is known of its very early 
history. Roy and other writers on Scottish military antiquities specially 
refer to it as a place that must, during the Roman period, have played 
a most important part in the early history of Scotland, as well as 
during the Saxon period of our history. Although now a deserted and 
desolate-looking place, for centuries it was one of the most important 
sea-ports of Scotland. There are ample details of the revenues derived 
from it as a port of entry, in the Chaml)erlain*s Rolls for Scotland. 


as well as in the Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, where 
it figures as a royal castle and naval station. 

Until a comparatively recent period there were no harbours for 
vessels between South Queensferry and the mouth of the Avon, a 
distance of 1 1 miles, except this at Blackness. During the Roman period, 
before and after the building of the Roman wall, the natural harbour at 
Blackness must have been of essential importance throughout the Roman 
occupation, as it lay within 2 or 3 miles from the eastern termination of 
that wall. The military way that stretched from Alcluith along the 
south side of the Roman wall all the way to Cramond must have come 
within a mile of Blackness Castle, where the militaiy and other stores 
only could be landed for the garrisons manning the walL Bede says 
that the wall commenced at a place called Peanfahel, about 2 miles west 
from the Monastery of Abercumig (Abercom), but there is a mistake as 
to the distance. It is now established almost beyond question by the 
recent finding of tlie memorial tablet, now in the National Museimi, 
in 1868, at Bridgeness, half a mile or so west of Carriden Parish Kirk, 
that that was the eastern commencement of the walL The distance 
between Abercom Church and the point where the stone was found, 
measured on the Ordnance Survey Map, is nearly 5 miles in a straight line. 

Blackness, like Alcluith, formed a strong outj^st, or in military 
phraseology, a " point d'appui," to the eastern termination, besides 
covering the only harbour that had immediate connection with the wall 
on the Firth of Forth, much in the same way that Dumbarton Castle 
did on the western end on the Clyde. That this was so, is quite 
apparent from Bede's narrative, for the description of the physical con- 
figuration of the district given by liim i8 only preliminary to what he is 
about to relate resi>ecting the means that were adopted — the building of 
the wall as a defence, in order to prevent the incursions of the hostile 
savage peoples, the Scots and Picts. This being so, is it not something 
very decisive against the idea that this city was situated ou an island, 
some 1 5 miles away from the wall, and 4 miles from the land on either side 
of the inlet. Blackness Castle^ is situated on the extreme north end of 

' Besides the Castle there are extensive mouDd mins situated on an elevated |)osi- 
tion inland, about which there is no tradition, but the mound is called the Costlebill. 


a low ridge of rocks jutting out into the sea to the extent of one-fifth of 
a mile, and at high water is all but surrounded by it. The area on 
which the castle stands is only connected with the mainland by a 
narrow ledge of rock, the width of the causeway. As seen during 
high water, either from the heights on the land side or from the sea, 
it is unquestionably in the midst of the inlet. Bede says it was situated 
in medio of the inlet. In his concise and brief mode of expression, it 
is difficidt to conceive how he could have more graphically or correctly 
described its situation without going more into detail. Any intelligent 
person describing Blackness Castle, as seen from the land or sea, could 
not do so more correctly than Bede has done in using the words in 
medio. Bede, so far as known, never saw it; he only described it 
probably from information furnished by the Monks of Abercumig. 

When the place was first caDed Blackness it is impossible now to say, 
but the name is unmistakably Saxon, so that there need be no hesita- 
tion in assuming that in early times it was known by some other desig- 
nation. The earliest notice of it is contained in a charter of William 
the First's time, where it is spelt Blackenis. 

In the Chamberlain's Rolls the spelling varies — Blackynes, <fec. There 
is a small rivulet that falls into the sea close by the east side of the 
Castle, called the Back or Blackburn. The Ordnance Survey Maps 
give both names. Blackness is situated on the extreme north-east comer 
of the parish of Carriden ; while Bridgeness, the place where the 
memorial stone tablet was found in 1868, is at the extreme west end of 
the parish. In Bede's time there were certainly no parochial divisions 
of the district; he simply says that the wall began at a place called, in 
the Pictish language, Peanfahel, about 2 miles west from the Monastery 
of Abercumig. Neither he nor Nennius makes any reference to a fort 
or city at the end of the wall. Had there existed at the commencement 
of the wall a very ancient city — such as Caer Eden, as some allege — the 
probability is that Bede would not have used in his description the name of 
such an insignificant place as Peanfahel — which simply means the head 
or end of the wall. The earliest and most reliable mention of Carriden is 
contained in one of the Holyrood charters in the time of David I. by 
Robert, Bishop of St Andrews, say 1140, in which the name is spelt 


Karedtjn and Karreden, Some writers quote, from an addition to 
Gildas' history, to prove that Camden was known so early as Gildas' 
time as a most ancient city, under the name of Kair Eden. This, 
however, is a great mistake, as the statement in question could not 
have been written for about five centuries after Gildas' death in 570. 
The phraseology used by the scribe who wrote the sentence betrays 
the exact time, before which it could not have been written. This 
extract says ** that the wall extended from the Scottish sea {^nare 
Scotice) unto the Irish sea ; that is from Kair Eden, a most ancient city 
about 2 miles from the Monastery of Abercumig, now called Abercom." 
It is a well established fact that the Firth of Forth was not known in 
history as the Mare Scoticum or Scottes Water until about the com- 
mencement of the eleventh century. The extract is taken from what is 
called the Capitula of Gildas, and, according to Stevenson, is only found 
in a MS. of Gildas' History of the thirteenth century; and he assigns 564 
as the date of the history, so that we are justified in assuming that the 
date of the Holyrood charter is the earliest record that we have of 
Carriden as the name of the district. What the origin or derivation of 
that name may be is not a mere matter of conjecture. I am disposed to 
assert that the Caredyn and Carredon of the Holyrood charter of the 
twelfth century is simply the rendering into English of Xennius* Itideu 
of the ninth century, as the latter is the equivalent of Bede's Giudi of the 
eighth century ; for the following reasons : — Xennius* form of the word, 
with the consonant J as the initial letter, must be Latin, as neither the 
Welsh, Irish, nor Gaelic languages have the consonant J in their alphabets. 
I take it to be the Irish form of Bede's Giudi. Then the initial letters 
of many Welsh words are subject to great mutations. The initial G is 
sometimes dropped altogether, as in the case of the name of the river 
Gippen near Ipswich, from which the name of that town is derived — 
the name of the river being spelt Ippen as well as Gippen. Considering 
the diversity of spelling of many words, especially the names of places and 
of men in those early historic documents, and further, that the scribes who 
wrote and transcribed them did not all belong to one people, — always using 
the same language, one using the Welsh, another the Irish, while a third 
used the Gnelic, and ultimately the English in the twelfth century, jumlv 


ling two of the forms together and coining a new word altogether, as their 
equivalent for the old form, — ^there need be no wonder at all about the 
diversity that exists. We have thus the ludeu of Nennius changed into 
Edyn or Eden in the twelfth century, and the prefix Carr or Cair used 
instead of the Latin urbs of Bede and Nennius. In the passage already 
quoted from Nennius it says, that Oswy slew Penda in the field of Gai 
Campi. The identification of Gai Campi has never been made out by any 
of the commentators of that writer. There is, according to Stevenson, in 
three of the MSS. of Nennius* History of the twelfth century, a diflferent 
wortl used for Gai Campi, which, if .adopted as the correct one, at once 
clears up the mystery as to the whereabouts of this undiscovered Campus^ 
and confirms in a remarkable manner my theory respecting the actual 
site of Bede's Giudi. The word used in these MSS. is Giti Campi — all 
but the identical word Giudi — the harder consonant t being used instead 
of d. If this reading is adopted the mystery is very much diminished, 
because all the other evidence as to the locality in which Bede's battle 
of Vinwed and Nennius' destruction of Penda and his army by Oswy, 
})oints to the district of country within a few miles of Blackness. This 
reading Giti Campi at once localises the battlefield, and implies that the 
field derived its distinctive appellation from the neighbouring Cair or 
stronghold Giti within the district, and not from a Cair on the island 
of Inchkeith, some 15 miles away, totally disconnected with that 

Nennius, in the early part of his History, says that the island of Britain 
contains twenty-eight cities, one of them is named Cair Maurif/uid. In 
one of the additions to Nennius' history, reference is made to a district 
of country called Manau Guotodin, whicli Dr Skene, who has thrown much 
new light on the early history of Scotland during the sixth and seventh 
centuries, identifies, in a very circumstantial manner, with the district of 
country lying along the Firth of Forth from the Esk to the Avon in 
Linlithgowshire. This city of Nennius, Cair Maunguid, is obviously 
only another form of Bede's Giudi, with the name of the district in 
which it is situated used as the prefix to the name of the city itself. 
The phonetic argument, I admit, is not by any means the most satisfactory 
mode of determining such questions as the identity of names of places. 


but in this particular case it requires only the transposition of two letters 
in the prefix — the vowel u with n, to make it harmonise with Bede. 

In the Gododin, a poem of the seventh centiuy, by Aneurin, a Welsli 
bard, descriptive of a conflict between the Saxons and the Britons in the 
district then known as Manau Chiotodin^ Caer Eiddyn is mentioned 
several times. Dr Skene, in his notes to the Gododin poem, published 
in his Four Ancient Books of Wales, has a note explanatory of the 
localities mentioned in the poem. He says : " At Caredin the Roman 
wall terminated, and here there was a headland and a promontory jutting 
out into the Fii'th, on which was a. royal castle called Blackness, where, 
probably, was the * Ynys Eiddin yn y Grogled ' mentioned in the Benedd 
y Saint.** The common assumption is that the district took its name 
from a castle near Bridgeness, where the Roman wall terminated. Dr 
Skene's idea is by far the more probable, and it would follow that the 
district derived its name from the " Ynys Eidden " and the castle on it, 
rather than from a castle at the end of the wall. This view of the 
matter would go a long way in support of the theory that Blackness was 
the site of Bede*s Giudi and Nennius' ludeu — the two names being 
merely different forms of the same word. 


OF GALLOWAY. Exhibited by Me JOHN M*MEEKAN, Knockneen, 

Through the kindness of Mr M*Meekan, I exhibit the best specimens 
in his collection of stone implements. Last summer he presented to the 
Museum an incised stone cross and some other articles. 

1. A claystone Celt, polished, with many chip marks on the hollow 
face and along the straight side, butt squared 1 inch wide, edge limate, 
and most worn next straight side. The edge shape is accidental. 
Dimensions, 4^ X 2 J X J inches. Found in a drain on the farm of 
Ardwell, Kirkcolm. 

2. Black Celt or Polisher (?), finely polished except on rounded sides 


near the butt, and at the butt, which is squared 1 inch wide. Edge 
sharp, slanted, bevelled J on the flat face and J inch on the rounder 
face. Dimensions, 3f X 1 1 X |. Got from a relative, locality unknown. 
It seems to me to be fofeign. 

3. Wedge-shaped claystone Celt, the polished surface scaled off the 
broader end, rounded edge, butt, and sides. Dimensions, 6J X 2g X If. 
This celt was found by Mr M*Meekan along with the flint arrow-head. 
No. 7, standing in the clay in the bottom of an old peat moss on 
Knockneen Farm. This makes the find more interesting. 

4. Wedge-shaped Celt of coarse grey Silurian sandstone, edge lunate, 
sides and faces much rounded, butt square, 1 f X 1 inch. Dimensions, 
7|x3jx2f inches. Found on the farm of Float, Stoneykirk. 

5. Wedge-shaped Hammer of grey diorite (?), Ilx4jx3| inches, 
with the boring of the half hole only begun on each face, the hollows 
being If inch in diameter and J inch in depth, their centre 4^ inches 
from the rounded butt. From Balgour, Kirkcolm. 

6. Celt of brownish yellow flint, wedge-shaped, finely polished, edge 
lunate, and sharp, sides slightly flattened, one of them nearly straight, 
faces rounded. This curious celt was foimd on Wellhouse Farm, 
Kirkcolm. Mr M*Meekan lost it for several years, and found it again 
lately in the pocket of an idle boy, who had broken it across. 

7. Arrow-head of flint, found with the Celt No. 3. It is a ridged 
flake worked on the edges, tip broken. Dimensions, 2f X J X | inches. 

8. Hammer Stone of dark grey quartzite, diameter 2|, thickness 2 J 
inches, with the edge roughened all round by use. Both faces are 
slightly hollow, the diameter of the hollows being 2 and 1} inches. 
Found by Mr M*Meekan on Kirkbryde Farm, Kirkcolm. 

9. Is a fossil naturally perforated, bead-like, 1 J X }^ X ^^. Kirkcolm. 
Mr M*Meekan has heard that about thirty years ago a man Murphy 

found, on the farm of Camside, Kirkcolm, when it was first drained, 
a bronze sword, which has doubtless gone to the melting-pot long ago, 



Esq. of Abercairnet. By A. H. MILLAR, F.S.A. Scot. 

In December 1882 I had the privilege of submitting to the Society 
an unpublished plan of the Battle of Glenshiel, which the late Duke of 
Marlborough had courteously forwarded to me from the library at 
Blenheim Palace. The plan was engraved, and will be found in the 
Proceedings, vol. v. new series, p. 57. From this document I was able 
to show that the date usually given by historians for this battle was 
incorrect, and that the engagement was much more serious than some 
writers have believed. The plan was drawn by Lieutenant John 
Bastide, who was engaged on the Hanoverian side, and had doubtless 
been prepared for the information of the first Duke of Marlborough. 

Since that paper was read I have discovered a letter, written apparently 
by one who sympathised with the rebels, which gives many interesting 
details of the action. Through the kindness of C. S. Home-Drummond- 
Moray, Esq. of Abercaimey, the possessor of this letter, I am enabled 
to lay its contents before the Society. From these two documents, 
written by opponents on the field, an intelligible account of this 
conflict may at length be constructed. The date is now placed beyond 
dispute, since both the papers agree upon it; and the part taken 
by the leaders on either side can be accurately ascertained. It is 
satisfactory for me to find that my conjectures as to the importance of 
Rob Roy's share in the battle (History of Rob Roy, chap, xxvii.) have 
been fully confirmed, though advanced in opposition to several of the 
biographers of that chief. 

Ane Account of the Inoaoembnt at Glensheel, June 10th 1719. 

June \Uh 1719. 
Sir, — ^Wben the regular forces were approaching, Tulliebardine was fully 
advertised both of their numbers and the day they were to march and attack, 
and accordingly he called a Councill of War, and by his and their unanimous 


advice and consent, Brigadeer Campbell made all the depositions for defending 
the pass and receiving the regular forces, which was in this manner. 

Glensheel being straight and narrow, both sides having highland rugged 
hills and a water running betwixt the hills, which is the only level place there. 
Lord George, Macdougall of Lorn, M^Kenzie of Avoch, 100 of Seaforth's men, 
and 50 men of detachments, were placed upon a steep rmn^ ground upon 
the south side of the Glen in ane advanced Post. 

The Spaniards upon the Right and Borlum M'Intosh with them. 

Seaforth upon the left at some distance with 200 of his best men, upon a steep 
rock, the Earle of Marishall and 200 of the M^Kenzies a little l^elow them, Sir 
John M'Kenzie of Coul with them and severall other Gentlemen of that tiame. 

Tulliebardine, Locheil with 80 Camerons, Brigadeer Campbell of Glendarule, 
and severall others such as Rob Roy were in the center, Wing 400 in number, 
where it was supposed and believed the regular troops would chiefly attack, 
being the most open and the best and common passage and road. 

The baggage was guarded by 30 Spaniards. There is no doubt but the 
King's forces were advertised of all that passed in the Highlander's camp, for 
all that did come were welcome, heard, and were informed of all, there having 
a division and emulation among them who should command them in chief, in 
so far as that the King's troops made the best advantage of it, and instead of 
attacking the center, which was the best and common way, they attack't 
Lord George and those with him, and beat them, they giving way ; Lord 
George, M*lJougall, and Avoch drawing their swords and crying to them to 
stand, but all would not doe. 

That poet being gained, the other where Seaforth and Marishall were, wa« 
attacked by the English and Dutch, from which they were soon beaten, and 
Seaforth calling for relief to support him, Rob Roy was sent from the center 
and others after him, to support them both, yet before they arrived Seaforth 
and all gave way, and the relief not being able to maintain it, returned. 

TurJebardine seeing all irreparably lost, called the Spaniards and made one 
orderly retreat without the lo&s of any of the Spaniards or others, keeping 
constant fire with the K.g*s troops. Expecting they would all join next day 
and make a second tryall, but there were few or none to be had next day 
except the officers and the few men Locheil had, with some others, and the 

Seaforth was shot in the arm, who behaved gallantly, but his friends were 
backwi^tl. In so far that it was with difficulty he had men to support him 
retiring to the top of the hill, aiid the next day very few. So that Tulliebardine 
was of neccessity forced to grant leave and liberty to the Spaniards to surrender 
and make terms for their safety, there being no Meall or flowr, which they 
could not want, and that they could not march in these rough bounds, and 


wanted tents and all other Convenience for Subsisting them, which accordingly 
they did next day. 

In all the attacks there are not upon the Highlander's side ten men kill'd 
and wounded. 

When all was over Tulliebardine ordered Rob Roy to set fire to their 
Magazines and provisions, which was executed accordingly and then they all 


Hon. F.S.A., Strassburg. 

[In a letter from Strassburg, transmitting his paper to the Secretary, 
Professor Michaelis, says: — "I have the honour to send you a copy of a 
little paper which deals exclusively with remains of classical art pre- 
served in Scotland, and especially with the contents of the Antiquarian 
Museum at Edinburgh, which I had an opportunity of examining during 
the great days of the splendid Tercentenary Festival of your University. 
I shall bo much obliged to you if you will have the kindness to lay the 
paper before the Society of Antiquaries, among the members of which 
there will be no doubt many persons able and willing to contribute to 
the promotion of the wish expressed in the preliminary remark of my 

When I published my book on the Amnent Marbles in Great 
Britain (Caml)ridge University Press, 1882), I was fully convinced 
that the catalogue there given would be susceptible of many corrections 
and supplements. But the hope I expressed in the preface, that I 
should be informed of marbles existing in private collections (whicli 
might have escaped my notice) by their owners or other competent 
persons, has completely failed ; nor have I become aware of publications 
concerning this matter. Nevertheless, I cannot help thinking that there 
must be in Great Britain a good deal of hidden treasure of the kind, 
which would perhaps easier come to light if there were a place 
expressly destined to receive such communications. Now, there can be 
no doubt that no place would bo more ai)propriate to the purpose than 


the Journal of Hellenic Stutlles, I have therefore ventured to propose 
to the Editors to open in that Journal a comer for storing up such 
supplements and corrections. As a first instalment, I here offer some 
notes which may begin the series, and which can be continued. May 
other lovers and students of classic art, especially in Great Britain, 
foUow my example. 

Broom Hall (Fife). — This seat of the Earl of Elgin, a few miles 
distant from the venerable old town of Dunfermline, contains a small 
collection of Greek marbles which, with the kind permission of the 
owner, I had an opportunity of examining some months ago. Although 
my hope of discovering among the reliefs some hitherto unknown 
fragment of the Parthenon has failed, still some of the marbles arc 
deserving of particular attention. They are arranged along the walls of 
the spacious hall, adorned with a large portrait of the Athenian Lortl 
Elgin, of whose labours in Greece these remains, too, are the result. 
As they were not comprised in the collection offered for sale to the 
nation in 1816, they may have been brought to Scotland at a later 
time. As a matter of fact. Lord Elgin, when examined, in February 
1816, by the Committee of Parliament appointed for the acquisition of 
his marbles, expressed his belief that even after a large additional con- 
signment of about eighty cases, which had reached England towanls 
the end of 1812, there had arrived more cases during his absence 
from the country. With this supposition seems to agree what I 
have ol>served; nor has any one of the inscriptions at Broom Hall 
(except one which had been copied beforehand in its original place) been 
mentioned either in Visconti's Catalogue of the Elgin Marbles or any- 
where else, which would certainly have been the case if thoy had been 
at London at the time of the sale of the main collection. Thus, this, as 
it were, posthumous part of the Elgin Marbles has been separated from 
the rest, and being a little out of the way, has remained nearly unknown 
up to the present day. 

Edinburgh. — A personal examination of the antique sculptures in 
the Antiquarian Museum (April, 1884), enables me to give a fuller 
and more trustworthy description of them than that given in my Ane. 
yfarhlefiy pp. 298-300. The gi-eater part of Lord Murray's antiquities 


is now incorporated into the Museum. T^e plain numbers are those 
of the " Catalogue," division E ; those in brackets are my own 

1. Statue of youth/tU AsKiepios, from Cyrene, very like the statue, 
also from Cyrene, recently published by Wroth in the JouduU of 
HeUenic Studies^ iv. p. 46, with the only exception that a large 
corner of the himation hangs down from the hips, the edge of it going 
slantwise from the right hip to the left knee. The youthful head of 
the god looks up a little towards his left. The long and wavy hair 
falls down to the neck ; part of it covers a portion of the forehead. On 
the head lies a twisted roll, and on it rests a very low kaiathos (edge 
broken). Right arm broken at the shoulder and at the wrist, but 
antique ; lingers of left hand which hangs down, and head of serpent 
wanting. The statue is otherwise in good preservation. Tlie best part 
of it is the ideal-looking head ; the treatment of the nude part shows 
an empty smoothness, that of the drapery wants clearness and simplicity 
in the folds across the stomach, in other parts it is rather poor. The 
height (4 feet 2 inches = 1*27 m.) is nearly the same as in the 
Cyrenaean statue of the British Museum (4 feet 5| inches = 1*37 m.). 
It is evident that both these statues refer to a representation of the god 
of health favourite ih Cyrene. 

2. StcUtiettp of youth, resting on his left leg, the right leg being l)ent 
backward. The up^ier part of the body is nude, the inferior part 
enveloped in a mantle which forms a kind of roll across the stomach, 
and a comer of which is lying on the left shoulder. Left hand on hip ; 
the part from the middle of the upper arm to the wrist is wanting, 
and so is the whole right arm, which was lowered, as is indicated by a 
puntello at the right thigh. Head wanting. Near the left leg a trunk, 
on which the dra[)ery falls down. Insignificant work. H. 0*50. 
Fix)m Cyrene. 

3. Fragment of votive relief. — For <lescription, see Anc, Marbles, 
The relief is tolerably high and round. The workmanship is certaiidy 
finished, but does not show great delicacy ; the composition is good 
throughout. It may belong to the end of the fourth, or the beginning 
of the third century. Unfortunately the reh'ef lieing hidden behind a 


large glass chest, a more minute examination is impossible. H. 0*77. 
L. about 0*68. From Gyrene. 

12. Female head, pleasing and rather youthful. The wavy hair is 
simply brushed back, but not d la Chinoise; a plain mantle veils the 
upper and back part of the head. The style reminds us of Attic 
sepulchral monuments of the fourth century. Nose a little battered. 
Tips of ears f>erforated for earrings. Parian marble of yellowish colour. 
H. 0-23. L. of face 015. From Gyrene. 

13. Head of bearded Diont/sos. — Along the forehead three rows of 
button-like curls ; beard long, of conventional style ; hair long, falling 
down to the neck. Probably part of a term. Insignificant work. 
H. 0*23. L. of face about 0*15. From Gyrene. 

1 4. Veiled female heady similar to Xo. 1 2, but less well executed and 
more defaced, the whole of the nose and part of the left cheek wanting. 
Greyish Parian marble. H. 0*28. L. of face 0*19. From Gyrene. 

15. "Female head, braided hair, crowned with ivy, marble, imperfect 
— Gyrene." Thus the Gatalogue; I have not found it. 

16. Bust of Julius CcesaVf in excellent preservation, only the back 
part of the left ear being restored; the right cheek, the chin, the tip of 
the nose, and the left eyebrow battered, the neck broken and patched; 
modem is also the pedestal. The thiri and slightly crisped hair, very 
superficially executed, covers the whole cranium and goes down to the 
neck. The modelling of the forehead is a little overdone, the wrinkles 
above the nose somewhat contracted ; the eyes lie very deep, and are 
stem-looking; nose very thick, and so are the lips; the whole part 
around the mouth, with its wrinkles of rather indistinct fomi, produces 
an effect of bad humour. The execution of the eyes, the lids, the inner 
comers, looks very modem, and generally the feebleness and indistinct- 
ness of all the details is scarcely consistent with antique art. The 
marble seems to be Greek, perhaps Parian, at any rate of very fine grain. 
Life size. Where General Ramsay bought the bust is not known. 

16.* (In the Museum, £ 16.) Terra-cotta relief of Dionysos, painted 
like rosso aniico. At the upper edge of the fragments part of a cornice ; 
below a fig branch. Of the relief itself remains only the head of youth- 
ful Dionysos, crowned with ivy, looking down with a noble expression of 


though tfuhiess. All tho rest is wanting. H. 0*27. L. 0*30. L, of face 
05. Fonnerly in Lord Murray's collection, see Anc, Marbles, p. 299, 
No. 3. 

1 7. Portrait statue, resting on the loft leg, and enveloped in a cloak, 
which covers the whole body down from the breast to the feet, and is 
doubled before the stomach, tho lower edge slanting from the right 
thigh towards the left knee. A comer hanging down from the left 
shoulder is grasped by the left hand. The whole arrangement has 
some similarity to that of the so-called Zeno of the Capitoline Museum. 
Right arm lowered ; in the right hand a roll, but half of the forearm 
and the hand are replaced, and i>erhaps a modem restoration. The neck 
is inserted ; however, the beardless portrait head with fat cheeks seems 
to be antique, and to belong to the body. Common Roman sculpture. 
H. al)out 0*50 (From the bequest of Sir James Erskine to the Royal 
Institution ? See Anc. Marbles, p. 299, R. Inst. No. 2.) 

20. Small bearded liead, with gloomy expression, apparently a portrait. 
H. about 0-14. 

[24.] Statuette of a little girl, draped in a double chiton, which is 
girded very high ; narrow strings fasten the chiton at the shoulders 
(comp. the " Fates " of the Parthenon). The left hand holds a roll 
before tho bosom, tho lowered left grasps the edge of the overhanging 
part of the chiton. Tho big head is portrait-like ; tho short hair, gently 
curled, goes do^vn to the nock. Tho whole figure reminds us very much 
of certain chubby girls on Greek sepulchral reliefs, and suggests the 
idea that the statue may have served for a similar purpose. Coarse 
workmanship. H. alx>ut05*0. "From Athens. The property of John 
Tweedie, Estj., R.A." According to this notice, the statue cannot bo 
identical to that mentioned in my Auc. Marbles, p. 299, R. Inst. No. 1, 
which belongs to Sir James Erskine's bequest. 

[25.] Attic (votive?) bos relief, — A youthful horseman, clad in chiton (?), 
chlamys and petasos, is dashing left on a horse much like those of 
tho friezo of tho Parthenon. Both tho hind legs of the horse rest on 
tho ground, the forelegs are lifted. The youth's left knee is much bent 
and the lowered foot thrown backwards, tho right foot advanced. 
Before this figure there is the remainder of another horse in rearing 


position, 80 as to touch the ground with none of its feet ; it is much 
smaller, and partly hidden by the former one ; near it the leg and part 
of chlamys of a standing figure (the horseman ? a servant ?) who seems 
to try to tame the rearing animal. The main figure, which is nearly 
intact, is entirely of Attic character, all the outlines being sharply raised 
above the ground ; the other figure and the second horse are treated in 
lower relief, as it were in the background. The left extremity of the 
relief is wanting. H. about 0*30. L. 0*40 (the relief is placed too high 
to take exact measures). Probably this is the relief Waagen saw in 
Lord Murray's collection, and erroneously described under two different 
items {Ane, Marbles, p. 299, Nos. 1 and 2). 

[26.] Bronze relief of the Murray collection. No. 4 {Anc. Marbles, p. 
299), undoubtedly antique. It is a good work, in rather high relief, 
and was intended to serve as an ajrplique, H. 0*22. (The Nos. 5-7 of 
the Murray collection are not in the Museum.) 

F. V. 23. Roman cippus. — ^Square bordered front, with a youthful 
bust clad in tunica and pallium, within a sunk field of irregular shape. 
IJeneath the inscription : — 



H. 0-72. L. 0-54. 

I add two inscriptions evidently originating from some columbaria : 

[27.] D ' M 


Elegantly incised letters. Ed. Proceedings Soc. Antiq, Scotl,, 1870-72, 
vol. be. p. 7. A gift from Sir Walter Simpson, Bart., Dec. 1870. 



PIA • vIx • AN * XX • H • 8 * B' 


Letters of artificial character, very deeply cut. Ed, Proceedings^ &c., 
1879-80, vol. ii., new series, p. 91. From the bequest of David Laing) 
LL.D., F.S.A. Scot., 12th Jan. 1880. 

The most recent addition to the Museum consists of a large collection 
of Atilc vases^ the gift of Lady Ruthven of Winton Castle (Feb. 1884). 
It is particularly rich in lecythi, mostly of small dimensions, and 
contains specimens of all styles, from the older ones with brownish, and 
with black figures down to those with white or with red figures, and 
even of the style of Magna Graecia. Of mythological subjects I have 
noticed only two ; both on nasiiei-ni with black figures on red ground : — 
Herakles seizing the Centaur Nessos, from whom Dcianeira is running 
away with upraised arms, the whole scene flanked by two youths with 
staves ; and a warrior and an Amazon fighting over a dead warrior lying 
on the ground, again flanked by two warriors. (Among the older 
elements of the Edinburgh collection, there are some very well pre- 
served specimens of vases with geometrical patterns, without any 
figures.) The two remarkable sejndchral reliefs in Lady Ruthven's 
possession (see Aiic, Marbles^ p. xxvii), are still at Winton Castle ; No. 1, 
of which I saw a photograph in Prof. Baldwin Brown's possession, is 
exceedingly fine. 

[8ince I>ady Ruthven's death the sepulchral bas-reliefs here alluded 
to have been received by the Board of Trustees, along with other 
articles, forming part of a bequest by Lady Ruthven to the National 
Gallery of Scotland.] 



SCOTTOS." By Caffain F. W. L. THOMAS, R.N., F.S.A. Scot. 

In the Acts of the ParliameiUs of Scotland are the interesting " Leges 
inter Brettos et Scottos,"^ of which a section gives the amount of "cro " 
or fine for killing a man in either of the ranks into which society in 
Scotland was then divided. The " Leges " are in Latin, French, and 
English, or rather Lowland Scotch of the fourteenth century. 

The cro of the King of Scotland is 1000 cows, or 3000 oz. gold, at 3 
oz. for a cow. 

The cro of the son of the King, or of an Earl* of Scotland, is 150 
cows, or 450 oz. 

The cro of the son of an Earl, or of a Thane (the equivalent of a 
Norman Baron), is 100 cows, or 300 oz. 

The cro of the son of a Thane is 66§ cows, or 200 oz. 

The cro of a grandson (nepos) of a Thane, or of an " Ogetheani "* 
(freeholder) is 44 cows + 21 § pence. 

All that are lower than these in kin are Carls (vilayns, rustici; later 

The cro of a Carl is 1 6 cows. 

The text is wrong in stating the ounces to be of gold, and again, that 
the cro of an ogthiern is 44 cow8+ 21§d. For the French version omits 
"gold;" and besides, if 1000 cows = 3000 oz. gold, then 1 cow = 3 oz. 
gold = 36 oz. silver = £2, Ss., which is absurd;* and the true reading is 
3000 oz., silver being understood. The " gold " has been added by 
ftorae patriotic scribe ; but 1 cow = 3 oz. silver. 

The cro of an Earl was 1 50, of a Thane was 1 00, of a Thane's son 

' Loc. eii.f vol. i. pp. 665-67. 

* The hves of men were inucli cheaper, or cattle wore much dearer, in Ireland; for 
the Enaehiann, or cro of a provincial king, was but twenty-four cows. — Skene, Celtic 
Sfotlandt vol. iii. p. 153. 

* Cf. Sir J. Skene, De Verbonim ; s.v. W. F. Skene, CeJtic Scotland, vol. iii. p 242. 

* The legal value of ''the cow*' during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, and 
prohftbly the eleventh, may be taken at four English shillings for Scotland, Ireland, 
and the northern counties of England. — KoliertRon, Hisf. ExmySy p. 135. 



was 66 1 cows. It is seen tliat the cro of each rank is one4kird less than 
the cro of the next preceding rank, or, which is the same thing, the cro 
of any rank is one-half more than the cro of the rank next below it 
On this theory the cro of an Ogthiem is 44| cows. In the text above, 
the cro of an Ogthiem is stated to be 44 cows and 21§d. Hence, ^ cow 
should be of the value of 21 pennies and two-thirds, and 21|d. should be 
equal to Jths of 3 oz, of silver. But 21§d. will not make even numbers, 
while by assuming that the con-ect figures are 21^d., the ounce of silver 
is found to be 16 pence. For, if J cow = 21 Jd., then 1 cow = 48d. = 48. 
= 3 oz. silver; and 1 oz. silver =16d.* This view is confirmed on the 
next page (664), where the "kelchin" of a thane is '*xliiii ky and xxi 
pennis and twapert of a fialf peny," (in French, " mayl "). 

The foundation of the table seems to have been the cro of a thane 
= 100 cows = 300 oz. silver = 400a =£20 = 30 marks. 

Judging from their cros, a thane was worth but two-thirds of an earl, 
or one-tenth pai-t of a king; but he was worth one and a half of thane's 
sons, or two and a quarter ogthiems or freeholders, into which rank the 
grandson of a thane had descended. 

Below are the correct cros in a tabular form. 

Rank or Degree. 




£ 8. 



Cro of King, .... 


3000 o£. 




King's son, or an Earl, 







EarVs son, or a Thane, . 






f » 

Thane's son, . 




13 6 




Thane's grandson, or an 
Ogthiem, . 




8 17 




Carl, Villain, or Rusticus, 




3 4 


There is good reason why the cro of a carl, viz., 16 cows, ceases to 
follow the usual projwrtion, for if a carl were one grade below an 
Ogthiem, his cro would have contained the unmanageable fraction of 
29|4 cows; if two grades, 19^\ cows, and so on; but why the cro of a 
carl should have been fixed at 16 cows = 48 oz. silver, is not apparent 
* **16J.*'— Cy. Cochran- Patrick, JUcorcLs of the Coinage of Scotland, p. Ixxvif. 


Monday, 9th February 1885. 

Profkssor duns, D.D., in the Chair. 

A Bid lot having been taken, the following Gentlemen wei-c duly 
fleeted Fellows : — 

G. Bennet Clark, W.S., 15 Douglas Crescent 

Col. Charles Elliot, C.B., Hazelbank, Murrayfield. 

Jambs Tulloch Goudib, Janefield, Pollokshields. 

James J. Maclehosb, M.A., 61 St ViDcent Street, Glasgow. 

William Hunter Marshall of Callander, W.S., 25 Heriot Row. 

Rev. Alexander D. Murdoch, Incumbent of All Saints' Cburcli, 

Rev. John Wtlib Rodger, Presbyterian Church, Wolverhampton. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By R. B. JE. MACLEOD of CadboU, Esq. 

A Collection of Drawings, Engravings, &c., ArchsBologiwd, Topo- 
graphical, and Heraldic, illustrative of La Divina Comniedia di Dante 
Alighieri, collected and arranged by Miss Elizabeth Macleod of Cadlwll, 
in the years 1832-1848 inclusive. The heraldic and other illustra- 
tions, taken from the antique works in the private library of the late 
Grand Duke of Tuscany, in the Pitti Palace, Florence, from the 
Laurentian and Maglialxjcchian public, and other private libraries ; as 
also from the walls of ancient palaces in various parts of Italy. Arranged 
in 5 vols. 

(2) By John Rae, Al>erdeen, through Dr Arthur Mitchell, 


A series of Casts, coloured in facsimile, of Stone Implements, &c., in 
his collection, comprising — 


Cast of Stone Cup, 4 inches diameter, with perforated handle, and 
ornamented with a triple band of zig-zags below the rim, found at 
Methlick, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Cup, 4 inches diameter, with perforated handle, and 
ornamented with a band of herring-bone pattern under the rim, found in 
levelling a cairn at Knock whan, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Cup, 4 inches diameter, with perforated handle, and 
ornamented with two incised lines parallel to the brim, found in remov- 
ing a cairn at Cromar, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Cup, 3 J inches diameter, imperfect, rudely ornamented 
with incised lines, the handle partially perforated, found in a garden in 

Cast of a Stone Cup, ru<lely formed from a triangularly-shaped stone, 
ploughed up in a field at Alford, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of a Stone Cup, 4| inches diameter, imperfect, with handle, 
ploughed up at Lumphanan, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Cup, 4 J inches diameter, imperfect, the handle 
partially perforated, found at Pitcaple, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Cup, oblong, 4^ by 2 J inches, and f inch in depth, 
found at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Cup, 5 inches diameter, without handle, found at 
Cowie, Kincardineshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, 2 J inches diameter, with six projecting circular 
discs, found at Leslie, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, 2| inches diameter, with six circular projecting 
discs, foimd in the Red Moss, Belhelvie, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, 2 J inches in diameter, with six circular project- 
ing discs, found at Kinellar, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, 2 J inches in diameter, with six circular project- 
ing discs, found at Methlick, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, 2 J inches in diameter, with six circular project- 
ing discs, found at Fyvie, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, slightly ovoid, 3| by 2 J inches, with five circular 
projecting facets or discv^ foimd at Newhills, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Ball, 3 J inches diameter, with four small and four 


large ciruulKr projecting discs placed roiiud the circumference unsyni metri- 
cally, found at Methlick. (See fig. I.) 

Cast of Stoue Ball, 2| inches diameter, with four circular convex 
faceta or discs, placed unsymnietrically round the circumference, found 
at Uyce, Abenleenshire. (See fig. 2.) 

Cast of Stone ISall, 2J inches diameter, tht; whole circumferenco 
covere<l with small pnijectiug knob?, found ut CounU>s8 wells, Aberdeen- 

Cast of Stone Ball, 3j inch<^s diameter, covered with small projecting 
knohfi, found at Kliynie, Abeniwnshire. 

I, Aberdpeushin (S| and 2} 

Cast of Stone Ball, 3 Inches diameter, one side of which is orna- 
mented with six amall projecting circular knohs, the rest of the surface 
plain and apparently unfinished, found at Tnsch, Aberdeenshire. 

Coat of Stone Ball, 3 inches diameter, with six projecting circular 
discs, found in Morayshire. 

Cast of Stone Implement, apparently an oblong water-worn pebble of 
rjunrtzite, flattened on one end, and with a slight groove round the 
middle, found in Strathdon, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Implement, 2} inches in length, apparently on oblong 
water-worn pebble of quartzite, flattened at both ends, and having u 
slight groove worked round the middle. 

Cast of Stone Implement, 4 inches by 3 inches, being an oblong, rounded. 


water-worn pebble, with slight longitudinal grooves passing nmnd the 
circumference and crossing each other at the ends, and a transverse 
groove crossing those iu the middle, found at Kfurtle, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of Stone Implement, 3 inches by IJ inch, being a circular, 
flattened, water-wom pebble, with grooves passing round tlie circuu- 
feronce and crossing each other at right angles in the centre, found on 
Ileeside, Aberdeenshire. 

Cast of a perforated Axe-head of dark-coloured stone, 5J inches in 
length, 3 j inches across the cutting face, tapering to a conically pointed 
butt, and pierced in the middle of its length by a shaft hole, 1 inch in 
diameter, found at Rhynie, Aberdeenshire. 

(3) By the lato Mr Thomas Mackenzie, Applecross, through hir 

Joas Cat. W.S. 

Socketed Celt of bronze, 3 J inches in length, 2} inches across the 

cutting face, with side-loop and oval-sha|)e<l 

socket, 1 ^ inches by 1 ^ inch diameter, found 

in the imrieh of Strath, Skyc. This is a 

good typical example of the variety of 

socketed axe-heod which is of most frequent 

occurrence in Scotland. They are often 

found singly, hut not unfrequcntly they form 

portions of hoanls or di'jwsila, consisting 

of numbers of articles of various descriptions. 

A socketed axe-head of this special variety 

formed part of a hoard of bronze imjile- 

niente, found in digging a drain on the Cnstle 

llill of Ji'orfar, preseiited to the Museum by 

Fig. 1. Bronw socketeil Cell, "le l"** Mr ^- Jcviae, F.S.A. Scot., iu 

found at Strath, Skyo (3) 1855. The hoard consisted of a si(ear-head, 

iiicbes in length). gj ^^^j^^ 1^,^^^ ornamented by two bands 

of parallel lines round the socket, and four socketed axe-heads, of 

which three are shown in fig. 2, The longest of the three, which is 

more chisel-shaped than the others, measures i^ inches in length by 

I'l inch across the cutting face ; the socket is circular, the iijtper part 


or neck of the blitde is twelve-sided externally, aiid ornamented above 
the loop by a band of four parallel lines passing round the neck. The 
other two tipecimena exhibit the common variety of short-necked nxe 
with oblong socket, corresponding to the example found at Strath. 

Fig. 2. Tlirec wxikutt-ij Aira or Bronze, part of a hoard fouiiil at Forfar. 

A collection of about ninety Coins, Tokens, Medals, Ac, nhiofly in 


(4) By Dr W. Irvine, F.S.A. Scot., Htlochry. 
Stone formerly used its a curing-stone, and latterly for pounding salt, 
from Bollintniini, Strath Tummel. It is a circular, flattened water-wom 
pebble of a bluish colour, about 4 inches in diameter, by 2^ inches in 
greatest tbicknesa Dt Irvine, in a mite accompanying the donation, 
says ; — " This stone was fonnd on the farm of Ballintruini, Strath 
Tummel. The farmer's mother, an old woman of ninety years of age, 
told mo that she remembered it as long as she remembered anything, 
and that it had been considered as an heir-Ioora from the time she first 


recollected it. The stone had always been regarded as a family posses- 
sion, and the tradition relating to it is that it was possessed of healing 
virtues. Though the present tenants of the farm do not share that 
belief, the stone has long lain in the large wooden salt-box in the ingle- 
neuk, and has been used for the purpose of pounding the salt when it 
caked. The family, however, still continue to set a high value on the 
stone, and gave it to me as a very great favour." 

(5) By Mr A. Lumbdbn, Addiewell Chemical Works. 

Large wedge-shaped Stone Hammer of whinstone, perforated for the 
shaft, and measuring 9^ inches in length, 4 inches in greatest width, 
and 3 inches in thickness, imperfect at the pointed end, found in West 

(6) By Mrs Coventry of Shanwell. 

Cinerary Urn, 14 inches high, from a Bronze Age Cemetery at Shan- 
well, Milnathort, Kinross-shire. [See the subsequent communication 
by Dr Joseph Anderson.] 

(7) By Mr R. C. Sanderson, through Dr James Sanderson, 

F.S.A. Scot. 

Two Masks of bronze, dug up at Canajore, Mudegere taluk^ Mysore, 
India. [See the subsequent communication by Sir Walter Elliot.] 

(8) By Jambs Burgess, LL.D., Archseological Surveyor and 

Reporter to Government for Western India. 

Two Indian Weapons — a Khuttar and Xepaulese Knife. 

(9) By Edmund Goldsmid, F.S.A. Scot. 

Medal in Bronze : — Obv, Napoleon Emp. et Roi ; Rev, Descente en 
Angleterre ; Ex, Frappe k Londres en 1804. 


(10) By Gborob A. Panton, F.S.A. Scot, and George Lorimer, 
F.S.A. Scot. 

Leaves from The Bulk of the West Kirk — MS., with Photographic 

(11) By the Kirk-Se88ion of the West Kirk, through George 

Lorimer, F.S.A. Scot. 

Information for the Poor of the West Kirk • against Henry Nisbet, 
jun., of Dean, 1681 (Duplicate). [See the subsequent communication 
by Mr Lorimer.] 

(12) By Mr J. Milne, Photographer, St Ruth's, Arbroath. 

Photograph of Card with Medal worn by the men in the work-yard of 
the Bell Rock Lighthouse, to prevent their being seized by the Press- 
gang. The medal, which is alwut f inch in diameter, bears on obverse 
a Lighthouse with a Buoy and Beacon, and the inscription In Solutem 
Omnium, Northern Lighthouses ; on reverse an inscription only : — 
Medal referring to Admiralty Protbction, and a Description op 
THE Person by the Engineer. The card, in one comer of which the 
medal is fastened by loops, has on one side the written inscription : — 

James Drydeu to be employed in the craft at the Bell Rock. The signature of 
the Engineer's Clerk. Lachlan Kennedy. 

On the other side is the following inscription, also in writing : — 

Bell Rock Work-Yard, 

Arbroath, 2nd May 1809. 

James Dryden, seaman in the service of the Hon. The Commisiiiouers of the 
Northern Lighthouses — aged twenty-six years — six feet high — black com- 
plection-marked with the small pox. j^^^^^^ Stevenson, 

Engineer for Northern Lights. 

On the card there is also a docquet : — 

Edinburgh, 2bth November 1815. — This ticket and medal of protection pre- 
sented to Mr Kennedy by R. S. 



(13) By the President and Council of the Royal Scottish 


Annual Report of the Royal Scottish Academy. 

(14) By The Board of Manufactures. 

Scottish National Portraits, Catalogue of Loan Exhibition. Presenta- 
tion Edition. 4 to. 1884. 

The following Communications were read : — 


WELL, Baut., M.P., F.S.A. Scot. 

There is a cave on the shore of Glasserton, about three miles from the 
Cathedral of St Martin at Whithorn, and an equal distance from the 
chapel at the Isle, which is supposed to occupy the site of the original 
building raised by St Ninian, who brought masons from Tours, ^ a.d. 
397. To this cave local tradition has long assigncil the honour of hav- 
ing been the retreat chosen by St Ninian for purposes of [»rayer and 
meditation. Symson^ refers to it ; and in the Lives of the Saints 
(Toovey, London), pp. 131, 132, the tradition is mentioned. 

The general aspect of the cliffs and shore is westerly, but the cave 
opens to the south, in an angle formed by the projecting cliff with the 
shingly beach which stretches across the mouth of Physgil Glen. It is 
situated about 25 feet above the present high-water limit, and has been 
Bxcavated in the Lower Silurian greywacke rocks by the action of the 

* " Beatns Ninianus a sancto (Martino) cemcntarios sibi ilari jiostulavit, pio- 
positum sibi esse assercns, sicut saiictc Romance ecclesite fideni, ita et mores in con- 
struendis ecclesiis, ecclesiasticisquc officiis const itu end is, iniittm." — ** Vita Niniani," 
If isloriaiis of Scotland, p. 143. 

* A Large Description of OaUoioayy by Andrew Synison, Minister of Kirkinner, 
1864, p. 15. 



Figa. 2, 3. 3loDca licaring each o itaublv incised Cross, found in St Ninian'B Cava. 




obaervoJ iiiitU last year (1883), when some mcmlicra of Mr Kiuliolson 
in KiiisOale's family disuovered, in or near the ruiiieil wall Avhich at 
somu period had bc'tn built across the niuuth of the oavc, b stone bear- 
ing two inuiscd crosses (fig. 2). This fruali discovery led to further 
iliisultory scan;]! by various persona. One other carved stone (fig. 3). 
also bearing two incised crosses, was found, and was presented by ^Ir 
Johnston Stewart to the Museum of Scottish Autii;|uitics.' Then llr 
Andrew Kerr, gamekeeper, diig awny some of the cliff di5bris immediately 
under the cross discovercil by Mrs Maxwell, and exposed two others 
(tigs. 4, 5), of similar shape to the first, and a third imperfect, 2 feet 
4 inches below the firet, and in a horizontal line with each other, 
inonsuring 1 1 inches from centre to centre of each cross. 

Twelve feet farther out, on the 
same side, there is a small cross of u 
different character (tig. 6), cut on 
the rock face. 

On Monday, 2nd Juno 1884, in 
company with Mr Nicholson and Dr 
Douglas of Whithorn, I visited the 
cave, having with nie also three 
working men. At that time the floor 
of the interior, though perfectly dry, 
was covered with rubbish, shingle, 
ashes of kelji-buming and picnic 
fires, pigeon and rat dro])pings, &c. 
Fig. a. Sm»ll C™m inci«d ou the west ^^ ^ ^^^^^ ^.^ , 

Bida of 8t Ninian a Cave. /^ •■ 

exposed, but much dilapidated. 
Between the group of incised crosses and the wall at the mouth of the 
cave, a distiince of 27 feet, lay a huge mass of debris, earth and rocks, 
fallen from the cliffs above. In deciding where to commence opera- 
tions we hiul to consider the relative probability of this mass having 
fallen before or after St Kininn's occupation. The fact that three 

' Those two stoiiea with indaeil crosMa were RKiired iu the Proceeding*, vol. v. 
(new seiivs), |)p. 3'20, 3il, in a paiwr entitled " Nu'-i™ of Crosses found in St 
Nitiian'a Cave, Glasscrton, Wij,'towii3liire," by Christoiiher N. Joliustou, Advooiti-. 


crosses had been exposed on the rock face by digging into this mass, 
proved that part of it, at all events, had fallen since the days of the 

Accordingly, we determined to commence a cutting through the 
mound and along the rock face, starting from the gi*oup of crosses above 
mentioned at A (see the annexed ground plan, fig. 7). 

The first day's labour took us to B, where we reached a depth of 7 
feet, without having gone down to the old cave floor. We had, how- 
ever, reached a level, standing upon which a person could have cut the 
three lower crosses at A. At all depths, from 4 feet to 7, we found 
traces of fires, with wood cinders, bones, and limpet and whelk shells ; 
showing that this part of the former cave had been occupied before and 
after successive falls of earth and rocks from the roof. This roof no 
longer exists beyond the limit marked by the old wall. 

After proceeding 13 feet inwards at C, at a depth of 3 feet 6 inches, 
the end of a built stone drain was laid bare. A roxind stone lay 
at the mouth ; the drain was carefully formed and packed, and water 
still ran freely through it. Its dimensions were — length, 14 feet 7 
inches ; width, 8 inches ; depth, 6 inches. 

Recommencing next morning, wo followed this drain to its commence- 
ment at the mouth of the cave D. Here it was wider, built with larger 
stones, and covered with a heavy flag of grey wacke. Resting on a large 
flat stone at E, buried under 18 inches of debris, and close to the 
upper end of the drain, was a large water-worn boxilder, 19 inches 
longest horizontal diameter, 14 inches high, in which was cut a circular 
basin, 7 inches wide by 5 inches deep. A small rill, which falls over 
the mouth of the cave, descended straight upon this basin. The waste 
water, which otherwise would have run back into the cave, was carried 
away by the drain DC. Near it at F, 2 feet below the surface, a stone 
with incised cross was turned up. 

The wall GG, was next cleared, and found to be built of dry stone, 
28 inches thick. In clearing the rubbish some of the stones were so 
large that they had to be broken before being removed^ Unfortxinately, 
two large rectangular blocks were so treated and wheeled away before 
it was discovered that they were the two upper steps of a stair (H), 


Fig. 7. Grouiid plau of St Nin 


ddsucnding into the cave. The two lower steps were kept t» situ ; the 
descent from the old threshold to the inner floor being 3 feet. Ou the 
rise of the lowest step, which ia 2 feet i inches long, 1 foot 6 inches 
wide, and 8^ inches high, there are three incised crosses, each surrounded 
by a circle (see fig. 12). 

On the lowest step of the stair lay a rudely-carved stone, showing 
erosecfl of a peculiar shape (fig. 8), and farther, towards the inside, Liy 
iinothcr stone engraved with a cross. 

Fig. 8. Stone with inctsed Cross, found in St Ninian's Cave. 

We then proceeded to clear out the rubbish in the cave, which, level 
with the top of the wall at the mouth, diminished to on average depth 
of 18 inches or 2 feet over the rest of the interior. The floor was 
found to be completely paved with flags throughout its entire length, 27 
feet, except at one place. III, where thcro is a space, 6 feet by 3 to 4| 
feet, uiipaved, but floored with hniil I>enten earth ; and at K, near the 


outrance, where there is on open liepression for the eacajie of rill water 
which runs down the cave wall at this place, <le|M>siting stalagmite. 

The pavement near the stair was fire-marked, and covered with wootl 
ai^hes, bones, au<l shells. 

Within the cave, at L, carved on the rock 3 feet above the pavement, 
is a faintly incised croas, siinilar In design and size to those at A outside. 

Fig. 6. Stoiie with incisnl Cross, found in 3t Ninian's Cave. 

Upon tlie flagstone immediately heneath it is a rudely cut inscription, 
of which only the letters f^t^l can be traced. Farther in the cave, on 
the same siile, a young lady, visiting the cave some days afterwards, 
descried another cross. 

After Bwcepinj; the floor of the cave wo returned to the excavation 


outeiUe. At a tlui>th of 3 feet a etuiie with iuciscd crose (fig. 9) was 
found at M. The angle in the solid rock at the oiitmuce N hdd becu 
im\A (IS a fire|Jftce, and waa filled with tinclers, bones, and shells, 
covered with 2 or 3 feut of loose dtibris. Another stone (fif;- 10) broken, 
with crosses incixeil, was turned up outside at 0. 

Fig. 10. Stooe wilh incised Cross, fouud in 3t Niniin's Cave. 

The following morning 1 lind to go lo London, leaving Mr Cochran- 
I'atrick (who had joined ua the previous day) and Dr Douglas to super- 
intend the work. The outside of tlio wall was laid bare, but no trace of 
pavement corresponding to tliat inside was found. Fireplaces, hones, and 
shells continued to be noticed. Immediately outside the wall at P, 6 
feet duc|), Ijclow a large block of stone, human remains were discovered. 

Tlie skull was first noticed, then the right femur, left femur, scapula, 
ilavii;le, and tibia. The greater part of the skeleton was recovered. 


The bones were much decayed, and the body was doubled up, the skull 
lying between the legs. No signs of regular interment, clothing, or 
weapons accompanied the remains. 

Next day, June 6th, Mr Cochran-Patrick having left, Dr Douglas 
superintended the removal of the wall. Two stones were found built 
into it as material, showing that, at all events, the wall was a more 
modem structure than the date of the original use of the cave as a place 
of Christian retreat. 

The wall was then carefully rebuilt, and subsequently Mr Johnston 
Stewart caused an iron railing with locked gate to be placed across the 
mouth of the cave. The carved stones are all deposited inside, and the 
place now forms an interesting object to visitors, the key of the gate 
being kept by Mr Nicholson at Kidsdale. 

No manufactured relics other than the carved stones were found in 
the cave, except a copper farthing and some iron bolts and nails, the 
remains of recent temporary occupation. A small whetstone, 4 inches 
long, of water-worn sandstone, similar to several discovered in crannogs 
in the district, was also found. 

Also Mr William Galloway, when engaged in executing the drawings 
which accompany this paper, found a water-worn beach stone, engraved 
with a small cross. 

Whatever opinion may be formed as to the date of the pavement, the 
tradition connecting the cave with St Ninian has received notable con- 
firmation by the discoveries made. Mr Cochran-Patrick was inclined to 
view the pavement as of a date long subsequent to St Ninian's occupa- 
tion, and to infer from it the use of the cave as a chapel in mediseval 
times. There appears, however, to be a direct connection between the 
pavement and the crosses on the live rock, as shown by the inscribed 
stone in the pavement immediately under the cross within the cave. 
These crosses are all of an early design, and have been executed with a 
rude-pointed instrument. The fact that the wall contained several 
stones carved with crosses shows that it was built, or at least recon- 
structed, by persons regardless of the sacred emblem.^ The slab form- 

^ Since writing this I have seen the head of an early Christian cross taken out of 
the wall of tlie cliaptcr-house of the Abbey of Luce, where it had been used by 


ing the lower step of the atair, carved with a triple cross (as shown in 

Fig. 11. Small Bouldor with inclMd Crou, found in St tfinian'i Care. 

the annexed illustration of the interior of the cave after excavation, 

fourteenth century mawmB u ordiQary building matoriaL lAt«r iiutancen of surh 
desecration of cuurM are common enough, but this ia an intere»tjng inrtAQce of 
neglect of pristine Bacred art in an cccleaiastical odiRcc. 


fig. 1 2), may probably have been designed for special use of another kind ; 
at all events the pedestal or short shaft, indicated in the lower cross, 
appears to point to an intention of placing the stone erect. No doubt 
the cave was used from time to time by smugglers, kelp-bumers, and 
others ; and some of the materials woiUd be rearranged, though the 
general features remain the same. 

It is natural, considering the sacred character of the place and the 
numerous sacred emblems displayed in it, to assign to the stone basin 
the function either of a baptismal font or a holy water stoup. Carefully 
arranged so as to receive the rill falling over the cave mouth, and with 
the drain provided to carry off the overflow water, it is difficult to dis- 
regard the possibility of its having been designed and used as a font. 
On the other hand, the convenience of a reservoir of pure water for 
domestic use would be apparent to any person inhabithig the cave. In 
the rocks surrounding St Medan's Cave in Kirkmaiden, on the opposite 
side of the Ray of Luce, there are several round pot-holes, in which the 
people used to bathe on the first Sunday in May at sunrise, a process 
which was considered an infallible cure for sundry diseases, but especially 
in the cases of "back-gane bairns." In these the water, being salt, 
would have been useless for domestic purposes, but may possibly have 
been used for baptismal purposes by the missionaries of the primitive 
church, an end for which this artificial basin may have been prepared by 
the successors of St Ninian. It must, however, have been placed in the 
position in which we found it mthseqiiently to the fall of the greater part 
of the cliff d(^bris ; the drain from it is cut through this debris, the bulk 
of which appears to have fallen since the three lower crosses at A were 
carved. If St Ninian used it as a font, which is at all events not im- 
possible, it must have been rearranged in its present position during 
subsequent occupation. It is to be remembered that Galloway relapsed 
into paganism after St Ninian's day. 

The traces of fire and organic remains, under and through the mass of 
fallen cave roof outside the existing cave, indicate that this cavern has 
long been used as a human habitation. No doubt, if the pavement 
were lifted, further similar remains would l)e found, but its destruction 
for such a puriK)se is much to l)e deprecated. The numerous caves, 


some of them abounding in stalagma, which occur at the raised beach 
level all round the adjoining coast, form an interesting field for pre- 
historic research. No conjecture can be made as to the history of the 
human skeleton outside the wall ; whether it was the subject of an 
ordinary contracted burial, without cist, and with the huge block of stone 
intentionally rolled over it, whether it belonged to a person accidentally 
killed by a fall of rock from above, or whether he was the victim of a 
long-foi^otten outrage, is equally undeterminable. Only this is certain, 
that ho died sufficiently long ago for all trace of clothing to have dis- 

Our thanks are due to Mr Johnston Stewart for the facilities he 
readily afforded for exploration, and to Mr Nicholson for his hearty co- 
operation and assistance in the work. 

Dr John Cleland, Professor of Anatomy in the University of Glasgow, 
has made the following report upon the bones found in the course of the 
excavation : — ** These consist mainly of small portions of large bones, 
probably all of the ox. There is a distinct head of a right scapula of 
the ox, and a less characteristic fragment which may be from the same 
bone, also a right os calcis and portion of right ulna of ox. There are 
also a tail bone and a portion of lower part of humerus belonging to a 
smaller animal, probably sheep or goat. Lastly, there are a femur and 
part of a tibia of a small bird, possibly a jackdaw ; and a portion of 
a shaft of femur (?) and part of a tibia of a larger bird, possibly a fowl 
or pheasant." ^ 

^ Professor Cleland has recently maile an interesting discovery among some bones 
forwarded to him during the present summer front St Medan's Ca?e above referred 
to. He prononnccs one of them to be the lower two-thirds of a human tibia, 
''highly platycnemic " The platycnemic tibia is characteristic of a race of men 
light of frame and exceedingly swift of foot 



SANDERSON, F.S.A. Scot. By Sie WALTER ELLIOT of Wolfklke, 
K.C.S.I., F.R.S., F.S.A. Scot. 

The two bronze masks presented to the Museum by Dr Sanderson in 
the name of his son, Mr R. C. Sanderson, were discovered by him about 
15 inches under the surface of the ground in his coffee plantation, at 
Kanajor,^ and were sent to me for any information I might be able to 
give touching their origin or use. Not having met with any articles of 
the same kind before, I was at a loss to recognise their purpose, but, 
remembering to have seen miniature figures in the form of male and 
female puppets, and brass statuettes, representing ancestors, and wor- 
shipped as household gods by the mountaineers of the western range of 
hills, I thought these might have some connection with the same practice. 
I was, therefore, led to make some inquiry in the same direction, and 
found that the subject embraced a much larger field than I had antici- 

The belief that after death the disembodied spirit continues to take a 
deep interest in mundane affairs, and particularly in those of its late 
relatives, both for good and evil, is very generally held, not only on the 
west coast, where I first met with it, but prevails over all India, and 
even far beyond it, especially among the hill tribes of Turanian origin. 
Figures like those of the masks, or images of chiefs or benefactors, are 
preserved as manesy as are also those of relatives or beloved members of 
the family. The masks are fitted to the idol or statue of the former, 
where such exist, or are worn by some person dressed up for the occasion, 
to represent the individual in question on anniversaries or days of cere- 

1 Kanajor is situated 17 or 18 miles north of Saklespur, in the tdluk ofMudigiri, 
recently separated from that of Manjardbdd. The plantation is on the south bank 
of the Hemavati river, a few miles west of Kasbah Manjardbdd, and 120 miles west 
of Bangalore. 



raony. The spirits of men who have exercised an evil influence, or have 
experienced injurious treatment from others during their lives, are 
believed to be still actuated by malevolent impulses and revengeful 
motives, which must be propitiated by sacrifice or offerings to avert 
disease, misfortune, or other evil influence supposed to emanate from the 
demon. The effigies of the former are of a gentle and pleasing character, 
while those of the latter are distorted and frightful, with glaring eyes, 
protruding teeth, and garnished with attributes of terrible import. The 
prevalence of this latter belief, and the performance of rites to neutralise 
its supposed exercise, have been largely described by our missionaries, 
under the name of devil-worship, or — ^as the late Bishop of Calcutta (the 
Kight Rev. Daniel Wilson) more appropriately expressed it, in an article 
contributed to the Calcutta Review about 1855, after his visitation to 
Tiimevelly — demonolatry : — 

The religion of many of the lower classes [he observes] before Cliristian 
preachers came among them was devil-worship. This is a proof of their pre- 
Bmhmanical origin, for their superstitions are identical with the Shamanism of 
the ancient Mongol and Tatar triben, and may be seen not only in India, but 
among the Oiitiaks and other heathens of Siberia. It prevails also in Ceylon, 
where it is mixed up in strange and impure conjunction with the nobler creed 

of Buddha Demonolatry is purely a religion of fear ; bloody sacrifices are 

offered to avert the wrath of certain mali>(nant spirits, who take delight in 
blasting the crops, withholding rain, spreading murrain among cattle, and 
visiting men with sunstroke and epilepsy. They have no temples, but are 
honoured by the erection of white-washed pyramids, generally of mud, or of 
thatched sheds open in front, and decorated with hideous figures of bull-headed 
monsters, or hags devouring children. Suck a structure was called a y^y kovilj 
or devil's house, and round one of them the denionolaters may be seen liom time 
g.ithering for a devil-dance, the most important feature, says Dr Caldwell, of 

their worship These demonolatei's, it should be observed, are supposed 

to be the spirits of dead persons who, in life, were conspicuous either for their 
crimes or their misfortunes. It is well known that in one place the spirit of an 
English officer, who had been the terror of the district, was supposed to be the 
presiding fiend, and was propitiated at 2kjpiy kovxl with offerings of cigars and 
ardent spirits.* 

But this explanation of the term demon refers only to a portion of the 
' Calcutta IiemcWf No. Ixxviii. vol. xxxix. pp. 242-43. 


cult, which embraces the great and good among the ancestors of the 
tribe, and also the former beloved members of the family, whoso memory 
is still cherished, to include whom a more comprehensive term, viz., 
daimonolatry, might with propriety be employed, inasmuch as devil 
worship and demonolatry, under the present received meaning of the 
word demon, apply more directly to the worship of evil spirits. It is 
to the latter class — viz., the beneficent — that the bronzes now under 
consideration appear to belong, for they have none of the fearful 
characteristics of the malignant demons, but the very reverse. They 
are in excellent preservation, and represent two faces or masks of 
bronze — one a male, the other a female. The features are pleasing and 
well-formed; those of the man (fig. 1) sharper than those of the 
woman, which are softer and fuller ; in neither of them any trace of 
the Mongolian or Tatar physiognomy. Above the forehead of the 
male is a circle of snakes, confined by a twisted band or fillet ; above 
the nose is a perpendicular sectarial mark, broad above, and becoming 
narrower towards the nose; four necklaces hang round the throat 
Round the head of the female (fig. 2) is a chaplet, confined by a 
twisted band ; in both, the hair appears to be dressed upwards. A 
lozenge-shaped sectarial mark occupies the space between the eyebrows, 
the left nostril is pierced for a nose-ring, and her neck is adorned with 
three necklaces. The eyes are not represented, their places being left 
smooth as in modem sculpture. The cartUage of the ears has been 
perforated above and below for ear-rings; but the most remarkable 
feature is that of a curved and pointed object protruding from each 
angle of the mouth, lai^er in the male, the meaning of which I was 
at first unable to understand, but which I now believe, from a com- 
parison with other similar objects, represent tusks. This conclusion is 
confirmed by the opinion of the learned author of Native Life in 
Travancare, who identifies them with the similar adjuncts common 
in malicious demons, called tdra pal. This explanation of the masks 
agrees with a subsequent letter from Mr R. C. Sanderson, who states 
" that it was the custom in that part of the country for heads of 
villages and persons of distinction to keep these masks as household 
gods, and once a year to carry them in procession to a festival, in 


Fig, I. HiflNze M;i.'*k iliis iij> ■'' Kiii.sjoi. iUUir. In.lia (II i«diea in k'tijElh). 


Fig. 2. Bronze Mask dug u|> nt K&najor, MaUur, ludia (10 inchsH in length). 


honour of the principal god of the tribe; and even now it is customary for 
every one in the district to visit the god yeariy with offerings of cocoa- 
nuts," &c. It is not easy to assign to thera a probable date. Sectarial 
marks did not come into use before the ninth or tenth century, when the 
rival Saiva and Vaishnava sects arose — the former adopting the horizontal, 
the latter the perpendicular, signs on the forehead. This would lead 
us to look upon the owners of the masks as connected with the Vaish- 
nava sectarians, notwithstanding the snake-like head-dress ; but if they 
belong, as is most probable, to one of the hill tribes, they would be free 
from the influence of Hindu habits and prepossessions, and the marks 
must then be i*egarded as simply ornamental additions. Moreover, in 
the whole of Malabar, attributes of Siva and Vishnu, as I was lately 
informed by Dr Gundert, are not very carefully kept distinct. The 
correct design and elegant execution of the faces, as well as the metal 
employed, points to a somewhat earlier period, when Jain a art was in 
the ascendant, and when bronze was more frequently used than at 

The forms in which such domestic memorials are i>erpetuated vary 
considerably. One of frequent occurrence is connected with the marriage 
of a second or third wife, when it is considered desirable to secure the 
favour or disarm the jealousy of her predecessor. This is sometimes 
done by means of a metallic face or mask, an example of which came 
into the possession of a friend in Bombay, to whom it was sold by the 
widower after the death of his second helpmate, because, he said, he had 
no further use for it. Another form is that of a small gold or silver 
plate, from 1 to 2 inches long, called a fdkf on which a female figure, 
generally with the hands joined, has been embossed in repouss^ work. 
This is placed on the seat of honour during the marriage ceremony, and 
afterwards attached to the necklace of the bride by her husband. The 

* The masks have been submitted to Mr W. Ivison Macadam, F.C.S., Lecturer on 
Chemistry and Analytical Chemist, Surgeons' Hall, who has reported to Dr Anderson 
that they are both of bronze, their composition being as follows : — 

No. 1. Copper, . . 86*262 per cent. No. 2. Copi»cr, . . 86 '467 

Tin, . . 13-632 „ Tin, . . 14-411 

99-894 99-878 


occurrence of sickness or misfortune to herself or her husband is 
attributed to the displeasure of the spirit, and the tdk is taken off and 
placed among the household gods, or an exorcist is consulted. Similar 
{dks are susi)ended to the necks of children to preserve them from the 
evil eye or the malign influence of the late wife. Four smaller gold 
plates of like design, which have lately come under my notice from 
Travancore, have no means of attachment, and are probably therefore 
examples of the domestic lares kept secluded for family worship. 
Others are in the form of small brass figures, 3 or 4 inches high, two 
specimens of which, lent from the Church Missionary Society's 
Museum, had the following labels attached to them: — "Ancestral 
(female) image, worshipped by some Pulayans,^ who embraced 
Chistianity in 1881, and were baptized (24 of them) in 1883, near 
Cottayam," The other "Talanani — a sorcerer, who was devil priest 
among the Hill Arryans * during his life, and propitiated as a demon 

' The Pulayans are a low and servile caste in Malabar, in which the husband lives 
with his wife though she may belong to a different master, and the children inherit 
any rights the mother may possess. — Wils. Gloss., p. 426. 

' The Hill Arryans are one of the most remarkable aboriginal races of the Travan- 
core hills, of whom an account has been published by the Rev. Henry Baker, jan. 
(London : Wertheim, Macintosh, k Hunt, 1862). It is so interesting as to justify 
a longer extract "Demon and hero-worship,** he observes, "peculiar rites con- 
nected with births, fnneralfi, and husbandry, are practised among them. Kemains 
of cromlechs, funeral mounds, circular enclosures and other monuments precisely 
resembling each other, are found among them" (as well as among the hill tribes 
generally) "along most of the mountain ranges in India and Bnrmah northward. 

They differ from the Hindus, inasmuch as they do not idolise evil, but 

worship the spirits of their ancestors or certain local demons supposed to reside in 
rocks or peaks, and having influence only over particular villages or families. The 
religious services reuvlered to these are intended to deprecate anger rather than to 
seek benefits. .... It is very observable that these people are generally more 
truthful aud moral in their habits than the iieople of the plains. They are free and 
intelligent in their manners, and great hunters of wild beasts. .... Though they 
are regarded as inferiors by their Hindu neighbours, they are looked upon as beings 
in alliance with some powerful demonolatry, and presents are abundantly bestowed 
to prevent their curses producing evil effects. .... They bury their dead, con- 
sequently there are many ancient tumuli in these hills, evidently graves of chiefs, 
showing just the same fragments of pottery, metal figures, weai)ous, &c., as are 
found in other similar places. These tumuli are often surrounded with long 
splintered pieces of granite, 8 to 12 or 15 feet long, set up on end with saciificial 


after his death. His last heathen successor and heir handed the image 
to me, and applied for baptism in 1881." — (Signed) W. J. Richards. 
Among the lower castes similar practices prevail, varying somewhat, but 
all tending to the same belief. According to Mr Mateer, " the PuUiyars 
(a low outcast tribe, Wils. Gioss,, p. 427) offer worship to the spirits of 
deceased relatives. They are afraid to give any offence to such spirits, 
which are supposed to haunt the house and neighlx)urhood, to be pleased 
with offerings of food, <fec., and to inflict disease or death if displeased. 
No images are made of these chavukcU^ as they are called. The 
Vedars, a similar low caste, believe that on the third day after decease 
the soul becomes a chdvu Their priest pretends to be able to see it. 
If it has appeared they are in fear of attack by it. To please these 
spirits, dancing is practised and fowls are sacrificed. The Pariahs call 
the souls of ancestors inarutfid (from mary to die), and these are 
worshipped by dancing and sacrifice of cocks." 

The above remarks relate principally to inquiries made in Malabar, 
but similar obsen^ances have been found among the aboriginal popula 
tion in other parts of India. Thus among the Santals and the inhabit- 
ants of the Kajmahal Hills, Dr Hunter observes : — " The worship of the 
Santdls is based upon the family. Each household has its own deity 
(orabonga), which it adores with unknown rites, and scrupulously con- 
ceals from strangers. . ^ . . In addition to the family god, each house- 
hold worships the spirits of its ancestors The Santal religion, 

in fact, seems to consist of a mythology constructed upon the family 

altars and other remains, evidently centuries old. Numerons vaults (or rather 
histvaens) too are seen in all their hills, like Kit's Coty house in Kent, and the 
Thevpgenny stones in Cornwall. They stand north and south, the circular opening 
being to the south ; a red stone is fitted to this aperture, with another acting as a 
long lever to prevent its falling out; the sides, as also the stones of the top and 
bottom, are single slabs. To this day the Arryans make similar little cells of pieces 
of stone, the whole forming a box a few inches square, and on the death of a member 
of any family, as the body is being buried, the spirit is supposed to pass into a brass 
or silver image which is shut into this vault If the parties are very poor, an 
oblong smooth stone suffices. A few offerings of milk, ghee, &c., are made, a 
torch lighted and extinguished, the covering stone placed on, and all leave. On 
the anniversary, similar offerings being made, the stone is lifted off and again 
hastily closed. The spirit is thus supposed to be enclosed ; no one ventures to 
touch the cell at any other times.'* 


basis."^ Mr Storrs, a missionary who has laboured for many yeai-s 
among them, referring to their " ancestral worship," writes : — " Indeed I 
think this is always what they most cling to, and for which they most 
earnestly plead. The mdnjhi thdn,^ so conspicuous in every village 

street,markingout the house of the head-man, the little thatched 

roof on its slight wooden pillars, with its round topped stone, with two 

little wooden doll-like heads projecting out of the ground, this 

is the place dedicated especially to the worship of the forefathers of the 
village mdnjhi^ though the two little heads are said to represent more 

especially the first man and woman In addition to this they 

have their lares and penates, the names of which are kept secret 

from generation to generation, the father never telling the son till he is 
weU advanced in age." 

Colonel Dalton, in his Ethnology of Bengal, p. 188, in the account of 
the religion of the Hos and Mundas of Singbhimi and Chota Nagpur, 
after stating the principal objects of adoration, viz., the sim, moon, 
woods, springs, &c., continues : — " The remaining spirits are the ancestral 
shades, who are supposed to hover about, doing good or evil to their 
descendants. They are often denounced as the cause of calamitous 
visitation, and propitiatory offerings are made to them. Besides this, a 
small portion of the food prepared in every house is daily set apart for 
them. The ancestors are the penates, and are called * Ham hoJ The 
ancestors of the wife have also to be considered; they are called 
' Horalan ho, because sacrifices to them are always offered on the 
path, * Hora^* by which the old woman came as a bride to the house." 

From what has been said, it will be seen that this tendency to con- 
tinue an intercourse with the departed is fotmded on the difficulty of 
accepting the conditions consequent on a sudden separation of continued 
association, which leads the survivors to deprecate the displeasure of 
those whom they may have offended or disliked during life, or to express 
the continuance of that love and affection which had formerly bound 
them together. 

» AmuUa of Rural Bengal, pp. 182-4. 

' Mdnjhi or imiji, among the Rajmahal mountaineens, a title borne by their head 
men, also termed mdnhtL — Wila. Oloss., p. 329. 


A curious instance of the latter is afforded by an incident related of 
the first governor of Bengal and the founder of the city of Calcutta, 
Mr Job Chamock, of whose eccentricities many stories remain on 
record, having saved a Hindu widow from burning herself with her 
deceased husband, subsequently married her. She died before him, and 
ever afterwards he celebrated the anniversary of her death by sacrificing 
a cock to the goddess Durgd over her tomb.^ This may have arisen 
out of Mr Chamock's familiarity with the ideas and habits of the 
natives, and his desire to conciliate them by conforming to their ways. 

The above remarks refer to a small portion only of daimonolatry, 
without touching on the much larger subject of hero-worship, and 
founders of tribes, and men conspicuous for great and noble qualities. 
The religion of the Santdls, according to Mr Storrs, is partly of this 
description, "the objects of which are five or six brothers and two 
supposed sisters, evidently some men of old, men of renown, who once 
took the lead among them, and were afterwards deified." In recent 
times the Marathas pay divine honours to Sivaji, the founder of their 
later empire, whose image at Malwan is adorned with a silver mask, 
which is exchanged for one of gold on anniversaries and festivals. Such 
an expedient for the occasional worship of the common deities among 
the lower orders appears to have led to the employment of mask repre- 
sentations, to supply the absence of more elaborate idols, an example of 
which was given at the meeting, where it was stated that such was the 
practice very generally observed in the worship of Kdii, or as she is 
called by the Tamils, Pidarl, among the lower orders of Hindus. Kdli, 
the wife of Siva the destroyer, is especially an object of fear from her 
malignant disposition. She is worshipped under various names, as 
Durgd, Bhairavi, Chandi Chandika, &c., with a host of local appella- 
tions connected with special traditions. From her are supposed to 
proceed the most terrible calamities and epidemics, as small-pox, 
cholera, &c. She is therefore propitiated by bloody sacrifices, 
holocausts of sheep, buffaloes, and other animals being immolated at her 
shrines. On such occasions she is represented either by her image or 
in default by facial representations in brass or terra cotta. 

1 Talboys Wheeler's Short Hist, of India, p. 199. 


[Mr James Burgess, LL.D., &c., ArchflBological Surveyor for Western 
and Southern India, and editor of the Indian Antiquartfy who was 
present at the meeting, has since communicated the following remarks 
to that journal, with the view of eliciting information respecting the use 
of such masks and surviving traces of ancestor-worship : — 

The hacks of the masks are open, so as to allow them to be attached 
to wooden, metal, or stone figures, representing the bodies of the 
personages intended. Both faces are characterised by the tusks usually 
assigned to images of Bhairava and Kalt, protniding from the wicks of 
the mouths, and both have on the foreheads the third eye,^ placed 
vertically, which gives to Siva the name of Tril6chana, and which is 
generally borne by all the forms of that Deva, and by his gana or 
demon troop of followers. The seven Nliga or cobra hoods on the 
garland over the brow of each, their intertwined bodies forming the 
band which unites them into a sort of fillet, and their tails coiled up 
in little flat curls are also characteristic marks of the Saiva class of 
images. In the smaller face these cobra hoods have a resemblance to 
leaves, but this is not unfrequently the case, even in separate images of 
snakes. The smaller mask has also a hole in the left cartilage of the 
nose as if for a ring. The other has been supposed to represent a male 
head, but the distinction is not marked. 

Such masks for images of gods, made of bronze, silver, or gold, are 
quite common in the south of India, and are also in use in the 
Mardtha country and in the north ; but these are usually lighter and 
less imposing than the present pair. 

They have probably been buried for a century, and may be consider- 
ably older; the large ear-rings and the forms of the necklets, however, are 
such as are still to be met with among certain castes in Southern India 
to the present time. It has been suggested by Sir Walter Elliot that 
they may be connected with or allied to images employed in the ancestor- 
worship, which he believes has not quite disappeared from among the Dra- 
vidan races. The worship of the durdevatds, K&lt, and Bhairava is closely 
connected with that of bhiUs, or the ghosts of dead persons of notoriety. 

^ [This feature io the woodcat is somewhat indistinct, but in the mask itself I 
cannot see the least resemblance to an eye. — W. E.]j 


In the present case the masks api^ear to represent Kali or Pid&rl, as 
she is called in Tamil, who, being a durdevatd^ or evil goddess, is re- 
presented with tusks. The large rings in the ears and the necklaces 
mark the figures as those of females, and Mr S. M. N&tesd Sastrt 
informs me that masks of this goddess are made of clay, and burnt red, 
to sell to people of the lower castes who worship her at certain seasons ; 
but these are, of course, of a much coarser type than the bronze 


F.S.A. Scot. 

The document, which, on behalf of the West Church Kirk-Session, I 
have now the pleasure of handing to the Society, is one of a series of 
papers, all referring to the same subject, which were lately discovered by 
me in the examination of a mass of receipts and other written matter 
belonging to the church, which has been slowly accumulating during 
the last two centuries. 

I have identified it as a paper, the original of which was drawn by 
Lord Advocate Dalrymple, afterwards first Earl of Stair, and infamous 
for all time coming as one of the principal authors of the Massacre of 
Glencoe. There is, I think, no room for doubt in the matter, owing to 
the existence in the same bundle of papers of a statement of law 
expenses incurred by the Kirk Treasurer, Mr James Elies, in which it 
is specially mentioned. 

Referring to it, I find the following entries : — 

" Given to Sir John Dalrymple to draw ane informatione, 14. 10. 00." 
" For writing 14 doubles of the informatione, . . 4. 04. 00.'* 

The title " Informatione for Mr James Elies of Stanhope-milnes and 
ye Poore of ye Paroch of ye Westo Kirk against Sir Patrick and Harie 
Nisbet," corresponds with the entry in the account, while that of none 
of the other papers would do so. The account, I may mention, refers 
solely to the expenses incurred in the action in question, so that it is 


practically impossible to err ; but to make the matter still more certain, 
it so happens that no fewer than four out of the fourteen doubles, each 
more or less in a perfect state, have come down to us, while, of the 
other papers, in no case has more than one copy been found. 

I have already mentioned the fees paid, and I may mention, in pass- 
ing, that their amount, as well as those of other items in the account, 
would seem to show that, at the time, at least in matters legal, fees 
were calculated neither in pounds nor merks, but in dollars, — either in 
rix dollars, the equivalent of which, in Scots money at the time, was 
£2, 18s., or in leg dollars, which were worth two shillings less. Thus 
Sir John Dalrymple's fee is exactly five rix dollars, that paid for copy- 
ing the fourteen doubles being a leg dollar and ^ half. 

Here, perhaps, I should stop, as the " Informatione " itself, however 
interesting as a specimen of the style of written pleadings then in 
vogue, would, I fear, be found rather tedious if read in externa. The 
matter to which it refers has, however, at least in regard to its sequel, 
an interest of its own quite apart from matters antiquarian, and I 
believe that a brief outline will not be found unacceptable. 

Sir Patrick Nisbet of Dean, the defendant in the action, was a 
cousin of the well-known legal luminary Sir John Nisbet of Dirleton, 
and was descended from Henry Nisbet, who was Lord Provost of Edin- 
burgh in the reign of James VI. He figures frequently, seldom in a 
creditable manner, in the West Kirk records during the last twenty years 
of the seventeenth century, and from these, and contemporaneous notices 
of him elsewhere, it seems clear that he was a man of very indifferent 
character. Thus in 1677, Fountainhall records that he was accused of 
j)erjury. Through the good offices of a friend, the proofs were made 
away with prior to trial ; but his case was at the outset considered so 
desperate that hb cousin, who was Lord Advocate at the time, privately 
advised him to give his accuser, Hepburn of Humbie, 4000 merks, in 
order to get a discharge of the process. 

The dispute between Sir Patrick Nisbet and the West Kirk Session 
arose in this way. For seven years previous to 1680, the funds 
l)clonging to the West Kirk poor had l)een intrusted to the care of one 
Alexander Shed, a maltster in the Water of Leith. During the whole of 


this period no account was rendered by him of his intromissions, though 
latterly it became notorious that he was heavily embarrassed, and a 
majority of the Kirk-Session were clamant for the appointment of a new 
treasurer. This was strenuously opposed by Sir Patrick Nisbet, who, 
supported by Mr Gordon, one of the ministers, and several of the Kirk- 
Session, who like Shed, were mere creatures of his own, and quite sub- 
servient to his authority, remained master of the situation, until the 
interference of the Bishop of Edinburgh had been sought and obtained 
by his opponents. 

At the time Shed was heavily indebted to Sir Patrick, Sir Patrick 
in turn being due the West Kirk poor the sum of 2000 merks, and the 
reason of the latter's long objection to the production of Shed's accounts 
seems to have been the difficulty which he foimd in persuading liim 
to agree to a scheme which he proposed for the purpose of recovering 
his own debt at the expense of the poor. This was ultimately carried 
out, and Shed, as kirk treasurer, gave Nisbet a discharge of his bond 
for 2000 merks, receiving presumably from him an equivalent discharge 
jyi'o tanto of the amount due by him to Nisbet. He also, in respect of 
his other indebtedness, granted to Nisbet a bond over his property in 
Water of Leith for 4600 Lba Scots, whereby Sir Patrick was infeft as 
vassal to Shed, though he himself was Shed's superior. This heritable 
bond was transferred to his son, Harry Nisbet. Before this could be 
fully carried out, however, Shed had been compelled to produce his long- 
delayed statement of accounts, and these showed that he was a defaulter 
to the extent of no less than 2500 merks, for which sum he gave a bond 
over the same property. In addition to these, it was discovered, on his 
death, which occurred shortly after, that he had granted several other 
obligations, and a great amount of litigation ensued, the different bond- 
holders competing for preference. 

Mr James Elies of Stenhope Mills, who succeeded Shed in the office 
of treasurer, lost no time in seeking to imdo the evil work of his pre- 
decessor, and at once raised two different actions — the first against the 
Rev. Mr Gordon, Shed, and Sir Patrick Nisbet, in which he sought to 
obtain a reduction of the discharge of Sir Patrick's debt to the poor, 
which Shed, actiug, it was said, in collusion with the others, had 


granted; the second for the purpose of provmg that the bond granted 
by Shed over his estate in favour of the poor should rank prior to 
that granted to him about the same time to Sir Patrick, 

The former of these actions was soon settled in favour of the Session, 
and on the 22nd February 1681, Sir Patrick gave his bond for the full 
amoimt, and thirteen years later cleared it off with all arrears of interest. 
The discharge then granted him was a very full one, and purported to 
be for "the haill soumes due be him to the Kirke Session." The 
second action proved a much more tedious affair. Sir John Dalrymple, 
on behalf of the poor, as we learn from the " Informatione," took up the 
position that Sir Patrick Nisbet, by the very fact of his being a member 
of Session, and thereby a guardian of the interests of the poor, was pre- 
cluded from doing anything in the way of preferring his own interest to 
their detriment, and, in addition, not merely brought out the fact that 
in the execution of the corroborative bonds which followed upon the first, 
had there been several serious irregularities, but even alleged that the 
deeds in question had been ante-dated, and were therefore fraudulent 
The case was again and again before the Court until, on the 18th 
February 1682, it decided that, though right in point of law. Sir Patrick 
had used indiscreet means for getting himself preferred to the ix)or of the 
West Kirk, and therefore ordained that the poor shoidd come in 
equaUy with him, and the maills and duties be divided equally betwixt 

In this position the matter rested until 1687, when Sir Patrick, on 
what grounds I have not been able to discover, raised an action of 
reduction against the claims of the West Kirk poor upon Shed's lands. 
No papers in connection with this third action have come down to us, 
and no reference is male to it by Fountainhall ; but I think there is 
very little doubt but that it was successful, and to all appearance the 
matter was finally settled — was indeed, so far as the actual possession of 
the land. It remained in the Nisbet*s possession, and in the valuation roll 
of 1726, Patrick Nisbet, jun., is entered as proprietor of "Alexander 
Shed's lands" in Water of Leith, rated @ 110 Lbs. Scots. 

From the pages of the West Kirk records it is easily seen that Sir 
Patrick Nisbet was not merely in his own opinion, but was in reality, a 


man of very great importance in the West Kirk parish. On one 
occasion we find him gratuitously assuring the Session that he had no 
objections to their censuring a disorderly person thought to be under 
his protection ; and so surprised and annoyed was he by the vigorous 
action taken by Mr Elies against him, that in the middle of the litiga- 
tion he actually stopped him on the public highway and threatened to 
nail his lugs to the Tron. Times were changed after the Revolution, 
for the sturdy Presbyterian ministers who succeeded to the charge of the 
West Church were men of a different stamp from Mr Gordon ; but still 
Sir Patrick, as the largest heritor in the parish, was a man of con- 
sequence, and some years thereafter, when one of the church members 
was rebuked for permitting him and another to drink in his premises 
during divine service, not a word is mentioned as to there being any 
censure meted out to the principal offender himself. 

Unfortunately, Sir Patiick got into a much more serious scrape 
than this not long after, in the autumn of 1695. By this time he 
must have been a pretty old man ; thirteen years previously, his son's 
first child was bom, and giving due weight to that fact, it is rather 
stiirtling to find that he was now accused apparently on very strong 
evidence of having been guilty of a very grave indiscretion of conduct. 
Into the details of the matter, it is unnecessary for me to go, 
but I may mention, that the party, whose name was associated 
with his own in the matter, was no other than the wife of the 
church beadle. The sciindal was of course tremendous, and the 
promised spectacle of the principal heritor in the parish sitting in the 
place of public repentance, in such company, must have been eagerly 
looked forward to, and in anticipation enjoyed by every Mrs Grundy 
for miles around. 

A business of such importance could, however, only be discussed in 
a verj' full meeting of Session, and it proved so very difficult to get 
a full meeting, that at last the case was remitted to the Presbytery of 
Edinburgh. Wliether it was ever adjudicated upon or not, it is impossible 
to discover, the minute books of the Presbytery, for the time, being no 
longer in exbtence. One thing is certain, that the case is never again 
referred to in the records of the West Kirk. The edifying spectacle of 


Sir Patrick's public repentance was destined not to be, but it must not 
be too hastily inferred therefrom that he escaped scot free. Alexander 
Shed had been dead for nigh twenty years, Sir Patrick in undisputed 
possession of his land for nearly half that time, while his own old debt 
to the Session had been finally paid but a twelvemonth ago, and a dis- 
charge, as before mentioned, then granted to him for *' the haill soumes 
due be him to the Kirke Session," How was it then that he, just at 
this time, comes forward and — spontaneously admitting a liability the 
existence of which he had previously denied, which the Court had 
refused to recognise, and which, by their long silence on the subject and 
their recent discharge, the Session no longer insisted on — proposed to refer 
to arbitration, whether or not he was bound to make good the 2500 
merks, due by Shed to the poor, the bond for which, by the interposition 
of his private claim, he had rendered worthless. This was what he did, 

The matter was, by his consent, referred to Sir John Foulis and 
another, and by them decided that Sir Patrick should repay the whole 
sum. No easy task it was, but, at last it was accomplished, the final 
instalment being only paid in 1703. It is hardly possible to avoid the 
conclusion that this large sum of money was neither more nor less than 
smart money, a fine paid by the mighty laird of Dean in preference to 
undergoing the indignity of sitting in the place of public repentance 
along with the beadle's wife, and so in a most unlooked-for- way the 
" West Kirke poore " had their own again. 




JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D., Assistant Secretary. 

By the courtesy of Mrs Coventry of Shanwell and Miss M. J. 
Coventry, who have taken much interest in the discovery of a series of 
prehistoric interments excavated in the course of improvements which 
were being maile in the neighbourhood of Shanwell House, I am enabled 
to place on record some of the circumstances and characteristics of 
what seems to have been a small cremation cemetery of the Age of 

As is usual in most cases of similar discoveries, the site of the 
cemetery was a natural ridge or hillock of no great altitude, and the 
burials were brought to light in conse<iuence of the excavation of the 
mound for gravel. During tlie progress of this operation, deposits of 
bunit bones were met with from time to time at no great depth from 
the surface, and chiefly towards the central |)ortion of the eminence. 
In the case of several of these dcjwsits no fragments of urns were 
detected in association with the cremated bones, but in at least four 
cases urns of the usual cinerary form were present They appear to 
have been simply set in the soil, and covered over without any protect- 
ing cist. The most interesting circumstance in connection witli this 
cemetery, however, wtis the discovery, in connection with one of the 
deposits, of one of those thin oval bronze blades with incised ornamenta- 
tion, which seem to be more characteristic accompaniments of Bronze Age 
interments in Scotland tlian any other implements, the thin flat 
triangular dagger blades perhaps excepted. This blade (of which a 
view of l)oth sides and a section across the middle of its length are 
shown in fig. 1) is 3^ inches in length, and may have been slightly 
longer, as the extreme tenuity and fragility of the edge have caused it 
to give way all round, and especially towards the point. The middle 
portion of the blade is ornamented on both sides with a diamond-shaped 
pattern of incised linens enclosed within a double border, consisting of a 


band of oblique Iinca, and a smdller band with a row of punttiilatioiif 
running down each side. On the one side of the blade llio diamond- 
shaped [Mittcrn is tilled with cross- hatching, and the triangular spaces on 
either side arc left blank. On the other side the diamond-shaiied spaces 
running down the centre of the pattern are blank, and the triangiilm' 

spaces on eitlict side are filled with cross-hntching. In this case it is 
observable that the positions of the two bands which cuin|>oso the 
Iwrder are different from their jxtsitions on the other side, the upon 
band, with h single row of pinictulations, being plac^'d inside the Imnd 


filled with oblique liiit^a, and tbua preventing it from coming against 
the similitrly tilled trian^Inr spaces on either aide of the loienge- 
shaped pattern. The reversal of this on the opposite side of the 
blade fits the case there in a similar manner by preventing the open 
band from coming against the open triangular spaces. The decorator 
evidently knew what he was about. The blade has been hafted in a 
handle of bone, honi, or wood, all traces of which have disappeared, but 
the broad flat tang shows a single rivet-hole. This is the only example 
yet known (in Scotland at least) of tliis variety of oval blade furnished 
with a btoad flat tang pierced for an attaching rivet. The blade of 

Fig. 2. Uni fouud at Siiauviell (9 incltrs in lieighl). 
similar type found in a Bronze Age cemetery of the same description at 
Magdaleiio Bridge, near Joppa, was broken off by the rivet hole, and 
merely showed an indication of its existence. Most ef the others 
that are known were furnished with spike-shaped tangs. 

Two of the urns from the Sbanwell Cemetery are sufficiently entire to 
show the form and ornamentation. They are both of the usual cinerary 
form, with two slightly raised mouldings round the widest part, and 
tapering below in a flower-pot shape. The smaller of the two (fig, 2)_ 
measures 9 inches in height and 8J inches diameter across the mouth. 
The up]wr \>art Iietween the first moulding and the brim is oma- 


meuted with a aeries of scorings crossing each other obliquely, and a 
baud of similar scorings surrounds the interior of the brim. This urn 
and the bronze blade are preserved at Shanwell House. 

The laiger of the two urns (Bg. 3), which has been presented to the 
Museum by Mrs Coventry, measures 12^ inches in height and 11 J 
inciiea in diameter across the mouth. As in the ease of the other urn, 
the space between the first moulding and the brim is ornamented with 

Fig, ;i. Uni fouud ut I^jIuuhcII (l:^) iuclica iu liei^lit). 
a loienge-shap<>d pattern, the triangular spaces on either side of it being 
filled up with lines crossing each other in a direction paralled to the 
adjoining sides of the lozenge-shaped spaces. These lines are formed of 
impressions of a twisto<l cord in the soft clay. The iutenor of the rim is 
ornamented with a band of obliquely crossing lines of similar character. 
The resemblance of the pattern on the exterior of the um to the lozenge- 
shaped pattern on one side of the bronie blade is sufficiently obvious. 



By ALEXANDER ROSS, Architect, Inverness, F.S.A. Scot. 

The church of St Clement at Rowdill, in Harris (fig. 1), is situated at 
the south-east angle of the island, on a rising promontory near a land- 
locked bay at the eastern end of the entrance to the Sound of Harris. 
The church lies due east and west, and is cruciform in plan (fig. 2), 
measuring 61 feet in length by 15 feet in breadth, with transepts measur- 
ing 9 feet by 17 feet 6 inches, and 10 feet by 15 feet. There is a squai-e 
tower at the west end, of the full width of the church, and about 45 
feet high, capped with a slated roof. The church is founded on a very 
uneven surface, the tower being on a rock many feet alx)ve the level of 
the nave, but accessible from it by a stair in the wall now closed up. 
(See the sections, fig. 4.) The modem building is generally of very 
common material and workmanship, but the more ancient structure 
seems U) have been of better material and more refined construction. 
Judging by its present appearance, I am inclined to conclude that the 
original building had become so far ruinous that only the lower jwrtions 
of the walls of tlie nave, tower, transept, and east gable remained 
intact, and that the upper jx)rtion of the walls of the nave and tower 
had been built out of the old materials without much regani to 
character or design. The windows were built square for wooden sashes, 
anil the upper portion of the tower repaired with fragments of the old 
moulded comers and i-ybats and sculptures used promiscuously, as was 
found convenient, so that several of the sculptured figures have been 
placeil in most unlikely j)ositions, as chance to some extent dictated. 
The positions of the figures over the door are notable examples of this. 
One of the figures on the south side of the tower is remarkable on 
account of its dress (fig. 5). The lower j>ortions of the walls of the 
nave, the transept arches, and the side and end windows of the 
chancel are evidently of early date, as are also the tombs recessed into 
the walls, the arches of which are ai)parently of contemporary work- 
manship with the arches of the transepts. The arches both of the 




tombe and of the tranaopte are cast in a pale yellow freestone with 
alternate bande of hornblende schist, but the HDing in of the panels at 
the back of tlie tombs appears to suggest possibly a later date or a 
subsequent adaptation. The impression conveyed by the general 
character of the work— the mouldings, transept arches, and arches of 
tombs — is that of the work of an amati^ur, who having seen good vork, 
was tiying to imitate it ; for while the forms indicate the class of 
moulding intended, they fail to give it expression with mathematical 
accuracy.^ The east window is cut out of hornblende schist, and ie a 

very remarkable piece of work of its kind It is of three lights, with a 
circle or wheel over, divided by six straight spokes. The mouldings are 
decorated with rows of nail-head ornaments, as are also the labels on the 
windows and tombs. A plain font (tig. 7), or holy-water stoup, it is 
not easy to say which, lies on the floor of the nave. 

The tomb bearing the inscribed panel is situated to the east of the 
transept, and exhibits the full-length effigy of a knight in armour of 

■ Th« cbiTBCter o{ the work nppean to indicate an Italian or Spanish school, and 
probably the detigner may have obtsinnl hii knowledge in one or other of these 


pluk', plauoil under a recossod arch. The feet of tlie ofGgy, wbk-h ttre to 
tite east, rest upon an animal, anil over the head is a ]>anel with the 
following inscription in black letter : — 

1(ii : bdllu : upottft 
. . . . : rnitiabtT : filiba ; bilmi 
jnu : Clou ; Una : He Vibrgan 
Unno : Uni: ni° : ttttc° ; iibiii" 

The firat won! of the second line is partly illetjible, and the inscription 
is so ungmmniiitical tliat it cannot be strictly 
constnied, but its meaning appears to Iw that 
Alexander, son of William Macleod of Dnn- 
ve-j-an, made this tomb, ad. 1528. 

It is somewhat difficidt to account for the 
erection of such an elaborate monument to a 
Highland chief in the remote Western Isles 
at that [rariod. But the [xtc<diar character of 
the monument, with its sculptured panels 
filling np the bock uf the recessed arch, is 
not unknown in the Hebrides. There is a 
recessed monumental arch, similarly decorated 
on the back with sculptured panels, in the 
church of Kildonan, in the island of Eigg,' 

and among the many churches throughout the „. „. , ., 

, , , , . .. F'g' 6- Figute of a liuii 

islands there may have been others of similar ^^^^j^^ j„to the npt«r 
character. The effigy of the person commem- part of the wall of the 
omted by this elaborately sculptured tomb at ^ovei, RowdilL 
Kowdill (figs. 8, 9) is represented in armour of 

plate corresponding to the jtcriod. The conical bassinet is surrounded 
by a jewelled wreath ; the camail short, the military belt confining the 
lower part of the close-fitting jupon worn over a hauberk with vandyked 

1 Drscril-eJ aad liguruil by rrofessor HncpherBon of Eigg, in tlio Procetdinga, To). 

vii. |>. 5S3. 



edge, the thigh-piecea curiously hii^ed, the kuee-pjeces peaked, and 
the soUerets short and obtusely pointed. The sword, which is cross- 
hilted, is held by both bands in front of the figure, the pommel 
reaching to the breast, and the point of the sword placed between the 


rUn of Transept Jamb, nortli ElevBtion of Jamb of North 

sido of Nnve. TransopL 

Fig. S. Details of Arcfaes luid Jtmiba of Tnmupta. 

The decoration of the panels forming the back of the recess b very 
peculiar (see % 10). On the left and over the feet of the effigy there 
is a hunting scene, in which a huntsman on foot, armed with sword and 
spear, is followed by two attendants, each with two hounds in leash. In 
the panel immediately in front, is n group of three sti^. The panel 
atljoining the inscription bears a representation of St Michael weighing 
souls, the devil sitting by, and evidently taking a practical interest in the 


Operation. In the second row of panels, beginning again at the left, we 
have first the representation of a castle, then three panels with canopied 
niches, of which the centre one represents the Virgin crowned and seated 
on a throne, and bearing in the right hand a eceptre, while with the left 
she supports the Holy Child upon her knee ; 
the two panels on either side represent abbots 
— the one on the left with mitre and crosier, and 

the right hand raised in theattitude of benedic- l 

tion ; the one on the right presentii^ a skull, as ^ 

the emblem of mortality, in his right band, and 
holding the crosier with his left. The last 

panel in this row shows a galley in full sail, Fig. 7. FcmtorHoly-Watpr 
and the side pierced for seventeen oars, not ch "'*h'"Rowiiill*'"^" 
bonie heraldicolly upon a shield, but represented 

pictoriallf, as if it forraed part of the symbolism with which 
it is surrounded. The three upper panels immediately underneath 
the crown of the sreh contain figures of angels. In the centre panel 
are two angels face to face blowing trumpets, and on either side a 
single nngel with a censer. The fronts of the voussoira of the arch are 
also decorated with a series of sculptures, the centre-piece over the 
crown of the arch representing God the Father seated, crowned with a 
tiara, and holding l>etween the knees the figure of the crucilied Saviour 
nailed to the cross, with angels on either side. Of the eight panels 
bordering the sides of the arch, one on each side is filled with the figure 
of an angel holding a censer, and three on each side are filled with pairs 
of figures holding inscribed scrolls which are now illegible. There are 
traces of a nimbus surrounding the beads of some of the figures which 
are best preserved. Sir Walter Scott regarded them as figures of the 
twelve apostles ; but they seem more likely to be merely emblematical. 

Of the other two effigies, the one in the nave to the west of the 
transept (fig. 11) represents a man in armour with high peaked bassinet 
and caniail over a habergeon reaching to the knee. The nature of the 
defences of the feet and legs is not indicated. He holds a long straight 
cross-hilted sword in front, the pommel reaching to the breast and the 
point placed between the feet. A dagger hangs at his left side, but the 



Fig.Il. Effigy ill reccKied Arch to vent of I'nntBpt 


military belt is wanting. The third effigy, which now lies at the end of 
the south tran.sept (see fig. 2), is apparently in armour of plate, with low 
conical bassinet and camail, but the details are much worn, and difficult 
to make out. He holds the long sword in the same fashion as the other 
two effigies, with the pommel on the breast and the i)oint between the 
feet ; but in this case the sword has the reversed guard, so commonly 
seen on many of the West Highland monuments. 

Mr Thomas S. Muir, author of the well-known work on the Character- 
isttcs of Old Church Architecture in Scotland^ who visited Rowdill in 
1866, has the following remarks on the architectural features and probable 
date of the church, in his recently issued work, entitled Ecclesiological 
Notes on some of the Islands of Scotland : — 

Excepting some curioua sculptures built into the tower, there is nothing in 
the exterior of the building deserving much notice. Within there are some 
very interesting feature?, viz., the peculiarly moulded arches and jambs of the 
side chapels ; an armed effigy recumbent on a stone coffin in the south chapel ; 
the upper portion of a small cruciform pillar of the Argyleshire pattern bearing 
the crucifixion on one of its faces ; and two sepulchral recesses in the south 
wall of the church, one of them eastward and the other westward of the tran- 
sept al chapel. The eastc^m recess contains a mailed effigy recumbent on a low 
tomb. Behind, the wall of the recess is composed of twelve sculptured panels, 
each panel forming a distinct subject in bold relief. The recess westward of the 
chapel was probably adorned in a similar manner, but now the only sculpture 
is a crucifix, with the usual figure on either side, placed in the spandrel of the 
canopy. Respecting the age of the building, it would be venturesome to say 
anything positively, for besides the uncertainty created by the anomalous 
character of some of its details, nothing at all satisfactory has been recorded 
touching the date of its erection. Judging from the shape of moist of the 
windows, and the kind of tooth and nail-head ornamentation earned under the 
label monlding and along the spokes and monials of the east end one, some- 
where about the thirteenth century might be supposed ; and very likely the 
greater part of the shell of the building, and the smaller windows in it, belong 
to that date, though certainly not the chapels, which it is just possible were 
not comprised in the original plan, for notwithstanding the resemblance to 
First Pointed, and even in some parts to Romanesque, observable in the arches 
and jambs, the work is evidently imitations only of these styles, and in all 
probability not earlier than the fifteenth century. Donald Monro, High Dean 
of the Isles, says (1594) : — " Within the south pairt of this isle (Harris) lyes ane 



monastery with ane steipell, quhilk waa foundit and big^t by M*Cloyd of 
Harrey, callit Roodill." Who this particular Macleod of Harris was, and at 
what time he lived, it is impossible to say ; but as in the early part of the six- 
teenth century a Sir Alexander Macleod was rector of Harris, it is likely that 
he is the person referred to by the Dean. In the Old Statistical Account the 
minister of Harris also speaks of, apparently, this Alexander, and of his being 
the putative founder of Rodill, but asserts that he only repaired the building ; 
and this I am disposed to believe was all that he did, as, though by no means 
ancient, it must have been standing long before his time. Not very long how- 
ever, for the whole character of the structure bears the impress of a period late 
in the practice of ecclesiastical architecture ; and although in the mouldings of 
the arches, east window, and monumental recesses in the side walls, there are 
ornamentations peculiar to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, these an eye at 
all tutored will readily detect as merely imitations of the primitive types, just 
as we find such forms to be so in other comparatively modem buildings whose 
dates of erection are matters of history. 

Alexander Macleod of Dunvegan, better known as Alaster Crotacb, 
or Humpbacked, had in 1498 a charter from King James IV. of the 
lands commonly called Ardmanach, in Herag of the Lewis, which had 
belonged hereditiirily to his father William Macleod, and had been held 
by him in cajnte of John, the late Lord of the Isles, by reason of whose 
forfeiture they were then in the king's handa The reddendo of the 
charter is the ordinary service of ward and relief, together with the 
attendance of a galley of twenty-six oars and two galleys of sixteen oars 
when required, the king reserving the eyries or falcons' nests within the 
said lands. The inscription assigns the erection of the elaborately orna- 
mented tomb to the year 1528, and hence it would appear that it must 
either have been erected in honour of William Macleod by his son 
Alexander, or alternatively by Alexander (son of William) in his own 
lifetime for himself. Alaster Crotacb was alive in 1539, for in that 
year he had a charter of the lands and barony of Glenelg, which Hugh 
Fraser of Lovat had then resigned. He is mentioned as dead in a 
document, dated 10th January 1546-7, which conveys to the Earl of 
Argyle a gift of the ward of the lands which belonged to umquhile 
Alexander Macleod of Dunvegan. Ahister Crotach was succeeded by 
his eldest son William, who died without male issue in 1553, leaving 
an infant daught^T Mary, sole heir to the old hereditary jwssessions of 


the Seill Tormod or Macleods of Harris. These possessions included 
the lands of Harris, Dunvegan, Minganish, Bracadale, Duirinish, Lyne- 
dale, and Glenelg, but he was also the vassal of the Crown in the lands 
of Troutemess, Sleat, and North Uist, which made these extensive 
estates a male fief.^ The contention which arose over the succession in 
consequence, and the subsequent fortunes of the heiress Mary Macleod, 
as one of the four Maries, famous in the CJourt of Mary Queen of Scots, 
are matters of history, and need not be further referred to, as we are 
at present more specially concerned with the history of the fabric itself. 
Buchanan states that the church of Rowdill was built by Alexander 
Macleod of Harris — the Alaster Crotach already mentioned, who first 
appears in possession of Harris in 1498, and was dead in 1546. The 
" personage of Roidill in Hereis " appears among " the teinds and 
personages pertaining to the Bishop," in the rental of the Bishopric of 
the Isles and Abbacy of Icolmkill drawn up in 1561. The writer of 
the notice in the Old Statistical Accoxmt states that the church had 
fallen into a ruinous condition, and was repaired in 1784 by an 
Alexander Macleod, then of Harris.* After it was roofed and slated, and 
while the materials for furnishing it were within it, the church caught 
fire through the carelessness of the carpenters, and the ne^ roof was 
destroyed. It was again repaired, and though left unfinished in conse- 
quence of the death of the zealous proprietor, it continued to be used as 
one of the preaching stations in the parish. About fifteen years ago it 

1 Alaitter Crotach had obtained a charter of the bailiary of these lands 15th June 
1498 ; but a fortnight after, on 28th June, another charter made the same grant 
to Torqoil M'Leod of Lewis. In 1528 Alexander, the laird of Harris, brought an 
action before the Lords of Council against John MacTorchill M'Leod and others, 
for dispossessing them of the bailiary of Trouterness and lands annexed to that 

' The following inscription on a tablet on the west wall of the church com- 
memorates this restoration : — 

"iEdes Has 8acras + Atavomm suorum pietate + Deo et S. Clement! + olim 
dicatas + postqnam + mutatae religionis furor + omnia nndiqne miscens et yastans + 
adjuncta fratrum et sororum Coenobia+solo lequasset + Ipsisque his muris+jam 
plus cc annoa nudis et neglectis + vix pepercisset + Restituit et omavit + et 
postea igne fortuite haustas + iterum re8taurayit + Alexander Macleod de Harris + 



appears to have again fallen into a very dilapidated condition, and 
required extensive repairs and roofing. Fortunately it was at that time 
taken in hand by the present Dowager Countess of Diinmorc, who had 
it re-roofed and secured from the weather, and later on the writer of 
these notes had the pleasure of having the walls cleaned down and 
re-pointed, the old carvings and mouldings uncovered and cleared of 
rubbish, and the church seated with movable benches for service. 

Monday, 9^^ March 1885. 

Sir W. FETTES DOUGLAS, LL.D., P.R.S.A., Vice-President, 

' in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly 

elected : — 


KiRKMAN FiNLAT of Dunlossit, Isky. 

Andrew Hay, Oriental Club, Hanover Square, London. 

David Whitelaw, Mansfield House, Musselburgh. 


Charles S. Temple, Cloister Seat, Udny, Aberdeenshire. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By George Robertson, F.S.A. Scot, Dunfermline. 

Wliorl of Claystone, \\ inches diameter, ornamented with two 
grooves round the circumference, and oblique lines on the upper surface, 
found in Berwickshire. 

Ball of Greenstone, 1^^ inches diameter, smoothed on the surface, 
found in Berwickshire. 

(2) By Spencer G. Perceval, Severn House, Hanbury, Bristol. 

Bead of blue glass, one inch in diameter, flattened on both sides, and 
ornamented with slightly projecting bosses traversed by white spirals, 


fouud on lirighouse Pami, Logje, uear Kilmany, I'ifushire. Beads of 
this de8cri[)tion nre not often met with in Scotland. The tyjte most 
characteriatio of the Scottish area ia shown in the two esampliis found 
at Cawdor, Nairnshire, and here figured along with the Fifeahire 
apeeinien for comporiaon. 


Fig. 1. Bead of Bine OIus, Figs. 2 luiil 3. Beads of bla« gtais, 
with white spirals, found with jcllow sjiirals, found at Cawdor, 

in Fifesliire. Haimshire (actual sizp). 

(3) By Gbobob Brucb, Sand Lodge, Shetland. 
Two Shetland Spinning- Wheels. 

(4) By Thohab Chaphan, Auctioneer, 1 1 Hanover Street. 
Rnde Old Wooden Chair, from the North- West Highlands. 

(5) By Andrew Rosa, S.S.C, 53 George Street. 

Lithograph of the Guidon of the Regiment of Dragoons raised by 
Henry, Lord Cardross, in 1689. 

(6) By R. W. Cochran-Patrick, of Woodaide, IX.D., M.P., the 

Catalogue of the Medals of Scotland, from the earliest period to the 
present time. 4to. Edinburgh, 1884. 

(7) By the Atrshibe and Wigtownshire Abch«ological Associa- 

tion, through R.W. Cochran-Patrick, M.P., Secretanj. 

Archeological and Historical Collections of the Ayr and Wigtown- 
shire Associatioa Vol. iv., 4to. 1884. 

Charters of the Royal Burgh of Ayr. Printed for the Ayr and 
Wigtown Arehieological Association, 4to. 1883. 


(8) By T. J. Carlyle, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 

The Scotts of Euisdale. 10 pp. 6vo. Privately printed. 

(9) By Jambs Anderson, Kirkwall, the Publisher. 
Anderson's Guide to the Orkney Islands. 8vo. Kirkwall, 1884. 

(10) By Rev. Charles Rogers, D.D., LL.D, F.S.A. Scot, the 


Social Life in Scotland. 2 vols. 8vo. Grampian Club, 1884. 

(11) By Wyatt Papworth, the Author. 

The Renaissance and Italian Styles of Architecture in Great Britain. 
43 pp. 8vo. 1884. 

(12) By J. Marley Hay, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 
The Scenery of the Dee, Aberdeen. 4to. 1884. 

(13) By Alexander Walker, F.S.A. Scot, President of Almr- 

deen Art School, the Author. 

Disblair, 1634-1884, or an Old Oak Panel and Something thereon, 
1884. Church Relics shown at the Seabury Centenary Exhibition, 

(14) By P. H. M*Kerlib, F.S.A. Scot, the Author. 

History of the Lands and their Owners in Galloway. 5 vols. 8vo. 
Edinbui^'h, 1870-79. 

There were exhibitod : — 

(1) By Mrs K. Maclellan, Molfort, Argylcshire. 
Necklace of Beads and Plates of Jet, an<l Armlet of thin beaten 
Bronze, found in a cist with an unbumt skeleton at Melfort, Argyle- 
shire. The cist was apparently one of a group, of which two were 
discovered by the workmen engaged in making some road alterations at 
Melfort. In one of the cists there was nothing observed but some 
traces of the bones. In the other cist ^Irs Maclellan discoveretl a 


necklace of jet beads and a pair of armleta of thin bronze, which had 
l)cen deposited vith the interment. The necklace lescmbled those 
already in the museum, as described in the Pror.eedingg, voL viii. pp. 
408, 412, and vol. xii. p. 296, and was nearly equal in completeness to 
the more elaborate necklace found at n.ilcitlk, wliich is figured in the 
Proeee'ltTtgK, vol. ii, (New Series) p. 262. The beads and plates were 
of the usual forms, the plates decorated with punetulnted ornamentation, 
and the small triangular pendant present. The armlets of bronze arc 
more peculiar. One was unfortunately so much damaged as to be 
incapable of reconstruction, but its fn^nients showed that it had been 
precisely similar in pattern, size, and workmanship to the other. The ' 
second armlet, which is here figured (fig. 2), tlioiigh not quite entire. 

Fig. 2. Bronze Armlet faund with a Ntcklacc of Jet Bttkils in a Ciat at 
Hclrort, ArKylcshirc (actaal «izv). 

at least presents a complete view of half of its surface, and, on the 
upper side, of the whole of its circumference. It measures 21 inches in 
diameter and 2 inches in height. The bronze of which it is comirased 
is extremely thin, the fractured edges showing sections not much thicker 
than ordinary writing paper. It is finished at the openings with a 


slightly thickened and rounded edging, and decorated on the exterior 
surface with three bands of three parallel lines each, passing round the 
circumference of the armlet, and in the spaces between the bands a series 
of slightly swelling lozenge-shaped ornaments beaten up from the back. 
This is the first example of this variety of bronze armlet which is 
known to have occurred in Scotland, and it is doubly interesting from 
the fact of its having been associated with a necklace of beads of jet 

(2) By J. W. CuRSiTER, F.S.A. Scot., KirkwalL 

A Selection from his Collection of Stone Implements, &c, from 
( )rkney and Shetland, comprising : — 

(1) Celt of polished yellow porphyrite, 12 inches long, 2| mchcs 
broad, and If inches thick, presenting an oval cross section in the 
middle of its length. It has a semi-circular cutting edge, and tapers to 
a conically pointed butt. One of the faces is convex, the other slightly 
concave lengthwise and a little flattened towards both ends ; on this 
face there is a slight hollow across the centre, and several rough-surfaced 
depressions where the grinding has not reached. It was procured in 
the Island of Trondra, Shetland, and has been used for cutting some 
material which has stained the edge brown. 

Celt of polished dark green serpentine foimd at Houlland, Stenness, 
Shetland, 10 J inches long, 3 inches wide at edge, 1^ inches wide at butt, 
1 J inch thick in the centre, with oval cross section in the centre, but 
slightly flattened on the sides close to the cutting edge. 

(2) Celt of polished dark green serpentine, 4j inches long, 3 inches 
broad at edge. If inch thick, with oval cross section, and tapering to a 
sharp but fractured butt, found in a mound in Westray with No. 3. 

(3) Celt of polished grey felstone, 6^ inches long, 2 J inches broad, 
1^ inch thick, with oval cross section; the edge is crooked and oblique 
and the butt slightly flatten e<l. It is pitted all over where softer 
particles have decomposed, and on one of the faces near the butt there 
is a small patch of what resembles green serpentine. These two celts, 
(Xos. 2 and 3) were found in a mound at Gill Pier, Westray, as were 
also three or four human skeletons. This mound seems incorrectly 


described as the remains of a Broch in the list of Orkney Brochs in 
Archaeologia Scotica, vol. v. 

(4) Celt of jwlishcd jadeite of somewhat triangular form, 5j 
inches long, 3f inches broad at angles of edge, and f inch thick in the 
centre, sharp all round and the butt pointed, slightly roughened on both 
sides about the middle, apparently for additional security in handling. 
It was said to have been found in Cunningsburgh, Shetland, but is 
almost identical in material and shape with one from New Caledonia in 
the Society's Collection. 

(5) Celt of quartz, found in a field at Saveroch, St Ola, Orkney, 
5 1 inches long, 2\ inches broad, and If inch thick, showing polish on 
one side and one face, the other side, face, and ends being decomposed 
or broken. It has had an oval or nearly circular central cross section 
and been obtusely sharpened at both ends, resembling an unperforated 
hammer head. Near it were found the butt of a polished celt of very small 
grained granite, a perforated hammer head, minus the ends, several smaH' 
hammer stones, flint chips, and fragments of an ornamented clay vessel. 
Several stone cists were destroyed in this field about twenty years ago. 

(6) Celt of polished serpentine, from Tingwall, Shetland, having the 
sides flattened and the edge nearly in line with one of the faces, which 
is flat, the other being convex, 3^^ inches long, | inch thick, the edge 
nearly 2 inches wide, butt If inch wide. 

(7) Celt of polished serpentine, found at Clivocast, Unst, Shetland, of 
somewhat similar form to that last described. If inches long. If inches 
broad at the edge, 1 i inches broad at the butt, and ^ an inch thick. 

(8) Celt of greenish coloured granitic stone (one of three found at 
Housetter, Tingwall, Shetland), 9tV inches long; the sides expand 
towards the cutting edge which is 3 J inches wide, tapering to a conical 
shaped butt, and an oval cross section in centre which is IJ inches 
thick ; the surface of this celt is very much decomposed, but traces of 
the jwlish are still discernible. 

(9) Knife of serpentine, polished, found in North Mavin, Shetland, 
of somewhat triangular form, 8 inches long, 4f inches broad, and f inch 
thick, sharpened on two edges, the other being rounded as if for holding 
in the hand. 


(10) Knife of serpentine, polished, found at Scalloway, Shetland, of 
subquadrangular fonn, 5^ inches long, 3| inches broad, and J inch 
thick in the centre; it is sharpened to an edge on three sides, 
the other being rounded, and is almost identical in shape with fig. 
263 of Dr Evans's Ancient Stone Implements and Weapons of Great 

(11) Knife of black porphyrite with quartz crystals, of a curved 
shape, polished all over and sharpened to an edge all round ; it was 
found in Delting, Shetland, and measures 5 J inches long, 1^*^^ inch 
broad, and i^ths of an inch thick in the middle. This knife is of 
larger size but similar in form to one in the Society's collection. 

(12) Rubber of black stone (material not known), from Scalloway, 
Shetland ; it is ground all over, the faces flat, with rounded sides, 
straight edge and semi-circular butt, measures 1 inch thick, 3 broad, 
and 4^ inches long ; the edge is blunt and polished on both sides. 

(13) Rubber of black porphyrite, with quartz crystals, polished, 
found in West Sandwick, Yell, Shetland, convex faces, flat sides, blunt 
edge, 2f inches long, 1^ of inch thick in centre. If inches broad at 
edge, and \\ inches broad at butt, which is roughly squared. 

(14) Rude stone implement of the type known as "Club-like," found 
in February 1883 at Housetter, Tingwall, Shetland, in peat moss. It is of 
the common sandstone of the district, and measures 17 inches in length 
and 3 inches diameter at the middle where it is nearly round \ it is 
tapered to a point at one end, and is picked all over its surface except 
on one side for a space of 6 inches from the point where it appears to 
have been polished by friction. 

(15) Rude stone implement of the same type, found in a stone cist in 
St Andrews, Orkney, of hard blue sandstone, 13 inches long, 3 J inches 
broad, \\ inches thick, with flattened faces and rounded sides. It is 
chipped or picked all over its surface except on one face for a distance 
of 5 inches from the point, which is fractured. 

(16) Rude stone implement of sandstone, 10 J inches in length, 2^ 
inches diameter in the centre and tapering to both ends, one end broken, 
the other pointed, the surface picked and partially smoothed, found at 
Scousburgh, Dunrossness, Shetland. 


(17) Ornamented Stone Ball, found in St Ola, Orkney. (See Pro- 
ceedings, 8th May 1882.) 

(18) Oraamentcd Stone Ball of sandstone, covered with projecting 
knobs, found in Stenness, Orkney, identical in form with one found 
some years ago at Skaill, Orkney, and figured in the same article as the 

(19) Perforated Hammer Head of gneiss, 3 J inches long, IJ inches 
broad, and 1^^ thick, with rounded ends, flat on one face, and convex on 
the other, the sides rounded, the eye tapers from both faces and is 
situated a little towards one end ; it was found in a field in Firth, 

(20) Spear-head of bronze, socketed, leaf-shaped, said to have been 
found in Lunnasting, Shetland, lOf inches long, the blade 6f inches 
long, and 2 J inches broad at 5 J inches from the point, very thin and 
strengthened by two ribs running parallel to the edge, one on each side 
of the mid rib, the socket is ^ths of an inch wide at mouth and extends 
upwards for 6f inches ; on each side of the socket is a loop for securing 
it to the handle, the loops are flat and formed of two lozenge-shaped 
projections 1 inch long and \ inch broad. In character the spear-head 
resembles some from Ireland in the Society's collection. 

(21) Lamp of sandstone, with thumb hold, found at Housetter, 
TingwaU, Shetland. 

(22) Lamp of steatite for suspension by the two ends, from Clibbers- 
wick, Unst, Shetland. 

(23) Bead of vitreous paste, found in Evie, Orkney, with spirals of 
yellow enamel ; a size smaller but similar to one found at Slains and 
figured in Proceedings, vol. x. p. 699. 

(24) Two Beads of vitreous paste, found in Holm, Orkney, one 
amber coloured, the other mixed and very much decomposed. 

(25) Several Bone Implements, including a broch comb, long handled, 
made from the stump of a deer's horn, ornamented with design of St 
Andrew's Cross and having nine teeth, found in out-buildings at Broch 
of Lingrow, Orkney ; several Borers, with piece of marked pumice on 
which they have been sharpened, from a broch on Toftsness, Sanday; 
and two chisel-shaped Bone Implements. 


The following Communications were read : — . 



DUNS, D.D., F.S.A. Scot. 

The weapons and other articles now shown to the Society seem to me 
of considerable interest, both because of the tribal elements which make 
up the present population of Brazil, and also because of their illustrative 
value in comparative ethnology. There is a large amount of material of 
this sort in the Society's Musetun, which, while deserving of notice for 
its own sake, cannot fail to be helpful towards reliable inferences in 
regard to types of form in implements and weapons met with in 
Scotland. In archseology, as in natural history, specimens can never be 
so well known in a state of isolation as when set alongside of corre- 
sponding ones occurring in widely separated areas. To the happy phrase 
" the past in the present," we might add " the remote in the near at 
hand " — the one ^winting to type, the other to geographical distribution 
of typical forms. 

Humboldt estimated the extent of Brazil at 144,500 geographical 
square miles. The weapons to which the attention of the Society is 
now called were obtained in the provinces of Amazonas, 27,100 square 
miles, and Para, 22,500 square miles. Their rivers, the Amazon and La 
Plata, give an immense water-net, and afford in themselves and their 
tributaries a water-way into the interior. The inhabitants consist of 
the descendants of the Portuguese conquerors, immigr mts from Europe 
and America, negroes introduced from Africa, and Red Indians estimated 
to number 500,000, who, by the inroads of the whites and the mixed 
families resulting from intermarriage with the blacks, have been driven 
into the interior, where they are met with on the banks of rivers, or in 
the wide plains, or, more frequently, in the dense virgin forests. Their 
comparative isolation, their indolence, and the tenacity with which they 
cling to old habits, give importance to their present customs, weapons, 
and industrial articles, and furnish the anthropologist with facts of 


peculiar interest and value. Material in abundance for trustworthy 
generalisation in these points may already be found in the works of 
Ewbank, Kidder and Fletcher, Wallace, Bates, Keller, and H. H. Smith, 
especially when read in the light of the literature of travel in regions 
far separated from Brazil. This subject is very wide and might be very 
fully illustrated, but it can only be indicated here. The present notes 
are chiefly archaeological and ethnological. The former relate to stone 
articles, the latter to an-ows tipped with wood, bone, and iron, and also 
to some specimens of Indian pottery. The iron collar on the table is of 
some interest as an article once in common use but now fast disappear- 
ing, and which, not unlikely, will soon stand to recent Brazilian civil- 
isation very much in the same relation as the Scottish iron-collar — the 
jougs— does to ours. 

The stone specimens consist of two axe-heads, an arrow-head of pure 
quartz, a celt of nephrite, and an article the shape of a long pestle. The 
most massive of the axe-heads (1) is of yellowish quartz, containing 
comparatively large bits of a softer, but very compact, slate-like mineral 
taken up by the quartz in the process of infiltration. Its greatest length 
is 5 J inches; greatest breadth, where the lateral bevel of the bevelled 
edge begins, 3f inches ; breadth at top, § of an inch ; girth, a little 
above the bevel of the cutting edge, 8f inches, and about \ of an inch 
from the tip 3 J inchea It is partially grooved on both sides, not at 
the edges ; groove deepest at the middle. 

The next specimen (2) is a green stone, with thickly disseminated 
crystals of augite. Length, 5| inches ; breadth, where the lateral bevel 
begins 3|, and at the tip 2^ inches. Girth, a little above bevel of the 
cutting edge, 8f , and at groove 7 inchea The groove lies on the whole 
of one side and on both edges, but the half of the other side is un- 
grooved. Looking at the grooving, not only of the implements before 
us but of many others I have examined, so great variety of modifications 
occur as almost to warrant the inference that the implement was made 
to suit the handle, not the latter for the former. 

The celt, or, perhaps better, " the skinning knife," (3) is of nephrite. 
Length, 2| inches ; breadth, at unbevelled sides of the bevelled edge 
1 i inch, at tip | of inch ; i)olished both on the sides and margins, but 


not sufficiently to hide the inequalities of the surface ; thickness, ^th of 

The arrow-head (4) consists of pure, diaphanous quartz. Length, 
2| inches ; spatulose and bevelled at broad end, where it is § of an inch 
broad ; on each margin a series of sharp points. This is an exceedingly 
pretty form. Like the others now noticed, it was obtained from 
uncivilised Red Indians I have referred to it as a weapon, but it is 
doubtful if it was ever used as such. Keller and others described the 
xerembita, or lip-ornament of the Cyaowa, as a cylinder of from 12 to 15 
centimetres in length, made of the transparent yellow-green of the jataha 
tree, inserted in a bamboo tube, and that worn by the Tupi as made of 
quartz, and worn only by the chiefs and the priests. It is inserted in 
the perforated under lip ; not unlikely this specimen was used as a lip 
ornament. But that stone arrow-heads were once much used by these 
Indian tribes is certain. "The Corvados," says Keller, "fasten old 
knife blades at the end of the arrows they use for the tiger (jaguar — Fdis 
onca), tapir, and wild hog shooting. Formerly they had flint points, 
quite identical with those found in the Pfahlbauten. Hundreds of 
these are sometimes discovered in the sites of former settlements." 

The only other article in stone to be noticed is the pestle-like form 
(5) now shown. It is of compact felspar, or felstone ; length, 1 foot 3^ 
inches ; at the round point it is 1 J inches in diameter ; at the heavy end 
a blunt oval — major axis 2 J inches, minor If inches. It seems, from the 
indentations on the small end, that this was the one used for pounding. 
The arrow type of weapon was, no doubt, a slender straight stick 
sharpened to a point, and when the tip came to differ from the shaft, 
the type was not changed, it was only modified — the difPerentiations 
being all on the side of efficiency, stone tips being better than wood, 
bone almost as readily fashioned as stone and less liable to break, and 
iron more cfifective than either. The survival of all the forms among 
the great tribe of uncivilised men, may have no other meaning than that 
they find an arrow of one material better fitted for a special purpose than 
one of a different material would be. Keller informs us that the Indians 
on the Amazon and Madeira rivers make their bows of the dark wood 
of the paxiuha palm, and their arrows from the stems of the uM reed. 


In some of the ancient burial places axe-heads of diorite and other stone 
weapons are found alongside of arrows tipped, as at present, with bone 
and bamboo. 

I have been warned to beware of abrading the skin when handling 
the arrows, as it is usual for their makers to touch the tip with the 
quick arrow poison — the woorare — prepared by the Indians from the 
juice of the bruised stems of several strychnos (chiefly S. toxifera), and 
dogbanes (Apocynacew), The juice is boiled over a coal fire, mixed 
with tobacco liquor and Spanish pepper (capsicum), and thickened with 
the milk of some Euphorhicicem, It is a dark-brown pitchy substance, 
and as a blood poison very deadly. Whence the knowledge of the 
noxious principles in these plants, and the skill in organic chemistry by 
which these Indians were enabled at first to prepare this poison ? The 
(juestion might be as aptly asked in regard to mandiDCOy the " Bread of 
Brazil" — farinha or cassava — obtained from the manioc plant (Janipha 
manihet)j one of the Euphorbtacece, by a process even more complex, in 
which the starch in the tubers is separated from a strong narcotic poison 
and utilised as bread. By a corresponding process, learned from the 
practice of the red man, the white man elaborates from the poison juice 
of the same tul>ers the well-known tapioca. The existence of such skill 
among tribes far remote from centres of civilisation, seems to indicate, 
Muth considerable emphasis, that the original state of the savage was not 
the savage state. 

Of the arrows now noticed, five are tipped with wood of a different 
kind from that of the shaft, two are tipped with bone, and two with 
iron. Notices are of frequent occurrence in works in Brazilian travel of 
the use of stone arrow-heads at a comparatively recent period, if not 
even now, but I have not been able to get examples of head and shaft 
together. It is interesting to find within one area illustrations of most, 
if not of all, the materials in use for war arrows. I do not think, 
however, that the fact suggests chronological sequences of any sort, but 
simply that man can turn his environments to good account. Perhaps, 
in efforts to picture the resources of prehistoric tribes, too little account 
has been made of the varied purposes to which wood may have been 
turned, l)oth for war implements and in industrial art. Looking at 


these anx)ws, one is much struck with their neatness, and with the 
ingenuity employed in making them efPective weapons. One of the 
Para wood-tipped fonns consists of a slender but comparatively strong 
bamboo shaft, headed by about seven inches of hard wood tapering to a 
sharp point This again is jammed into a piece of bamboo, more than 
twice the girth of the shaft, and about 14 inches long, shaped like 
a huge quill, and tied firmly to the hardwood tip. It must make a 
very ugly wound. The sliaft is feathered by the primaries from the 
wings of the hornbill (Buceros), Two of the Amazonas specimens 
are mounted in a similar way, though they are in all respects much 
stronger. A Para specimen has the head piece of hardwood tapering 
to a fine point, near to which a bit of wood of a different kind, in form 
somewhat like a scalene triangle, is laid on the hard wood, the apex of 
the triangular piece reaching to near the point, the angle distal to the 
shaft being replaced by a process like a bird's claw. This forms the 
barb. One from Amazonas, smaller than these just mentioned, has a 
dangerous look about it, especially as it has been covered with the sharp 
arrow poison. Its shaft is of bamboo. Its long tip of hard wood 
tapers to a fine point, and by a simple process nine barbs have been 
formed a little below the tip. Weapons similar to those now described 
are also to be met with in Borneo and the Philippine Islands. Both of 
the bone-tipped s])ecuuens are from Para. The shafts are of pretty 
large reeds, topped, as in the wood specimens, with hardwood, in one 
case by a splice, in the other by being, fishing-rod like, fitted into the 
hollow reed, the top of the one piece and the bottom of the other being 
firmly tied to prevent splitting, while the string itself is so applied as to 
present a pretty wavy appearance. The bone tip of the one is compara- 
tively broad, slightly bent in the middle, and with a spatulate point. 
The convex part lies on the straight wood, and is lashed to it so that its 
respective ends form point and barb. The tip of the other is aflfixed in 
the same way; both point and barb, however, are round instead of flat. 
The iron-tipped specimens have four-sided jxjints and barbs. A good 
example of the bow in use among the Indians of Amazonas is shown 
along with the arrows. 

It was a long time after the discovery of America that European 


thiukcrs began to appreciate the value of tlio knowledge spread out 
before them. The old world had its history covering thousanrls of years, 
but here were immense numbers of men spread over a great continent, 
without written records, yet with aspects of industrial art and social life 
as varied and as well marked as those of Europe. And it is only at the 
present day that we are beginning to see the full significance of this. 
The immobility with which we have readily credited savage tribes, or 
tribes far remote and isolated from great centres of civilisation, is yearly 
having doubt cast on it by the literature of recent travel Evidences 
are constantly turning up that there has been movement, though this 
has not been onward and upward. It has, on the contrary, been retro- 
grade, as the fictile ware of so many tribes show. There are Red Indian 
antiques as well as Grecian. The contrast between the shape and 
ornamentation of the pottery of present Indian tribes, and that found in 
the graves of their ancestors is bold and striking. The advantage lies 
all with the olden times, both as to pattern and ornament, though the 
skill to utilise the only materials at hand is as well developed as before. 
The specimens on the table are good examples of modem Indian pottery. 
Judging them by touch and scratch, I was inclined at first to conclude 
they were of stone, but one of them, having been accidentally broken, 
presented a grain altogether unlike any mineral with which I am 
acquainted. The substance may be a preparation resembling that which 
was used by the Tennessee Indian tribes for the manufacture of 
pottery (Du Pratz, Histoire de la Louisiane, 1758. Dumont, Memoires 
Historiqiies stir la LiOuisiaTie, 1753). Having selected the best clay for 
the puri)Ose, the Indian women pounded shells to a fine powder which 
they mixed with the clay by adding water and kneading it with feet or 
lianda H. H. Smith {Brazil: the Amazona aiid the Coast, p. 378) says 
of the South American Indian woman, with reference to the next step in 
the process : — " She forms long ropes of clay by rolling it on a board. The 
ropes are laid one over another from the edge of the circle (which forms 
the bottom) so as to build up the sides. At intervals the sides are shai>ed 
with calabash spoons, scraped with shells, and smoothed with a leathery 
fungus previously wetted. When the lower part is made it is set in 
the sun to harden, so that it will support the upper layers. Finally, the 



edge is turned over and finished outside with a thin roll, marked with a 
jaguar's tooth. It is next baked over a hot fire oijatahy bark (Hyniencea 
mirahilis) ; the pot is then polished with a pebble, and varnished, while 
still hot, with jaiahy resin." In some cases, instead of powdered shell, 
the clay is mixed with ash from the bark of a leguminose plant, the 
caraipS-tree, prepared for the purpose by being beaten in a wooden mortar. 
The Brazilian Imperial policy in connection with slavery took a 
beneficent turn in 1852, when the African slave trade was declared 
illegal Since then the amelioration of the slaves* condition has been 
steadily kept in view, while facilities for enabling them to purchase 
their own freedom have been greatly increased. In 1856, when Ewbank 
published his book, Life in Brazil, the condition of the slave was still 
miserable in the extreme. At the whim of their owners they might be 
scourged, loaded with iron shackles, or made to wear the tin " mask," 
"the log and chain," or " the iron collar." "The mask is the reputed 
ordinary punishment and preventative of drunkenness. It hinders her 
or him from conveying liquor to the mouth, below which the metal is 

continued, and opposite to which there is no opening Except a 

projecting piece for the nose, the metal is simply bent cylinder-wise. 
Minute holes are punched to admit air to the nostrils, and similar ones 
in front of the eyes. A jointed strap (of metal) on each side goes round 
below the ears, and meets one that passes over the crown of the head. 
A staple unites and a padlock secures them *' (Ewbank). Its use, how- 
ever, is not confined to drunkards only. Field negro women and girls 
were often forced to wear it. " The log and chain '* was wont to be the 
usual punishment for a slave who had absconded, and it is still to be 
met with, though not so frequently as it was a few years ago. The log 
is fastened by a strong heavy chain to the neck or leg of the runaway. 
He is forced to labour with it, laying the log on the ground when at 
work, and bearing it on his shoulders when he walks. "The iron 
collar " is of " inch round iron, with a hinge in the middle, made by 
bending the metal of its full size into loops, the open ends flattened 
and connected by a half-inch rivet.** The upright bar of the specimen 
before us is a large floreate-like cross, ten inches in height, the transom 
being nine inches. Its weight is 4 lbs. 1 1 ozs. AMien the rivet is in 


its place it will thus be nearly 5 lbs. This yoke must be peculiarly 
galling. It is borne by day and by night. I have laid on the table 
another article of some interest. In 1 856 Ewbank said — " Every gang 
of coffee carriers has a leader, who commonly shakes a rattle, to the 
music of which his associates behind him chant." We now know that 
the negroes borrowed this from the Red Indians. It is an imitation of 
their sacred instrument the Maracdy which is sounded at their religious 
dances and incantations. 

I have thought that these ethnological notes might be of some interest 
to the Society, when associated with the weapons and other articles now 
exhibited, especially as most of the forms correspond with those in use 
in our own and other countries at kindred stages of civilisation. 



By a. H. MILLAR, F.S.A. Scot. 

The old kirk of Weem, near Aberfeldy, contains one of the most 
peculiar mural monuments in Scotland, and as it has not hitherto been 
noticed, so far as I can find, a description of it may be of value alike to 
the antiquary and the genealogist. Some reference to the history of the 
kirk of "Weem is necessary to account for the existence of the monument 
within its walls; and the greater portion of the following sketch is 
derived from charters and family papers in the possession of Sir Robert 
Menzies, Bart., of Castle Menzies. 

The kirk of Weem stands in the midst of the old parish burying- 
groimd, a few yards from the highway which leads from Aberfeldy to 
Castle Menzies, by General Wade's famous bridge over the Tay, and 
not far from one of the entrances to the castle grounds. Its history is 
intimately associated with that of the Menzies family. The oldest 
charter in existence at Castle Menzies was granted by John, Earl of 
Athol, circa 1296, and contains a special clause reserving the patronage 
of the church of Weem to the granter. On 23nl October 1440, King 


James II. presented David Menzies, who had become a monk in the 
monastery of Melrose, to the rectory of the kirk of Weem. In 1463 
the Earl of Athol gave a charter to John Menzies, bestowing upon him 
the presentation to the rectory and to the glebe ; and this gift was con- 
firmed by James III. in the following year. The " tak and assedatioun " 
of the kirk was assigned to Duncan Campbell of Glenurchy, ancestor of 
the Breadalbane family, in 1488 ; and when the barony of Menzies was 
erected in 1510, by charter from James IV., the patronage of the kitk 
of Weem was specially included in the gift. The existing building 
probably belongs to this period, and may have been built by Sir Robert 
Menzies about the time when he erected the Place of Weem, in 1488. 
Though used for devotional purposes within living memory, it has long 
been abandoned for the more modem edifice that stands near it; and it* 
has been utilised as the family-vault of the Menzies family since the 
death of Sir Robert Menzies (bom 1745, died 1813), grandfather of the 
present baronet. 

The original stmcture has consisted of an aisle running north and 
south, with an offset towards the east, where the altar formerly stood, 
thus presenting the appearance of a small nave and choir, with one 
pseudo-transept at right angles to them. The dimensions are about 
sixty feet from east to west, by forty feet from north to south, the 
choir being about twenty feet wide. Over a small ambry in the south 
wall the initials of Duncan Menzies, father of the first baronet, and of 
his wife, Jean Leslie, sister of the Earl of Rothes, who were married in 
1623, may still be traced. A door-way near the south-east comer, now 
closed up and almost overgrown with ivy, bears a heraldic shield carve<l 
on the stone lintel, on which the arms and initials of Sir Alexander 
Menzies (father of Duncan), and of his wife Margaret Campbell of 
Glenurchy are blazoned, with the date 1600, and the Latin inscrip- 
tion : — 


The knight thus commemorated was the builder of the monument 
which now stands within the old kirk, on the north wall of the choir. 


Its fonn will be understood from, the sketch now exhibited. It is 
richly carved and inscribed with armorial bearings, the lower portion 
forming a recessed altar-table, which projects beyond the line of the 
arcL On the pedestal at one side a male figure, nearly life-size, clad in 
armour, is mounted, the left foot resting on a skull, and one arm leaning 
on a cross, emblematical of Faith rising superior to Death. The open 
book in his hand has the Latin phrase carved upon it : — 


The opposite side of the monument is occupied by the well-known 
female figure with children, typical of Charity, and both figures are 
surmounted by elegantly carved canopies. A heavy moulded cornice 
runs horizontally along the whole structure, and at each comer a kneel- 
ing figure is placed, resting upon breaks in the cornice. These represent 
a knight of the sixteenth century and his lady, the latter holding a 
position over the figure of Charity, and the former appropriately 
situated on the same side as the mail-clad warrior, Faith. The faces of 
both eflBgies are turned towards the centre and apex of the monument, 
where a figure symbolical of the Creator is shown within a niche that 
rests on a truncated triangular pediment. The arms of Menzies and 
Campbell marshalled, and with their separate supporters, are carved on 
the facade of this pediment, together with the initials A.M. and M . C . 
Two angelic trumpeters recline on the cornice course, apparently 
summoning the dead to judgment; and before each of the kneeling 
figures a pedestal altar is erected, the upper surface being ingeniously 
sloped so that it may serve to represent a reading-desk to be used by 
them in the exercise of prayer. The spandrells between the arch and 
the cornice are filled in with cherubim holding wreaths with inscriptions, 
one of these being — ^Triuni Dei Gloria, and the other — Gloria Deo, 
Pax Uomikibus. The date of the erection of this monument is carved 
on the spaces between the canopies and the cornice, and is given as 
Janua. 24. 1616. 

That portion of the structure which occupies the recess imder the 
arch is of special interest, since the inscriptions declaring the meaning 
of the monument and the intention of its builder may be found there. 


The emblems of death, the skull and crossbones, with trophies formed 
of mattocks and spades, a death-bell bearing the date 1613 (the date of 
the last death commemorated), and coffins radiating from a central 
cranium, are shown within a moulded circle ; and on a large tablet 
beneath the following inscription, in somewhat obscure Latin, is cut : — 

Kegia me peperit genetrix stlrps alta Britanni Atholioe at Lawers est mihi 
avita domus, Atqae abavam spectans Huntlaei filia pulchra est attaviae est 
Edzel gens oriunda niea;. 

D[eo] 0[ptimo] M[aximo] S[equor] 
Manibus et memoria: illustris generosissime que herois Alexander Menzeis a 
Veyme, et memorise Campbell suae sponsse qui Maiorum Boni nominis et 
j>osteritatis ergo monumentum hoc exstrui curarunt. 


My mother belongs to the royal race of ancient Britons of Athol, and Lawers 
is the house of my grandmother, and also my great-grandmother is a fair 
daughter of the renowned Huntley s, and my great-great-grandmother is 
derived from the family of Edzel. 

To God, the Best and Greatest, and afterwards 
To the manes and in memory of the illustrious and most noble heroines from 
whom Alexander Menzies of Weem descended, and in memory of Campbell, 
his wife, who have been careful of the good name of their ancestors, and for 
posterity, this monument has been built. 

Around the large slab six smaller tablets are placed, bearing memorial 
inscriptions of the noble ladies commemorated, and accompanied by 
accurately carved heraldic bearings of their diflferent families. Sir 
Alexander Menzies was twice married, and as both his wives were dead 
before this memorial was built, he has placed their names on each side 
of the emblematic circle. The latest tablet is on the side nearest the 
figure of Charity, and the others are arranged in alternate chronological 
order, so that the oldest name is on the lowest tablet near the figure of 
Faith. The inscriptions are literally as follows : — 

Elizabeth Foster, filia Domini Garden sponsa 8e[cunda] domine Veym obiit 
Veym 10 Novem. 1613. 

Arms. — A chevron between three bugles. 

Margareta Campbell, filia Domini Glenvrvhye sponsa Domini Veym, obiit 
Z.S.Sep. 1598. 


Amu, — let and 4th, gyronny of eight pieces ; 2nd, a fesse chequy ; 3rd, a 
galley, sails furled, oars in action. 

Barhara Stewart, filia comitis Atholise sponsa Jacohi Mezes. mater condi- 
toris huis sepvlchri obiit z . 2 Av . 1587. 

Amu. — Ist and 4th, a fesse chequy ; 2nd and 3rd, paly of six, surmounted 
by an earPs coronet 

Christina Campbell, filia domini Lavers, sponsa Alexandri Menzeis de 
Veym, avia dicti conditoris obiit. 

Amis, — Gyronny of eight ; a bugle for difference. 

Christina Gord6 [tilia] comitis Huntliey sponsa Roberti Menzies de Veym, 
militis, abavia dicti conditoris obiit 1575. 

-<4rwM.— Quarterly ; Ist, three boars' heads, couped ; 2ud, three lions' 
heads erased, langued ; 3rd, three crescents within a double tres- 
sure, flory counter-flory ; 4th, three cinquefoils, surmounted by an 
earFs coronet 

Margareta Lindsey filia domini Edgel sponsa Roberti Mezes de Veym, 
militis, atavia dicti conditoris. 

Amns, — 1st and 4th, a fesse chequy ; 2nd and 3rd, a lion rampant, 
debruized of a ribbon in bend. 

The front of the altar-table is decorated with three panels surrounded 
by carved scrolls in high relief, the top being supported by four tapering 
pilasters, embellished with floral incised designs. The keystone of the 
arch is carved into the shape of a cherub holding a shield, bearing the 
monograms A.M. and M.C. interlaced, and these arms are repeated sepa- 
rately upon shields placed over the course of the arch, one of the helmets 
surmounting the latter being placed contoum6 for decorative reasons. 

No authentic history of the Menzies family, some of whose members 
are commemorated in this interesting monument, has yet been published. 
Xisbet's account, which has formed the text-book of more recent writers, 
is inaccurate in several instances, and dubious in many particulars. 
The following references are taken from a genealogical tree which I 
drew up last year for a special purpose ; and as it was founded upon 
charters and documents in existence in the charter-room at Castle 
Menzies, the statements may be accepted as authoritative. 

The place of origin of the Menzies family is not certainly known. 
The earliest form of the name in Scotland was Meygners^ and it is 


supposed that the family can claim descent from the same stock as the 
noble family of Manners, now represented by the Duke of Rutland. 

The first Menzies whom we can positively identify is Sir Robert de 
Meyners, who was made Great Chamberlain of Scotland when Alexander 
III. ascended the throne in 1249, and demitted that office in 1253. 
His name appears as witness to a charter in 1248, and he died (accord- 
ing to Fordun) in 1266. His son. Sir Alexander de Meyners, enjoyed 
the favour of Alexander IIL until that monarch's death, and afterwards 
distinguished himself in the War of Independence, sutfering a short 
period of imprisonment for his opposition to the designs of Edward I. 
He was the first of the family that settled at Weem, having obtained a 
cliarter of lands, in the neighbourhood of Aberfcldy, from John de 
Strathbogie, Earl of Athol, in 1296. He was married to Egidia 
Stewart, daughter of James, High Steward of Scotland (1243-1309), 
and Cecilia, daughter of the Earl of March; and he died in 1332, 
having survived his fellow-soldier and liege-lord, King Robert the Bruce, 
three years. In 1390, Sir Robert de Menzies, great-grandson of Sir 
Alexander, was shield-bearer to Robert IL and to John, Earl of Carrick, 
who afterwards became the second of the Stewart dynasty under the 
title of Robert IIL Sir David de Menzies, grandson of Sir Robert, 
held an important position at the Scottish Court after the death of 
Robert III. (1406), and was named as one of the hosttiges for James L 
in 1423. In the same year he was made Commissioner of the Islands 
of Orkney and Shetland, by King Eirik of Denmark, Sweden, and 
Norway, during part of the minority of William Sinclair, the last of the 
Earls of Orkney. In 1440 he finally renounced the world, and sought 
the seclusion of a monastic cell within the Abbey of Melrose, where he 
spent the remainder of his days. Local tradition still associates the 
name of Sir David with the Holy Well of St Cuthberht, which occupies 
a position upon a shelving rock on the hill of Weem called Craig-an- 
VShapail. As has been said, he obtained from James II. the presenta- 
tion to the kirk of Weem in the year of his retirement, and probably 
died shortly afterwards. 

Sir John de Menzies, son of Sir David, accorduig to Wyntoun, was 
'* banneoure " or standartl-bearer to the Earl of Mar, son of the Wolf of 


Ba<lenoch, and accompanied him to France, taking part in the battle of 
Lie<^e in 1408. The chronicler relates an incident of this campaign, 
that had been told him by some eye-witness, and which redounds to the 
credit of Sir John as a martial hero.^ He died circa 1451, and was 
succeeded by his second son John, who died in 1487 leaving one son. 
Sir Robert, the first of the family whose name appears on the mural 

Sir Robert Menzies is memorable in the annals of the family as the 
buOder of the place of Weem. The former residence of the Menzies 
family was at Comrie Castle, on the banks of the Lyon ; but as that place 
was partially destroyed by fire in 1487 — the year of Sir Robert's accession 
— he erected a new castle near the base of the rock of Weem, at a short 
distance from the site of the present Castle-Menzies. Shortly after its 
completion (1503) the Place of Weem was destroyed by fire during a 
raid by the Stewarts of Fothergill. Sir Robert took legal action against 
the Stewarts, and though he obtained a decree from the Privy Council, 
ordering payment to be made for the damages he had suflcred, his son 
had not obtained satisfaction of the claim fifty years after, as it was 
renewed during the reign of Queen Mary in 1553. Sir Robert obtained 
a charter from James IV., erecting his possessions in Strathtay and else- 
where into the free barony of Castle-Menzies. He was married to 
Margaret, daughter of Sir David Lindsay of Edzell (ob, 1527), ancestor 
of the Earls of Crawfonl, and Catherine Fotheringham of Powrie, and 
was great-great grandfather of the builder of the monument in the kirk 
of Weem. 

Sir Robert Menzies, knight, eldest son of the last-named, succeeded 
his father circa 1520, and was married to Christian Gordon, the second 
" heroine " commemorated by the inscriptions on the monument This 
lady was the daughter of the third Earl of Huntly and Lady Janet 
Stewart (married 1503), the latter being the daughter of John, Earl of 
Athol, uterine brother of James II. Lady Christian Menzies died in 
1575, having survived her husband for several years. Her son Alex- 
ander Menzies (1536-1558) was married to Christian Campbell, daughter 
of the Laird of Lawers, whose remote representative is the present Earl 

* Cronykil of Scotlandf xl 27. 


of Loudoun. The date of this lady's death is not recorded. Her eldest 
son James is memorable as the builder of the older portion of the 
present Castle-Menzies, which he completed in 1571. He was 
married to Barbara Stewart, daughter of the third Earl of Athol 
(ob, 1542), and died 29th July 1585. His wife survived him for 
two years, dying, as the monument records, in 1587, and it was her 
son Alexander who erected this quaint memorial of his ancestry in the 
female line. 

Sir Alexander Menzies was not of age when his father died, but the 
exact year of his birth has not been recorded. He was Member of Con- 
vention for Perthshire in 1625, and survived his eldest and second son, 
the latter of whom died in 1631. As he was competent to sign a legal 
document in 1588, we may conclude that he was bom circa 1567. In 
1488 a bond of manrent was made between the then Laird of Weem, 
Sir Robert Menzies, and Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurchay, and 
exactly one hundred years afterwanls their descendants. Sir Alexander 
Menzies and Sir Duncan Campbell, renewed the connection, which ha<l 
been temporarily interrupted, by a "bond of freindschip and amitie,'* 
dated 1588. The marriage of Sir Alexander and Margaret, daughter of 
Sir Duncan Campbell of Glenurchay, probably took place shortly after 
this time, as Sir Alexander is referred to as Sir Duncan's son-in-law in a 
second bond, dated 1596. Sir Alexander seems to have been specially 
proud of his alliance with Margaret Campbell, as he has used her 
heraldic bearings in conjunction with his own very profusely throughout 
the kirk, even to the neglect of his second wife, Elizabeth Foster's, meed 
of attention. Margaret Campbell died, according to the inscription upon 
her tablet, on the 8th September 1598, and the first memorial of her 
was the inscribed lintel over the door to which allusion has been made, 
and which was erected in 1600. Two sons and three daughters were 
bom of this marriage, — (1) John, died, vita pat ris^ before 1623; (2) 
Duncan of Comrie, married to Lady Jean Leslie, daughter of the Master 
of Rothes, in 1623, and died, vitd patriSy 1631, leaving a son. Sir 
Alexander, who succeeded his grandfather and was created first Baronet 
of Castle-Menzies in 1665 ; (3) Grizel, married to Sir Thomas Stewart 
of GrandtuUy, knight (born 1608, died 1688); (4) a daughter; (5) 


Margaret {oh, 1670), married to Colin Campbell of Mochaster (oh, 
1668), second son of Sir Robert Campbell of Glenurchay, ancestor of the 
fourth Earl of Breadalbane, 

Of Sir Alexander's second wife, Elizabeth Foster, daughter of the 
Laird of Garden, no particulars have been preserved amongst the family 
documents. She was probably a descendant of Sir Duncan Forrester 
of Garden, king's comptroller, whose family was connected officially 
with the burgh of Stirling for a very long period. She seems to have 
had no children, and her death took place in 1613, as recorded on the 
monument, which was erected three years afterwarda 

Sir Alexander Menzies must have married again shortly after the 
decease of his second wife, as it is recorded in the Register of Sasines for 
Perthshire, that in 1617 he and his spouse, Marjory CampbeU, obtained 
a charter from William Murray, second Earl of TuUibariline, of "the 
mains of Garth, with the castle thereof," in conjunct fee to themselves 
and their heirs. I have been unable to discover anything further 
regarding this marriage. The Privy Council issued a licence, now in the 
charter-room at Castle-Menzies, " to Sir Alexander Menzies of Weem, his 
lady, and such persons as might be at table with them, to eat flesh 
during Lent, and on the forbidden days of the week, for the space of a 
year." The licence is dated " Holyroodhouse, 11 March 1628," and as 
Sir Alexander was certainly alive when his second son Duncan died, in 
1631, it can refer to no other person. His grandson. Sir Alexander, 
who succeeded him, could not be more than four years old at this time, 
and there is no similar person to whom this document could apply. 

The genealogy of the family of Menzies from the time of the first 
baronet {oh. 1695) till the present day, may be found in every Scottish 
Baronetage, and need not be pursued further. The foregoing sketch, 
however imperfect, is sufficient to show the relationship of the " illus- 
trious heroines " to the builder of this interesting monument ; an in- 
structive example of Jacobean sepulchral art. 



HUTCHESON, F.S.A. Scot., Architect, Dundee. 

A beautiful and interesting finger-ring was discovered in the neigh- 
bourhood of Broughty Ferry several years ago, and came under my 
notice last year. Most unfortunately the ring has since gone amissing. 
Luckily before this, I had had an opportunity of making a drawing of it. 

The ring was found some four years ago by a labourer while removing 
the ruins of an old cottage a short distance to the north of Broughty 
Ferry, but whether found in the walls, or in the ground while clearing 
out the foundation, has not been ascertained, as the original finder has 
not been seen. The ring was considered to be of brass, and was handed 
by its finder to an acquaintance, who took it home, and throw it into a 
little box amongst buttons, &c., where it lay unheeded for about three 
years, until the month of June last year, when he gave it by way of a 
jocular present to a friend, who shortly thereafter showed it to me. 
Perceiving that the ring was ancient, I obtained his permission to take 
it away for a more careful examination, at the same time mentioning a 
desire to show it to Dr Joseph Anderson. Happening to be in Edin- 
burgh, a few days thereafter I took the ring with me, but found that Dr 
Anderson was from home. I however showed the ring to Dr Arthur 
Mitchell, and to Mr Carfrae, and to Mr Sim. These gentlemen were 
all greatly interested in it, and advised me strongly to endeavour to 
secure its ultimate deposition in some place of safety. This I was the 
more anxious to do, knowing from sad experience the usual fate of such 
articles when left in the hands of those who do not know their value, 
nor appreciate the interest attaching to them. My efforts in this direc- 
tion, however, were unavailing, the possessor of the ring steadfastly 
refusing all advances. 

A few weeks after I had returned the ring, my worst fears were 
realised by his informing me that it had gone amissing. He had laid 


it in a little bos on tlie mantle-shelf, whence it hod either been abatracted 
or overturned into the hearth amongst the ashes, and hitherto the most 
careful search and inquiry have utterly failed in getting any clue to the 
missing ring. 

Such is the disappointing history of the recovery and loss of this 
most interesting relic of antiquity, which, having safely escaped tho 
vicissitudes of several centuries, and the scarcely less precarious treat- 
ment of its tinders, has by the most culpable and deplorable cnrelcsancsa 
been suffered once more to slip out of sight, — the fate of too many 
valuable antiquities, tho loss of which we have to deplore, as the result 
of their remaining in the hands of individuals not olive to their value. 

FigR. 1, 2. Ecclosiutical Gold Finger-King found near BrQnghty Yenj. Sido 
and front views (actual sute). 

Fortunately, as I have said, before giving up the ring, I mode tho 
accompanying careful drawing and description. 

The ring (fig. 1) was of 18 carat gold of the usual hue, and weighed 
6 dwts. 5 grs. troy. Its dimensions were as follows : — Opening j hich, 
narrowest part of hoop 3*5 of one inch, widest part of hoop f inch. It 
borc, whore the signet usually is, two slightly averted elongated, and 
somewhat oblate hexagonal panels, each surrounded by a plain border, 
and containing, in that on the right hand side, a figure of the Madonna 
and Child, and in the other a priest or other ecclesiastic in the act of 
blessing the sacramental cup {see fig. 2). These figures were executed 
with great delicacy and beauty in low relief, very slightly hatched, the 
outlines and background lieing filled in with black enamel. 

The Madonna is seated, and wears a crown exhibiting three points of 
floriated design ; a veil droops from the edges of tho crown, and falls 
l)eliind the shoulders. A mantle depending from the shoulders meets 


below the waist, and enwrapping the knees falls in graceful and massive 
folds to the feet, which, as in the best periods of art, are not visible. 
The right knee of the Madonna is slightly raised as if to aid in support- 
ing the child. Strange to say, no trace of the Madonna's arms or hands 
could be observed, probably out of deference to the same sense of 
decorum which dictated the covering of the feet. The under garment 
visible from the neck to the waist is lightly hatched, as if to show folds 
or shading of the dress. The child rests on the mother's right «ide, and 
appears to be almost wholly naked, a line across the shoulder or armpit 
being the only indication of a little tunic which left the arms bare from 
the shoulder. The right leg and arm of the infant stretch across its 
mother's breast, and the child's fingers are extended in the act of bene- 

The priest appears to be standing ; a nimbus, or more probably a sort 
of hood, surrounds his head. His right hand only is visible, and is 
raised in the act of blessing the cup, the forefinger being so much 
enlarged as at first to suggest the idea of its having been meant for two 
or more fingers, but the other three fingers are distinctly visible. The 
cup is of graceful outline, and appears to rest on a stand or altar, which 
is entirely covered with drapery. The background of the panels, as 
well as the principal outlines of the figures, had been filled in with 
black or very dark enamel. Beyond the panels at either end the ring 
was gradually tapered off" with a highly ornamented series of enamelled 
bands, alternating with gold bands, ridged and engraved crosswise with 
simple lines, and twisting obliquely until lost at the imder edges of the 
hoop. Although the most of the enamelling had been lost from these 
bands, fortunately enough was left to show what the ring was like when 
it was entire. First on opposite sides were two small triangular patches 
of white enamel almost entire ; next to these came a band of bright 
red or scarlet enamel ; then a band of purplish chocolate ; next a band 
of bright or emerald green, but there was not a speck left in the outer 
band on either side to show of what colour the enamel there had been. 
There were thus five or perhaps six colours of enamel. The enamels 
had been placed in little sunk panels or channels graved or beaten out 
in the gold which rose in little ridges at either side of the channels, and 


indicated therefore that they belonged to the description of work called 

As to the period to which this interesting relic is to be assigned, a 
short review of the leading characteristics of the figures and their import 
may help to a conclusion. In all early representations of the Madonna 
the head is veiled. The enthroned Madonna unveiled, with long 
tresses falling down in front of the shoulders on either side, was an 
innovation introduced about the end of the fifteenth century. In his- 
torical pictures her dress is very simple, but in devotional pictures, which 
represent her as Queen of Heaven, she wears a crown, and is often 
attired with great magnificence. It does not appear when she is first 
represented crowned, but an example exists as early as the eighth century 
on a mosaic in the Cathedral of Capua, It is necessary, however, to 
discriminate between the crowned Madonna holding her child, where 
the crown is introduced merely to heighten devotional feeling, to which 
type the figures in this ring are to be assigned, and those figures where 
the Madonna is represented in the act of being crowned by the Father 
or the Son, which are to be ascribed to the dramatic and historical type. 
The child in her arms in all early pictures is always clothed in a little 
tunia Towards the early part of the fifteenth century. He first appears 
partly and then wholly xindraped. The Virgin is rarely represented 
standing before the end of the fourteenth century. For these particulars 
I am largely indebted to Mrs Jamieson's valuable work, LegcTids of the 

A consideration, then, of these well-marked features in the treatment 
of the figures of the ring as well as a regard for the delicacy and beauty 
of the workmanship, as also of the style of enamelling, would seem to 
assign this ring to a period not very far from the close of the four- 
teenth century. 



OF Ska ILL, Orkney. 

In the summer of 1883 a steatite um was discovered by a herd boy 
digging to get at a " bee's byke " in tlie centre of a tumulus on Gyrou 
Hill, Sandwick. It was not disturbed until I was present. A flat stone 
lay on the ground, and the um stood on it mouth upwards. It was built 
round about with stones, and across the top of the building and over 
the um was laid a heavy flag cover. Clay had been packed above and 
around the outside of the cist. The um was filled to within two inches 
of its brim with calcined bones. The contents were carefully examined, 
but nothing was found among the bones. The um is 1 6 inches across 
the mouth one way and 1 5 inches the other, and stands 1 1 inches high. 
Underneath the rim it has two incised lines drawn round the outside 
by way of ornamentation. A neatly prepared slate stone, 10 inches by 
8 inches, and oval in shape, forms the bottom of the um, and rests on a 
narrow ledge or groove nmning round the inside. 

The only implement found about the mound was a rude stone, 19 
inches long, 4 inches broad, and about 2 inches thick, made sharp and 
slightly polished at the end. Mr Robert Stewart Clouston, who was with 
me when taking the um out, drew my attention to this stone, it being 
like some among his interesting collection of mde stone implements 
found in this parish. 

I may mention that within 50 yards there are several other mounds. 

Last month, January 1885, the tenant of South Scatter brought me 
a small steatite um, in fine preservation, which had been found in a cist 
on Gyron Hill, Sandwick, and not far from where the one just described 
was got. The cist in this case is placed in a low natural knowe or rising 
ground of stiff clay, and from the general appearance of the soil I am of 
opinion that no mound had ever been erected over it. The sides and 
ends of the cist were formed by four carefully dressed flags renting on a 


largo flat stone, and the cover was a neatly fitting slab, above which 
about 2 inches of clay was well packed. The grave, which is 28 inches 
in length, lies south-east and north-west. The south-east end is 15 
inches and the north-west end 17^ inches in width, and the depth is 22 
inches. It contained a few burnt bones, a small quantity of earth, and 
the urn, which was found in the north-west comer. The dimensions of 
the urn are 5 inches across the mouth in the longest diameter, and in the 
shortest 4 J inches, and 3 inches high. It measures across the bottom 
4 inches by 3 inches. Immediately below the rim is a flat incised band 
running round the exterior. This urn is smaller, but in general appear- 
ance very like the one found in 1874 in Fair Isle. 

Both the urns I have now described are in my collection at Skaill 

Monday, Uih April 1886. 

Sir W. FETTES DOUGLAS, LL.D., P.R.S.A., Vice-President, 

in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly 
elected Fellows : — 

P. J. Anderson, M.A., LL.B., Chairman of Scottish Training College, 

Alexander B. Armitage, Accountant, 14 Dick Place. 
Major FBANas Balfour of Feniie Castle, Cupar-Fife. 
James M'Call, 6 St John's Terrace, Billhead, Glasgow. 
Charles Arundel Parker, M.D., Gosforth, Cumberland. 
Charles Robertson, Redfem, Colinton Road. 
Andrew Robs, S.S.C, 4 Warrender Park Terrace. 
Randolph Erskine Wemyss of Wemyss Castle and Torrie. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 



(1) By William Robertson, 13 Pitt Street, Leith. 

Axe of granitic stone, 8 J inches in length, quadrangular in the cross 
section in the middle of its length, irregularly rounded towards the butt, 
and slightly hollowed as if for tying on to the shaft. The locality is 
unknown, but probably from British North America. 

(2) By Rev. Alexander Gordon, LL.D., Oaklands Grove, 

Shepherd's Bush, London. 

Collection of 1 1 2 Flint Flakes, and broken and splintered nodules of 
flint, of which a number exhibit secondary working, found in the 
Cabrach, Banffshire. 

Spherical Hammer-stone of quartz, from the Cabrach, Banffshire. 

One of the halves of a Bullet-Mould of claystone, from the Cabrach, 

Upper stone of a Pot Quern of sandstone, 8 J inches diameter and 
3 inches in thickness, with a pivot hole in the centre, and a semi- 
circular indentation in the margin, from Strathpeffer, Ross-shire. 

Flat oval Pebble of schist, indented on both sides, from Rhynie, 

Portion of a Sculi)tured Slab of reddish sandstone, 17 inches in 
length by 10 inches in breadth, bearing on one side two contiguous rows 
of incised diagonal fretwork, from Drainie, Elginshire. 

(3) By David Greig, U Greenhill Park. 

Mounting of bronze, consisting of a bar, 4 inches in length, with 
masks at the terminations, and with a side bar attached, which is bent 
into a semicircular form, with a diameter of 2 inches. On this semi- 
circular projection rest the hind legs of two leopanls, whose fore legs are 
disposed so that the right paw rests on the top of the mask, and the 
left on a raised portion of the bar immediately beneath it, the backs of 
the animals leaning inwards towanls each other, and the heads turned 
outwards and looking in op[>osite ways. The spots on their skins are 
rendered in niello. The derivation and purjiose of the mounting are 


unkHowii. It w^ rpsuiied by Mr (irejg from amongsl u <|uuiitily iif uld 

brass that waa about to !« cousigiioil to tlie luttltin^' pot. 

(4) By W. Scott Elliot, Arklctuii, Luiighuliii. 
Dronzc Palstave or Flanged Celt, 4} incJies in length, the flnngei) 
cx])nm1ing in n triangulnr fomi aiid slightly bttnt over, the cutting edj,'!: 
almost svniieircidar, the peaked (iiids broken ulF, as is also a j>o)'tiuii uf 
the butt at ono sido. There is no stoi^ridgi.'. Tliis si«eiiiicn (tig. 1) 
was found in Cunonhie, Dumfricssliire, by Mr Tliomns Teifcr, by whom 

it was given to the donor. It l)f;Iongs to n well-marked variety of thn 
funeral tyi>o of flanged celta or axc-hcnds of bronze, which have Iwcn 
found nearly all over Scotland; biit it is tjie first s|)ecinion of the 
variety which the Society has been able to obtain from that part of 
Dumfriesshire. For the sake of comparison, a somewhat more perfect 
sjrccimou of the same form, found in the parish of Wattcn, Caithness, 
is alao here engraved. It differs from the Dumfriesshire example only 
in having a well-<lefined stop-ridge. It measure!) 4} inches in length 


and 2 J in greatest width across the cutting face. This characteristic 
specimen was presented to the Museum in 1871 by Captain Alexander 
Gunn of Braehour, Caithnesa 

(5) By Robert Carfrab, F.S.A. Scot., Curator of the Museum. 

Bracelet of bronze, hollow, and of one and a half twists, the ends 
overlapping, and ornamented with bands of engraved lines, from Fiesole, 

(6) By Francis Whelan, through R. Carprae, F.S.A. Scot. 
War Medal of Silver, Abyssinian Campaign, 1871. 

(7) By Messrs Mackay & Chisholm, Jewellers, 57 Princes Street 

Case of Balance Covers (thirty-five specimens), taken from old Verge 
Watches, eighteenth century. 

(8) By Sir Arthur Halkett, F.S.A. Scot. 

Tattooed Head of a New Zealand Chief, brought home about the 
year 1818, by Captain Halkett, E.I.C.S. 

(9) By Professor Duns, D.D., F.S.A. Scot. 

Diploma of the Revolution Club in favour of Mr Gilbert Burd, 
Writer in Edinburgh, 3rd June 1755. 

(10) By Albxandbr J. Warden, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 

Angus or Forfarshire, the Land and People, Descriptive and Historical. 
Vols. IV. and V. 4to. 1885. 

(11) By the Lords Commissioners of H.M. Treasury, through the 

Controller op H.M. Stationery Office. 

Publications of the Record Commission, viz. : — 

Rotulorum Abbrevatio. Ed. III. Edited by H. Playford. Vol. IL 


Domesday Book, Indices and Addit. Edited by Ellis. Vols. III. 
and IV. Folio. 1816. 

Calendars of Proceedings in Chancery. Ric. IL and Eliz. Edited 
by J. Bayly. VoL III. Folio. 1832. 

Excerpta e Rotulis in Turrl, Hen. III. Edited by C. Roberts. VoL 
II. Royal 8vo. 1836. 

Calendars and Inventories of Exchequer. Edited by Sir F. Palgrave. 
3 Vols. Royal 8vo. 1836. 

Rot. Chart, in Turrl, 1199-1216. Edited by T. Duffus Haidy. 
Folio. 1837. 

Record of Caernarvon. E<lited by Sir H. Ellis. Folio. 1838. 

Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, Edited by Aneurin Owen. 
2 Vols. Royal 8vo. 1841. 

Rot. de Liberate, <fec> Reg. Johanne. Edited by T. DufiTus Hardy. 
Royal 8vo. 1844. 

Great Rolls of the Pipe. Eilited by Rev. J. Hunter. Royal 8vo. 

Modus Tenendi Parlianientum. Edited by T, Duflfus Hardy. 8vo. 

Issue Roll of Treasury Payments, 44 Ed. IIL 1370. Edited by F. 
Devon. Royal 8vo. 1835. 

Issues of Exchequer, Hen. III.-HeiL VL Edited by F. Devon. 
Royal 8vo. 1837. 

Handbook to the Public Records. By F, S. Thomas. Royal 8vo. 

State Papers, Reign of Henry VIIL 11 vols. 4to. 1830-1852. 

The following Communications were read : — 



F.S.A. Scot. 

Mr Henry Gough, to whose learned researclies I stand much indebted, 
had the goodness some time ago to send me a transcript of two pieces 
contained in a MS., written towards the close of the fourteenth century, 
and now de^wsited in the Public Library of Eeigate Church, Surrey. This 
MS. contains, among other things. Lives of the Archbishops of Canter- 
bury, ascribed to Stephen Byrchington, a monk of the same church 
(1382-1407). The authorship of the other treatises is uncertain. One 
of them is a Chronicle of England from Brutus. The pieces sent to me 
are a Scotch Chronicle, mainly extracted from the other, and entitled 
Geda Scoforumy and another i)iece embedded in it, and entitled Passio 
Scotortan Perjurattniiw, The Geda reach from 1066 to 1327, then 
comes the Passio^ followed by a loss of some leaves, after which the 
Qpsfa continue, reappearing in the midst of the description of the battle 
of Halidon Hill (1333), and going down to the defeat and capture of 
David II. at Neville's Cross, Oct. 17, 1346. 

The Passio ofl'ei*s several instances of copyist's blunders, which shoM 
that it is not the original or only copy. 

The Passio is a would-be comic narrative of events bt*tween Feb. 
1306 and Feb. 1307. Its chief characteristics are cnieUy and profanity. 
It is in the form of a parody on Scripture, and belongs altogether to 
that class of things to Avhich one naturally applies the lino of Dante — 
**Non ragionam' di lor', ma guarda, e passa." In this c«se, however, it 
happens to be a very curious historical monument. The composition 
is headed ^* Leccio Actaiun Scofffrutn, infra libnim Jtidicuniy* after 
the mamicr of a Church Lesson from the Acts of the Apostles. It is 
true that it commences with a portion of the Book of Judges but the 
contents leave no doubt that there is hero a douhlc-entaidre, and a 
reference to the judges of ordinary criminal courts, The Leccio, after 


the common opening words of an ecclesiastical lesson from the middle 
of a book, ** In diebus illis," gives the parable of the trees choosing a 
king, in Judges ix. 8-15. There is nothing peculiar about it, except 
that in verse 13, where the vine speaks of " my wine which cheereth God 
and man," the reference to God (which doubtless regards the wine- 
libations at sacrifices) is omitted. As this omission, however, is point- 
less, I am inclined to attribute it to a mere slip of the pen. After the 
imrable, the composition, again mimicking church forms, ends the 
quotation by " Et reliqua," and then, with the heading " Homilia ejus- 
dem ," and the oixjning words *' In illo tempore," at once begins the 
parody : — 

Omelia ejcsdem. 

In illo tempore, videlicet anno 
Domini MoCCC»no gexto, facta est 
contencio inter non discipulos Jhesu, 
seJ inter majores Scocie, quis eorum 
in malicia videretur esse major. 

Dixerunt autein, RegCM genciuni 
Anglicarum dominantur nobis et qui 
potestatem exercent in nos inimici 
nuetri, non benefici, nominantnr. 
Sed qui majorem potestatem habet 
inter Scotos, superior noster fiat. 

Constituamus ergo nobis Regeni, 
sicut et cetere naciones habent, qui 
excuciat cervices nostras ab Angligena 
servilute, et in prelio nos defendat. 

Ecee |>o8tquara recessimus a jMitriis 
legibus et fidei juramento, invenerunt 
nos mala multa quorum non est 
numcms propter decentiam status 


At that time, which is to say, in 
the year of the Lord one thousand 
three hundred and six, there was a 
strife among them which were, not the 
disciples of Jesus, but the chief of 
Scotland, which of them should be 
accounted the greatest in naughtiness.^ 

And they said : The kings of the 
English Gentiles exercise lordship 
over us, and they that exercise autho- 
rity upon us are our enemies and not 
called benefactors.' But he that bath 
the greatest power among the Scots, 
let him be over us. 

Therefore let us make unto our- 
selves a king, like the other nations, 
to break the yoke of the English from 
off our necks, and to defend us in 

Behold, since we left the laws of 
our fathers, and the oath of our fealty, 
many evils are come upon us that can- 
not be numbered, because of the 
weakening of our state.* 

' Luke xxil. 24. • Luke xxii. 25. ^ 1 Sam. viii. 5 ; Gen. xx?ii. 40. 

-* 1 Mace. i. 12, dccrntiam seems to l>e a mistake for dtccdtntiam. 



Provide dixerant olive, id [est], 
Goiuiti de Bo wan, Iinpera nobis. 

Qui respondit, Non possam deserere 
pingaedinem meam, id [e^t], fidem 
meam, ex qua Justus vivit, et venire 
ut inter ligna bifurcata proraovear. 

Dixeruntque ad arborem ficum, id 
[est], Comiti de Ros, Veni, et accipe 
super nos regnum. 

Qui respondit, Numquid possum 
deserere pinguedinem meam et fructus 
dulcissimos, id [est], vinculum jus- 
jurandi quo proximus proximo Deo- 
que constringitur, et ire ut int^r ligna 
maledictionis commovear ? Pro male- 
dicto cnim habetur homo omnis qui 
pendet in ligno. 

Locuta sunt quoque ligna ad vitem, 
id [est], Comitem Patricium, Veni, et 
impera nobis. 

Qui respondit, Numquid possum 
deserere viuum meum, id [est], robur 
fidelitatis mce, quod tactis sacrosanctis 
Evaugeliis coram Deo pollicitus sum, 
servire Regi Anglie, et ire ut inter 
ligna mortifera, flexo poplice et trun- 
cato capite, laurea perjurii merear 
coronari ? 

Dixeruntque ligna ad rampnum, id 
[est], Robertum le Brus, Comitem 
de Carrike, Veni, et impera super no's 
Qui respondit eis. Si vcre me Regem 

They said [therefore] unto the olive 
tree, that is, unto the Earl of Buchan : 
Reign thou over us.^ 

And he said unto them : I cannot 
leave my fatness, that is, my faith 
(but the just doth live by faith), and 
go to be promotetl among the gallows 

And they said to the fig-tree, that 
is, to the Earl of Ross : Come thou, 
an<l reign over us.* 

But he said unto them : Can I for- 
sake my fatness, and my good fruit, 
that is, the bond of mine oath where- 
by one neighbour is bound unto 
another, and [man] unto Gk)d, and go 
to be moved up upon the accursed 
tree 1 * For cursed sh^ll be every man 
that hangfth on a tree. 

The trees also sai I uuto the vine, 
that is, unto Earl Patrick, the Earl of 
Dunbar: Come thou, and reign over us.* 

And he said unto them : Can I 
leave my wine, that is, the strength of 
my fealty which I have promised 
before Gknl, with mine hands upon the 
Holy Gospels, to serve the King of 
England; and go to earn to be crowned 
with the crown of perjury among the 
deadly trees, with my knee twisted 
and mine head cut off ? ^ 

And the trees said unto the bramble, 
that is, unto Robert Bruce, Earl of 
Cariick : Come thou, and reign over 
ua^ And he said uuto them : If in 

' Judges ix. 8, Provide probably by mistake for proindc. 

'■^ Judges ix. 9, and Gal. iii. 11, adhering to the Vulgate. ' Judges ix. 10. 

* Judges i\*. 11. {Piiigiiedinem probably by accident for dulccdiiienu) Deut. 
xxi. 23 ; Gal. iii. 13. ^ Judges ix. 12. 

^ Judges ix. 13. I cannot explain tlic reference to the twistetl knee, unless it be 
its kneeling at the block. ^ Judges ix. 14. 


constituistis, veniie et preceptis mei 
ciilminis obedite. Si autem nolueritis, 
egrcdietur ignia de rampuo et cou- 
8umet cedroe Liboni ; hoc est, 

Vos vocatis me Rcgem et dominum, 
et bene dicitis. Sum etenim primo- 
genitus patris mei, cui regnum hoc 
jure hereditario debebatur, sed a 
domino Rege Anglie alteri est trans- 

Venite ergo ad me omnes qui pacem 
negligitis, guerram cupitis, perjuri ac 
suspensi eritis, et ego vos reficiam <le 
cruore occisorum et de captivitate 
nudati amicorum capitis. 

Et sub umbra, id [est], vocacione 
regalis nominis mei, severe proficis 
cimini per totam Scociam, compel- 
lentes Episcopos, Abbates, Comites, 
et Barones simul in unum, divitem et 
pauperem, ad coronacionem meam 

Qui autem venerint usque ad visita- 
cionem Re^is Anglie, qui unicuique 
juxta opera sua retribnet de hiis qui 
me coronant 

Si autem non consenserint, ignis 
succeusus est in furore meo, et quem 
volo ut ardoat in omnibus habitaculis 
venire nolencium. 

Ite, eccc mitto vos sicut lupus inter 

Nolite portare sacculum neque 
peram, sed gladium atque hastam. 

truth ye make ma king over you, then 
come and obey the commands of my 
highness. But if ye will not, fire shall 
come out of the bramble and devour 
the cedars of Lebanon ;^ that is. 

Ye call me King and Lord : and ye 
say well ; for so I am, the first-born 
son of my father, unto whom this 
kingilom was due by right of in- 
heritance, but was given unto another 
by the Lord king of England." 

Wherefore, come unto me, all ye 
that neglect peace and love war (ye 
shall be forsworn and hanged) : and I 
will refresh you with the blood of the 
slain, and of the captives, of the bared 
head of the enemy .^ 

And under the shadow which is the 
name of my Royal title, ye do go forth 
throughout all Scotland, to compel 
the bishops, abbots, earls, and barons, 
both rich and poor together, to come 
unto my coronation.* 

And they that shall come [shall 
abide] until the day of visitation of 
the King of England, who shall render 
unto every man of them that crown 
me, according unto his works.* 

But if they will not, a fire is kindled 
in mine anger; and what will I but 
that it burn in all the habitations of 
them that will not come ? ® 

Behold, I send you forth as wolves 
among lambs.^ 

Carry neither purse nor scrip, but 
sword and spear, and salute no 

* Judges ix. 15, closer to the Vulgate. ^ John xiii. 13. 

* Matt. xi. 28 ; Deut. xxiL 42 (Vulgate), amicorum iu mistake for inimicorum. 

* Matt. xi. 16, and Ps. xlix 2. ^ Possibly 1 Sam. xxvL 23, and Rov. xxiL 12. 

* Jcr. XV. 14; Luke xii. 49. ^ Luke x. 8. 



ncque quemque Anglicum potenci- 
orem nobis per viam salutaveritis. 

Adhuc eo loquente, venit quidam 
iiobiiis deciirio JohauneB Comyn, et 
ait, Non est nobis hereditas neque 
pax in Roberto, neque Kegem nisi 
Cesarem, Regem Anglorum. 

Cui alius in dolo est locutus, Amice, 
ad quod venisti 1 Assentire nobis et 
vive super terram, et eris deterior 
quam fuisti. 

Cui Johannes Comyn, Et si opor- 
tuerit me mori Regem Anglie non 

Tunc surrexerunt adversus eum 
duo falsi testes, dicentes, Audivimus 
eum prohibentem tributa dari nostro 
Regi, et conteslari fidelitatem esse 
servandam Regi Anglie, a Galilea 
u.s<^{ue hie. 

Quibus Robertus, Quid adhuc 
egemus testibue 1 Audivimus ex ore 
ejus blasphemiam. 

Et evaginato pugione ilium in 
ccclesia trucidavit. 

Stulte, dixerunt, operatus es, dixer- 
unt Fratres Minorca, et quod non 
licet quemquam iiiterficere in templo 

Quibus ille, Sanguis ejus super me 
et super fratres meos, et benivolos 
meos semper. 

Englishman by the way if he be 
stronger than ye.^ 

And while he yet spake, a certain 
honourable counsellor, John Comyn, 
came, and saith : We have no in- 
heritance nor peace in Robert, and 
no king but Caisar, King of the Eng- 

And the other spake unto him 
craftily [saying] : Friend, wherefore 
art thou come ? Consent unto us, and 
live in the land, and thou shalt be 
worse than thou hast been.' 

And John Comyn [said] unto him : 
Though I should die, yet will I not 
deny the king of England.* 

Then arose against him two false 
witnesses, saying : We heard him for- 
bidding to give tribute to our king, 
and bearing witness that faith should 
be kept unto the king of England, 
from Gklilee to this place.^ 

Then Robert [saith] unto them: 
What further need have we of 
witnesses ? We ourselves have heard 
the blasphemy out of his own mouth .^ 

And he drew his dagger, and slew 
him in the church. 

The Friars Minors said unto him : 
Thou hast now done foolishly, for it 
is not lawful for us to put any man to 
death in the temple of GoilJ 

And he answereil them : His blood 
be on me and on my brethren and on 
my well-wishers for ever.* 

^ Luke X. 4. ' Luke xxii. 47; Mark xv. 43 ; 1 Sam. xx. 1; John xix. 15. 

» 2 Sam. iii. 27 ; Mntt. xxvi. 50 ; Dan. xiii. 20 (Vulgate). 

* Matt. xxvi. 35. ^ Matt. xxvi. 60 ; Mark xiv. 58 ; Luke xxiii. 2, 5 

" Matt. xxvi. 65 ; Luke xxii. 71. • ' Gen. xxxi. 28 ; John xviii. 81. 

^ Matt xxvii. 25. 


Sub illo tempore dixit Robertus 
Briis discipulis 8ui8,Ecce,mi8ian<{elum 
laeum Willelumm Waleys ante facieni 
vestram qui preparabit consiuiile 
vobis iter, nempe in regno Anglie 
elevabitur et sublimiii erit valde. 

£t ipsi nichil borum intellexerunt. 

Qui dicunt illi, Edissere nobis banc 

NuuKjuid et vos cesi estis? Qui- 
uimo seducti et cesi eritis Omuis 
enim qui se humiliat exaltabitur, et 
qui se exaltat bumiliabitur. 

Itaque poet dies aliquot perigrina- 
ciouis Willelmi Waleys de Scocia 
auditura est quod tractus, suspensus, 
cxinteratus, crematus, quatriBdatus et 
afllxo capite super pontem London, et 
in Anglia est exaltatus. 

Propterea dixit Sjmon Frisel, Im- 
pleta est scriptura, quoniam sic 
oportuit eum pati et intrare in 
ignominiani suam. 

Sed vivat pseudo Rex noster, et 
vivat anima mea, quia vadam ct 
tollara capud ejus, et atligani capud 
^nglici loco sui. Et sic auferam 
obprobrium gentis nostre. 

Post bee fecit sibi Rex nequam 
currus et equites qui precederent eum 
in civitate qua coronandus e>8et ab 

At that time, Robert Bruce said 
unto bis disciples : Behold, I have 
sent ray messenger William Wallace 
before your face, which shall pre- 
pare unto you a way like [unto 
bis own], for be shall be very high 
and exalted in the kingdom of Eng- 

And they understood none of these 

They say unto bim : Declare unto 
us this parable {Hiatus).^ 

Are ye blind also? Yea, rather, led 
astray and blind shall ye be. For 
whosoever humbleth himself shall be 
exalted, and be that exalteth himself 
shall 1>e abased.^ 

Therefore, when William Wallace 
was gone some days on bis pilgrimage 
out of Scotland, word was brought 
again how that he was drawn, hung, 
bowel led, burned, and quartered, and 
his head was fastened up over London 
Bridge, and [thus] was he lifted up in 

Simon Eraser therefore said : The 
Scripture is fulfilled, that thus it be- 
hoved him to suffer, and to enter into 
his shame.^ 

But as our sham king liveth, and as 
my soul liveth, I wiU go and take 
away his head, and put the head of an 
Englishman in his place, and so will 
I take away the reproach from our 

After these things the evil king 
prepared him chariots and horsemen, 
to go before him in tlie city wherein 

* Mai. iii. 1, quoted in Matt. xl. 10, kc. * Luke xviii. 84. 

* Matt. XV. 15. * John ix. 40; Lukexiv. II, ecsi Sot ceci. 
» Luko xxiv. 26. • 1 Sam. xvii. 86 (Vulgate). 



Anna et Caypha, sacerdotibus qui 
populuin seducebant 

£t Abbate de Scone, Johanne 
Coiuite de Ascele?, Simone Frisel, et 
fratribus suis uteri nis et inultis coro- 
natus est a prophanis Episcopis Glas- 
guensi et Sancti Andree primo, et 
tercio die postea Comitissa de Bowan, 
que transgreasa mar i tali thoro exar- 
serat in concupiscenciam fatui coro- 
nati, Yocans eum Daffe. 

Cumque domum redisset dixit 
uxori proprie, Heri vocabamur Comes 
et tu Comitissa ; hodie vero Rex et 
Regina nominamur. Cui ilia, Cave 
ne sicut fenum agri quod hodie est et 
eras in clibanum mittitur, sic effloreas, 
nequando propter usurpacionem re- 
galis nominis perdas simul comitatum 
et regnum. 

Nonne audisti, Quis Rex bellum 
commissurus adversus alium Regem, 
nonne prius sedens computat sibi 
occurrere cum viginti milibus si 
possit Alioquin, adhuc loDgius eo 
agente, mittit legacionem, rogat ea 
que pacis sunt 

Hoc fac et vives. 

Sin autem forcior te super venerit, 
auferet universa arma tua in quibus 
confidis, et spolia tua distribuet 
diripientibus ea valde velociter. 

* 1 Kings i. 5. 

* Luke X. 28. 

« Matt. vi. 
^ Luke xi. 

he should be crowned by Annas and 
Caiphas, the high-priests that deceived 
the people.* 

And [before] the Abbat of Scone, 
John Earl of Athol, Simon Fraser, and 
his brothers the sons of his mother, 
and many [more] was he crowned first 
by the abominable Bishops of Glasgow 
and St Andrews, and, the third day 
afterward, by the Countess of Buchan, 
who had transgressed against the bed 
of her husband, and burned with lust 
after the crovrned fool, calling him 
" Daffy." 

And when he was come home, he said 
unto his own wife : Yesterday we were 
called earl and countess, but this day 
we are named king and queen. And 
she [said] unto him : Take heed that 
thou flourish not as the grass of the 
field, which to-day is, and to-morrow 
is cast into the oven, but forasmuch as 
thou hast taken wrongfully the name 
of a king, thou lose the earldom and 
the kingdom together." 

Hast thou never heard, what king 
going to war against another king, 
sitteth not down first and consulteth 
whether he be able to meet him with 
twenty thousand ? Or else, while the 
other is yet a great way off, he sendeth 
an ambassage, and desireth conditions 
of peace.' 

This do, and thou shalt live.^ 

But if a stronger than thou shall 
come upon thee, he will take firom 
thee all thine armour wherein thou 
trustest, and divide thy spoils among 
them that shall part them among them 
very speedily.* 

30. * Luke xiv. 31, 82, 



Hiis sauis insane turbatus niaritus 
voluit earn glad is trucidasse, sed pro- 
hibitus est a dicentibus, Si fedaveris 
nianus tuas in sanguine mulieris in- 
beUis, non poteris stare contra hostes 
tuos in bellis. 

Ab illo autem die muliti Scot 
abierunt retrorsum, nee adherebant 
deiuceps secte «nie. Itaque diyiso 
regno ejus confusio aproxiniavit, nam 
gens surrexit contra gentem pro- 
priam uno cum exercitu Anglicano. 

£t couserto prelio, pseudo rex 
senciens quod totum pondus prelii 
versum est in eum, fugit ex acie, 
populum suum in occisione gladii 

Testantur quidem hoc qui capti 
fuerunt, videlicet, Thomas Randulf, 
David Ynkemartyn, Johannes Somer- 
vyle, milites, Huttyng Marescallus 
vexillifer illius Regis, et Hugo [pres] 
biter sed prophanus, cum multis aliis. 

Et data sentencia, omnes bravium 
suspendii acceperuut. 

Sed Hugo presbiter ante alios pri- 
mitus est suspensu^, quasi diceret, 
Ego presbiter vobis prebeo tale iter. 

Ceteri vero cum sensissent crucis 
torraentum, dicebant intra se, Hug we 
a diables. 

In diebus illis dixit Rex Anglie 

And her husband was troubled 
madly with these sound words, and 
he would have slain her with the 
sword, but they forbade him, saying : 
If thou defile thine hands in the 
blood of this unwarlike woman, then 
shalt thou not be able to stand up in 
battle against thine enemies. 

And from that day many of the 
Scots went back, and clave no longer 
unto his company ; so that his 
kingdom was divided, and confusion 
came upon them, for a nation rose 
against his own nation, together with 
the English army.^ 

And when they joined battle, the 
sham king, knowing that the battle 
went sore against him, fled out of the 
field, and left his people unto the 
slaughter of the sword.* 

Unto this indeed do they bear 
witness which were taken, that is to 
say the knights, Thomas Randolf, 
David Inchmartin, [and] John 
Somerville, Hutting the marshal [and] 
standard-bearer of the king, and Hew 
the abominable priest, with many 

And when sentence was given upon 
them, they all received the prize of 
being hanged.' 

But Hew the priest was hanged 
first of all, before the others, as though 
he said : I the priest do show this 
way unto you.* 

But when the others felt the torment 
of the cross, they said within them- 
selves : To the devil with Hew ! 

In those days, the King of England 

* Matt xii. 25; Luke xxi. 10. 
' 2 Kings XXV. 6 ; 1 Cor. ix. 24. 

* 1 Sam. xxxi. 3. 

* Isa. Ivii. 14. 



principi Wallie, Proficiscere in Sco- 
ciam et vindica despcctum factum 
sancte ecclesie, es sanguinem Johannis 
Oouiyn et Anglicorum qui effusus est 

Ego vero proseqiiar iter tuum ; 
Bicut fuerit voluntas in celo sic fiat. 

Exiit ergo a Cesare Edwardo e<lic- 
tum ut describeretur universa milicia 
Anglicana, qua adunata, statim in 
Scociam profectus osL 

Premittensque angeloe fmos de 
TrayUhastane^ id [est], Justiciaries, 
binos et binos ante faciem suam in 
omnem civitateni et locum ad quem 
erat ipse venturus, dicebat, Ecce, dedi 
vobis potestatem calcandi omnia mem- 
bra dinbolica. Homicidas occidite ; 
proditores distrahite ; perjumtos sus- 
pendite ; non per con, sed per col. ; 
incendiarios comburite ; malos male 
|>enlite ; et meam vineam locate Angli- 
cis agricolis, qui reddant vobis fructum 
temporibus suis. Non parcat oculus 
vester cuiquam magno vel parvo, signo 
Thau signatis duntaxat exccptip. 

Illi autcni abeuntes fecerunt sicut 
preccpit illis Rex. 

Et capti sunt infra duorum men- 
sium spaciam per inquisiciones jura- 
torum hominum centcui ct milleni 

said unto the Prince of Wales : Go 
forth into Scotland and avenge the 
insult which is done unto the Holy 
Church aud the blood of JohnComyn 
and of the Englishman which is shed.^ 

But I will follow after thee ; as the 
will in heaven shall be, so be it* 

Therefore Ihei'e went out a decree 
from Csbsar Edwardus, that all the 
militia of England should be enrolled, 
and when it was gathered together he 
set forth straightway unto Scotland.' 

And he sent his angeb of Trail- 
baston,^ which is to say, the j usticiaries, 
two and two before his face into every 
city and place, whither he himself 
would come, saying : Behold, I give,^ 
unto you power to tread on ail the 
limbs of the deviL Slay the man- 
slayers ; draw the traitors ; hang the 
perjurors, not per con, but per col.; 
bum the fire-raisers; miserably destroy 
these wicked men, and let out my 
vineyard unto English husbandmen," 
which shall render yon the fruits 
in their seasons. Let not your eye 
spare any, either great or small, save 
only them that are signed with the 
sign Tau*? 

And they went, and did as the king 
commanded them.® 

And there were taken within the 
space of two months, by the verdicts 
of jurors, an thousand and one 

> Ps. Ixxix. 10. * 1 Mace. iii. 60. ' Luke ii. 1 (Vulgate). 

* Sec " The Outlaw's Song of Traillcbastou," in French, in the Political Songs of 
England, from the reign of John to that of Edwanl II. Edited by Thomas Wright 
(Camden Society), 1889, 231. Also Langtoft's account of the same institution, ih. 
319, and notes, ih. 283, 398. 

« Luke X. 1, 19. • Matt xxL 41. 

7 St George*s Cross ? Ezck. ix. 4, 6, 6 (Vulgate). * Matt xxL 6. 


viri digni morte, velud fractorcs pacia 
regie, parricide, conspiratores pessirai, 
qui omnes palmam patibuli lueme- 
runt Testimonium buic perhibet 
Nigel lus de Brujs, miles et germanus 
pseudo Regifi, adolescens pulcherriuie 
juventutis. Qui cum judicaretur ad 
mortem dicehat, Sumus quidem quin- 
que fratres. Utinam, testetur illis 
de me, ne et illi veniant in hunc 
locum tormentorum. 

Tunc ait quidam de turba, Heliam 
yocat iste. Cui alius, Non, sed fratres 
suos. Sinite ; si venerint fratres soi, 
eumqne nunc liberent si veliut 

Qui cum moram facerent in vcni- 
endo, per plateas de Berewyke tractus 
et snspensns est Causa hnjus quia, 
consenserat faccionibus fratris suL 

Porro Jobannes et Christoforus de 
Seytone, fratres, et bostiarii ecclesie 
dum perimeretnr Johannes Comyn, 
distraccionis et suspendii beneticia 
condigne mentis sunt adeptL 

Capitur autcm et ilia impia con- 
juratrix, Comitissa de Bowan, de qua 
consultus "Rex ait. Quia gladio non 
pcrcussit, gladio non pcribit. 

Sed propter coronacioncm illicitam 
quam fecit, in corona ferrea ad niodum 
domuncule fabricata firmissime obstru- 
atur, cujus latitudo et longitndo, sum- 
mitas et profundum, octo pedum 

hundred men guilty of death, as 
breakers of the peace of the king, 
murderers of fathers, most wicked 
plotters, who all earned the palm of 
the gibbet Hereunto doth bear 
witness Nigel Bruce, a knight and a 
brother of the sham king, a young 
man of youth comely exceedingly. 
When he was judged unto death, he 
said : We are five brethren ; would 
that it were testified unto them 
concerning me, lest they also come 
into this place of torment^ 

Then one of the multitude saith : 
This man calleth for Elia9,and another 
[saith] unto him : Nay, but for his 
brethren. Let be, let us see whether 
his brethren will come and deliver 
him now, if they will have him.* 

But, forasmuch as they tarried in 
coming, he was drawn through the 
streets of Berwick and hanged. His 
cause was that he had consented unto 
the conspiracy of his brother. 

Moreover, John and Christopher 
Seton, brethren that kept the doors 
of the church while John Comjm was 
put to death, received the benefit of 
hanging whereof they were worthy. 

And there is taken also that wicked 
conspiratrix, the Countess of Buchan, 
and when the king had taken council 
concerning her, he saith : Beciiuse she 
hath not smitten with the sword, she 
shall not perish with the swonl.' 

But on account of the unlawful 
crowning which she made, let her be 
kept most fastly in an iron crown, 
made after the fieishion of a Uttle 
house, whereof let the breadth and 

» Luke xvi. 28. 

' Matt xxvii. 43, 47, 49. 

» Matt xxvi. 52. 



spacio concludatur. Et apud Bere- 
wike sub divo iinperpetuum sus- 
pendatar, ut a pretereuntibus possit 
conspici, et agnosci pro qua fuerat 
causa ilia. Que tunc assumpsit geuii- 
turn pro cantu, meditans ut columba, 
et ait, Similis facta sum pellicano 
solitudinisy nicticoraci in domicilio, 
et passeri solitario in tecto. 

Post hec optulerunt Regi Episcopos 
et Abbatem qui corunaveront pseudo 
Regera. Quibus Anglie Rex, Vos 
estis de quibus lex Testra canit, 
Egresse est iniquitas a sacerdotibus 
Scocie qui videbantur populum 

Nonne vos estis qui apud Shene 
juxta London, tactis sacrosanctis 
Evangeliis jurastis super corpus 
Domini, Sic Deus vos adjuvet et 
sancta Dei Evangelia, michi et suc- 
cedentibuB post me Regi bus Anglie 
fidelitatem servare? Et pactum 
Domini irritum fecistis propter tra- 
diciones vestras ! 

Ypocrite ! bene prophetavit de 
vobis Ysaias, Populus hie labiis me 
honorat, cor autem eorum longe est 
a me. 

Respondete obsecro. In lege 
Domini de talibus quid scriptum 
est f Dixit Episcopus Sancci Andree, 
Virum injustum mala capient in 

length, the height and the depth, be 
finished in the space of eight feet; 
and let her be hung up for ever at 
Berwick under the open sky, that all 
they that pass by may see her, and 
know for what cause she is there. 
Then did she take up groaning for 
singing, and did mourn ,as a dove, 
saying: I am like a pelican of the 
wilderness, I am like an owl in his 
hole, and as a sparrow alone upon the 
house top.* 

After these things, they brought 
unto the king the bishops and the 
ablmt, who had crowned the sham 
king. The King of England saith 
unto them : Ye are of them of whom 
your law singeth, Iniquity is gone 
forth from the priests of Scotland, 
who seemed to rule the people.* 

Are not ye they that did touch the 
Holy Gospels at Sheen, hard by Lon- 
don, and did swear upon the body of 
the Lord, so help you God and the 
Holy Gospels of God, to keep fealty 
unto me and unto the kings of 
England that shall come after me ? 
Thus have ye made the covenant of 
the Lord of none effect by your tradi- 

Ye hypocrites, well did Esaias 
prophecy of you [saying]. This people 
honoureth me with their lips, but 
their heart is far from me.* 

Answer me, I pray you. What is 
written in the law of the Lord con- 
cerning such ? The Bishop of St 
Andrews said : Evil shall hunt the 
violent man to overthrow him.* 

* Is. xxxviii. 14 ; Ps. oil 6, 7 (Vnlgate). 
« Matt. XV. 6. * Matt xv. 7, 8. 

* Dan. xiii 5 (Vulgate). 
^ Ps. cxl. 12. 


Et Rex Episcopo Glascuensi ait, 
(juomodo legis? Qui ait, Impietos 
impii super ipsum erit Et Rex, Tu 
Abba, quid dicis? Respondit, Qui 
jnramentum Christi violat, ipsum in 
adjutorium sui negat. Quibus Rex, 
Recte judicastis. Et ego despiciam 
qui)8 hactenus sprevit Deus. Os 
enim condenipnavit vos, et non ego. 
Porro nunc non moriemini, quia 
portatis archam Domini, ton8ura[m] 
capitis clericalem. Verumptamen 
quia sub capa pastorali deprehenditur 
lorica militaris, immutato habitu quo 
induimini, eigastula introite quousque 
visitavit vos oriens ex alto, in [est], 
Summus Pontifex degradaverit vos ex 

Et factum est ita. In Anglia 
diversis carceribus mancipantur, 
sedentes in tenebris et umbra mortis, 
vincti in mendicitate et ferro. 

Saulus dum hec fierent, ad hue 
spirans minarum, id [est], Symon 
Frisel, petiit a pseudo Rex epistolas 
ut ubicumque inveniret Regis Anglie 
fideles vinciret et trucidaret. Ibat 
igitur Saulus, Simon, furia invectus, 
totoque pectore virus efflabat, et 
Anglorum sanguinem sine intermis- 
sione siciebat. Et cum iter faceret, 
contigit ut appropinquaret Lilistho. 
Et subito circumsepit eum Rex 
Anglorum. Et audivit vocem dicen- 

And the king saith unto the Bishop 
of Glasgow : How readest thou ? and 
he said : The wickedness of the 
wicked shall be upon himself.^ And 
the king said : Abbat, what sayest 
thou 1 He answered : Whoso breaketh 
the oath of Christ, refuseth Him for 
his helper. And the king said unto 
them : Ye have rightly judged. And 
I will despise them whom God hath 
rejected. For not I but your own 
mouth hath condemned you. How- 
beit, now, ye shall not die, because ye 
bear the ark of the Lord, the shaven 
head of clerks. Nevertheless, foras- 
much as the breastplate of the 
warrior is found under the cloak ol 
the shepherd, the raiment wherewith 
ye are covered shall be changed, 
and enter ye into the prison-houses 
until the day-spring from on high 
shall visit you, that is, until the 
Supreme Pontiff shall actually degrade 

And it was so. They are put into 
divers prisons in England, sitting in 
darkness and in the shadow of death, 
being bound in affliction and iron.^ 

While these things were done, Saul, 
that is, Simon Eraser, yet breathing 
out threatenings, desired of the sham 
king letters, that wheresoever he found 
men faithful to the King of England 
he should bind them and put them to 
death. Therefore Saul-Simon went 
carried away with fury, and spat poison 
out of all his breast, and thirsted fur 
the blood of Englishmen without 
ceasing. And as he journeyed, he 
came near Linlithgow. And suddenly 

> F^ek. xviii. 20. 

•» Luke i. 78. 

' Ps. cvii. 10. 



tern sibi, Saule, Simon, quid me 
persequeris ? Quis es domine ? At ille, 
E^o sum miniBter Regis Auglie quern 
tu persequeris infidelis. Durum erit 
tibi contra pavimentum natibus cal- 
citrare. Et adductus ad judicem 
tremens ac stupens, dixit, Domine, 
quid me vis facere ? Et judex ad eum, 
Simon, habeo aliquid tibi dicere, quod 
non [potes] portare modo. Scies autem 
postea. Qui cadens in terram nichil 
ridebat. Et judex ad cum, Surge et 
ingredere civitatem London, ac dicetur 
tibi quanta oporteat te pro nomine 
Regis pati. Ad manum autem ilium 
trahentes introduxerunt castrum 

there came round about bim the King 
of England. And he heard a voice 
saying unto him : Saul-Simon, why 
persecutest thou me ? [And he said] : 
Who art thou, Lord I And he said : 
1 am the servant of the King of 
England, whom thou unfiaithfullj per- 
secutest ; it will be hard for thee to 
kick against the pavement with thy 
buttocks. And he, when he was led 
before the judge, trembling and aston- 
ished, said : Lord, what wilt thou 
have me to do 1 And the judge said 
unto him : Simon, I have somewhat 
to say unto thee, but thou [canst not] 
bear it now, but thou shalt know 
hereafter. And he fell to the earth, 
and laughed not at all. And the 
judge said unto him : Arise, and go 
into the city of London, and it shall 
be told thee how great things thou 
must suffer for the king's name's sake. 
But they led him by the hand and 
brought him into the Castle of 

And when meat was set before him, 
he neither did eat nor drink.' And 
saith : My soul is exceeding sorrow- 
ful unto death, even the death of the 

Et cum apponeretur ei cibus, neque 
manducavit neque bibit, et ait, Tristis 
est amina mea usque ad mortem, 
mortem autem crucis. 

Fatigatus est ex itinere cepit 

[cedere]. Oculi enim ejus erant gra- 
vati pre magna tristicia. 

Erant autem ibidem plures alii 
Scoti, insignes viri, qui propter sedi- 
ciones et homicidia carcere claude- 

^ All from Acts ix. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 16, except part of the speech of the judge, 
which is from Luke vii. 40 ; John xvi 12, xiiL 7. The pavimentum natibua caiei- 
trare is a reference to being draum through the streets to execution. 

2 Acts ix. 9. » Mark xiv. 84 ; PhU. ii. 8. 

* John iv. 6 ; Mark xiv. 3S, 40 ; Luke xxii. 45. 


[Simon therefore] being wearied 
with his journey, began [to be very 
heavy] for his eyes were heavy for 

But there were there many other 
Scots, men of renown, that for sedition 
and murder were cast into prison, 


Imntur. Inter quos Thomas de Mor- 
ham cum filio Hereberto et armigero 
8U0 Thoma de Roys, ferreijs compedi- 
bus nexi erant. 

Et ait Thomas pater ad bospitem, 
Simon, dormis? Non potuisti una 
bora vigilare mecum ? 

Vigilate et plorate; eras intrabitis 
in dampnacionem, tu et filius mens 

£t continuo gallus cantavit Tunc 
recordatus est Herbertus verbi quod 
prius dixerat, In quocunque die captus 
fuerit Simon Frisel, capud meum 
Regi dono. 

£t pater addens dixit, Si possibile 
est transeat a me calix iste. Spiritus 
(^uidem promptus est evadere, caro 
autem inftrma. 

Cui pater, Fili, non venisti facere 
voluntatem tuani sed ejus qui te misit. 
Lucescente autem die, ductus est 
Herebertos ad supplicium. Et 
clamavit post tergum armiger suus 
dicens. Quo progrederis sine patre 
fili ? Quo miles neqaicie sine ministro 
versncie proferas ? Tu nunquam sacri- 
legium, homicidium, vel maleficium 
sine ministerio meo exercere consue- 
veras. Qui ait illi, Veni et sequere 
me. Nam ego et tu morsque divi- 

Exeuntes autem de castello proces- 
8erunt vicum unum. 

' Luke xxiii. 25. 

* Mark xir. 38 : Matt xxvL 41. 

» Matt xxvl. 39, 41. 

^ Matt xix. 21 ; 1 Sam. xx. 3. 

among the which was Thomas de 
Morham, with his son Herbert, and 
his squire Thomas de Roys, bound 
with fetters of iron.* 

And Thomas, the father, saith unto 
the new-comer: Simon, sleepest thou? 
Couldest not thou watch one hour 
with me ?* 

Watch and wail, [for] to-morrow ye 
shall enter into damnation, thou and 
my son Herbert with thee.' 

And immediately the cock crew. 
Then Herbert remembered the word 
which he had said before : In what 
day soever Simon Fraser is taken, I 
give mine head to the king.^ 

And the father said moreover : If 
it be possible, let this cup pass from 
me. The spirit indeed is willing to 
escape, but the flesh is weak.^ 

His father saith unto him : Son, 
thou art come, not to do thine own 
will, but the will of him that sent thee.* 
And when the day broke, Herbert 
was led to execution. And his squire 
cried after him, saying : Son, whither 
goest thou without thy father ? 
Knight of wickedness, whither farest 
thou without a squire of craftiness? 
It hath never been thy use to commit 
sacrilege, murder, or witchcraft with- 
out my ministry. And he saith unto 
him : Come, and follow me. For 
there is [but a step] between me and 
thee and death.^ 

And they went out, and passed on 
through one street* 

« Mark xiv. 87. 

* Matt xxvi. 74, 75. 
« John vi. 38. 

• Acts xil 10. 



Quo, 8ub divo, decoUato milite, 
decapitatus armiger sequebatur eum. 
Et nesciebant quia verum est quod 
fiebat per Anglicum. Oculi enim 
eorum velabantur ne quemque agiios- 

Hoc autem totum factum est ut 
impleretur scriptura. Ego dixi, in 
dimidio dierum meorum vadam ad 
portas inferi, nee aspiciam homiuem 
ultra in terra vivencium, 

Et planxerunt speciem decoris illius 
oinnes qui noverant eum ab heri et 
nudius tercius, quia in tota Scocia 
non erat vir ita pulcher sicuti Her- 
bertus. A planta enim pedis usque 
ad verticem non erat in eo macula. 
Ab humero et sursum eminebat super 

Planxit autem pater filium suum, 
dicens, Quis mihi det ut pro te moriar, 
fill mi Herberte ? 

Addiditque pro filio et pro servo, 
Ecce quomodo dilexerunt se in vita 
sua, ita et in morte non poterant 

Tunc con versus judex ad Simonem 
Frisel dixit, Tu es qui sepius turbasti 
regna Regis Anglie, Quomodo et 
quociens Rex Anglie dimisit te 
liberum ut cum justicia permaneres 

And when the soldier had been 
beheaded there in the open air, his 
squire followed him, headless also. 
And they wist not that it was true 
which was done by the Englishman, 
for their eyes were holden that they 
should not know any man.^ 

Now, all this was done that the 
scripture might be fulfilled, which 
saith : I said, in the midst of my 
days, I shall go to the gates of the 
grave : 1 shall behold man no more 
in the land of the living.* 

And all they that had known him 
yesterday and the day before, mourned 
for the perfection of his beauty : for 
in all Scotland there was none to be 
so much praised as Herbert for his 
beauty ; from the sole of his foot even 
to the crown of his head there was no 
blemish in him ; from his shoulders 
and upward he was higher than any 
of the people.^ 

And the father mourned for his 
son, saying : Would God 1 had died 
for thee, Herbert [my son], my 
son !* 

And he said, moreover, for his son 
and for his servant : Behold how they 
loved one another in their lives, and 
in their death they could not be 

Then the judge turned unto Simon 
Eraser, and said : Thou art he that 
hast oftentimes troubled the kingdoms 
of the King of England. How and 
how many times hath the King of 

1 Acts xii. 9 ; Luke xxiv. 16, vclahatUur, viz., blindfolded at the block. 
'^ Is. xxxviii. 10, 11. 8 Ps. 1. 2 ; 2 Sam. xiv. 25 ; 1 Sam. ix. 2, 

* 2 Sam. xviii. 33. The brutality of this is quite startling. 
« 2 Sara. i. 23. Coraraem. of SS. Peter and Paul in Breviary. 


et viveres super terrain. Jamqne 
pejora pejoribus cumulasti ; compre- 
henderunt te iniquitates tue et mala 
que operatus es ab adolescencia tua 
usque in presens. Ne poteris amplius 
villicare, sed itaque judicaris. Primo, 
per longitudinem civitatis traheris; 
deinde in patibulo alcius exaltaberis ; 
postea in decisione capitis spiritum 
exalcobis ; truncus cremabitar, et 
capud tuum juxta capud Wlllelmi 
Waleys quod vovisti furatum fuisse 
affixo ibi capite AngHci pro eodem, 
super lanceam fixum erit. Et sic 
discas alias reddere vota tua. 

Hoc autem totum factum est ut 
impleretur scriptura, Dentem pro 
dente, suspensionem pro suspendio, 
adustionem pro adustione, capud pro 
capite luet homo. 

Hec dum coraplentur in London, 
conscius ipse sibi Johannes Comes 
de Asseilla quod de similibus simile 
tieret judicium fugam querit, sed 
fugiendo captus est. Comes autem 
iste de regali sanguine sibi originem 
vendicavit Et hesitantibus non- 
nullis quid de ipso fieret, et quod ve 
quale subiret judicium, respondit 
Rex, Si disceptatis pro sanguine, 
Psalmus vos instruit ; Virum sanguin- 
um et dolosum abhominabit Domicus. 

England let thee go free, that thou 
mightest abide in righteousness and 
dwell in the landl And now hast 
thou added worse unto worse ; thine 
iniquities have taken hold upon thee, 
and the evil which thou hast done 
from thy youth up until now. Thou 
may est be no longer steward, but thus 
thou art judged. First, thou shaltbe 
drawn through the length of the city ; 
then thou shalt be highly exalted 
upon the gallows ; afterward thou 
shalt give up the ghost in the cutting 
off of thine head, thy body shaU be 
burned, and thine head shall be set 
up upon a lance beside the head of 
William Wallace, which thou didst 
swear to steal away, and to set the 
head of an Englishman in Ms place. 
And thus do thou learn otherwise to 
perform thy vows. 

Now all this was done that the 
scripture might be fulfilled : Tooth 
for tooth, hanging for hanging, burn- 
ing for burning, head for head shall a 
man render.^ 

While these things are being ful- 
fiUed in London, John Earl of A thole, 
knowing that like judgment was for 
like things, seeketh flight, but in fly- 
ing he was taken. Now, that Earl 
claimed that he was sprung of king's 
blood. And when some doubted what 
should be done unto him, and what 
judgment or of what kind he should 
undergo, the king answered : If ye 
dispute among yourselves concerning 
blood, the Psalm doth you to wit — 
The Lord will abhor the bloody and 
deceitful man.^ 

' Exo.l. xxi. -24, 25. 

* Ps. V. ^. 



£t ait, Qaauto gradas alciitr tanto 
lapsus gravior. Non san^inis lineam 
set justitie judicium attendite. Qui 
alios parricidas superexcesserit in 
sanguine, alcius felonibus pro scelere 
suspendatur. Item et ducite eum 
cante usque London, ut videat el 
cuncta sint prospera circa falsos 
f rat res, et renuncia michi quid agatur. 
Quo cum pervenisset et in Turri falsis 
Scotis valediceret, dicunt illi, Heri 
venisti, et hodie compelleres subire 
tormentum. Qui ait, Sine modo : 
Sic enim oportet me luere omnem 
iniquitatem quam* perpetravL Tunc 
con versus judex ad eum dixit, £t si 
omnes Scoti conspiraverunt contra 
Regem Anglorum, velis nolis et 
Scotorum sed non iu, snple si gratus 
esses eo quod nacione Anglicus es, et^ 
ex regali sanguine vendicas procreatus. 
Hoc est ergo in quo non es justifi- 
catus ; Anglicos, Scoticos, Regis 
ministros, jugulasti, incendisti qnin- 
immo Regem quatenus in te tBt} 
Quociens prodidisti in Flandria, in 
Anglia, et in Scocia ? Suscipe ergo 
bravium cursus tui ; sed regali 
sanguini tribuemus reverenciam et 
lionorem. Non enim traheris per 
urbcm, sed ascenso equo, ne forte 
offendas ad lapidem pedem tuum, 
levaberis in patibulum. Demissus 
decollaberis ; azephalum corpus tuum 
vorax incendium adnichilabit, et 
capud tuum medium inter duorum 
proditorum capita altrinsecus defixum, 
quasi de regali sanguine, pontem 
Loudinie decorabit ; Si quando 
venerint Greci vel Barbai'i, Cretes 

* Tlie punctuation is here erideutl 

And he saith : By so much as the 
place is higher, so much is the fall 
heavier. Regard not ye the line of 
blood, but the judgment of justice. 
He that hath exceeded in blood more 
than the other murderers of fathers, 
let him be hanged for his foul deed 
higher than the felons. Wherefore 
also lead him carefully unto London, 
that he may see whether all things 
be well with the false brethren, and 
bring me word again what is done. 
Whither when he was come and bade 
farewell unto the false Scots in the 
Tower, they say unto him : Yesterday 
thou art come hither, and to-day thou 
shalt be constrained to undergo the 
torment He saith : Suffer it to be so 
now ; for thus it behoveth me to wash 
away all the iniquity which I have 
conmiitted.' Then the judge turned 
unto him and said : Although all the 
Scots should conspire against the king 
of the English (and, will thou, uill 
thou, of the Scots also), yet shouldest 

not thou forasmuch as thou art 

an Englishman by nation, and claimest 
that thou art born of kingly blood. 
Hereby, therefore thou art not justi- 
fied ; thou hast slain [and] burned 
the king's servants. Englishmen [and] 
Scotchmen ; yea, moreover, the king 
himself, as far as lay in thee, how often 
hast thou betrayed, in Flanders, in 
England, and in Scotland ? Receive 
thou therefore the prize of thy run- 
ning ; but unto the kingly blood we 
will pay worship and honour ; for thou 
shalt not be drawn through the city, 
but thou shalt ride upon an horse, 

T wiong. * Matt. iii. 15. 


te Arabea, Romanl vel Yspani, 
Franci vel Angli, Scoti vel Picti, de 
quibus omnibus London, est con- 
cursus, et fuTentor capud tuum, et 
dicant plebi, Sarrexit a mortals. 

Hoe autem totum factum est ut 
impleretur scriptura, Sicut fecit 
gladius tuus mulieres absque liberis, 
sic exit mater tua absque filio inter 
mulieres hodie. 

Post hoc accessit ad Begem quidam 
Scotus, Doncanus nomine, olferens ei 
sex viroe in certamine deprebensos, et 
ait, Domiue, bii peccatores evagin- 
averunt gladium, intenderunt arcum, 
ut depopularent terram tuam, et 
trucidarent si resisterent rectos corde. 

Quibus ego occurrens cum trecentis 
non multo eo amplius peremi ex eis 
septingentos viros, hos in acie, hos 
in fuga, hos in saltu, hos in portu, 
et plures consepulti sunt in ponto. 
Istos reservavi ut in quo voluntas 
regia de hiis decreverit faciendum. 
Respondit Rex, Gladuis intret per 

> 1 Sara. xv. 83. 

lest haply thou dash thy foot against 
a stone, [and so] shalt thou be lifted 
up upon the gallows. Thou shalt 
be let down and beheaded, and the 
devouring fire shall consume thine 
headless trunk to nothing, and thine 
head shall be set up in the midst 
between the heads of the two traitors, 
higher than they, as being of kingly 
blood, and shall adorn London Bridge, 
lest Greeks or Barbarians, Cretans 
and Arabians, Bomans or Spaniards, 
Frenchmen or Englishmen, Scots or 
Picts, whereof all do flow unto Lon- 
don, should come and steal away 
thine head, and should say unto 
the people : He is risen from the 

Now all this was done that the 
scripture might be fulfilled : As thy 
sword hath made women childless, so 
shall thy mother be this day childless 
among women. ^ 

Aft«r this a certain Scot named 
Duncan drew near unto the king, to 
offer unto him six men whom he had 
taken in battle, and he saith : Lord, 
these wicked ones drew the sword 
[and] bent their bow, that they might 
waste thy land and slay the upright 
in heart, if so be they should withstand 

But I went to meet them with not 
much more than three hundred men, 
and destroyed seventy of them, some 
in the battle and some in the flight, 
some in the thicket, and some in the 
port, and many of them were swallowed 
up together in the sea. These have I 
kept as that wherein should be done 

' Ps. XL 2. 



colla eorum, et arcus eorum pctencie 
confringatur. Qui protinus justici- 
ariis liberantnr. Quorum nomina 
hec fueruat; Alexander de Bruys, 
Decanus ecclesie Glascueusis, ger- 
manus pseudo Regis, Reginaldus de 
Craunforde, Malcolmus Makayle, 
dominus de Kentir, qui apud Kar[I]- 
eolum dampnabantur, et Thomas de 
Bruys, qui tractus et suspensus ac 
decapitatus est, relicto corpore super 
furcas, si forte veniret Joseph ab 
Arimathia ac tolleret et sepeliret 
illud. Reliqui simpliciter suspen- 
duntur et per accidens decollantur. 
Tunc con versus judex ad Alexandrum 
de Bruys dixit, Tuquis es? Respondit, 
Meuibrum et Decanus 

whatsoever the king^s will shall com- 
mand concerning them. Then the 
king answered : Let the sword enter 
into their necks, and let the bow of 
their strength be broken. And forth- 
with they were delivered unto the 
Justiciaries. Now these were their 
names — Alexander Bruce, Dean of 
the Church of Glasgow, brother of 
the sham king ; Reginald Crauford ; 
Malcolm Makayle, Lord of Cantire, 
who were condemned at Carlisle ; 
and Thomas Bruce, who was drawn, 
and hanged, and beheaded, and his 
body was left upon the gibbet [to 
see] if haply Joseph of Arimathea 
would come and take him and bury 
him. The rest are hanged plainly, 
and beheaded as it were by the way. 
Then the judge turned him unto 
Alexander Bruce, and said : Who art 
thou ? and he answered : [I am] a 
member and dean 

Here apparently two leaves are wanting, and the chroniclo is then 

There can bo no doubt that the broken sentence at the end — " [I am] 
a member and Dean " — must have continued " of the Cathedral chapter 
of Glasgow," or some similar phrase. 

If it is really to be regretted that any more of this stuff is lost to us, 
it is certainly at this point, for if wo had a continuation, it would 
probably have contained some further information beyond what is now 
known to exist, upon the executions which took place at Ayr, in which 
Brico Blair suffered, and upon which Blind Harry has founded one of tho 
most inaccurate, but also one of the most popular incidents of his romance. 
As it is, the matter in question remains, as far as this composition goes, as 
much in the dark as ever. It may bo observed, however, that if there 
are really only two leaves missing, tho amount of this paroily which is 


lost (if indeed it be not an unfinished fragment), cannot be great, since 
the last event mentioned in the portion of the chronicle which precedes 
it is the afifair of Stanhope-park in Aug. 1327, and the portion which 
follows it recommences in the midst of the description of the battle of 
HaHdon Hill, July 19, 1333. 

As regards the date of this composition, it seems to me that it is 
possible to arrive at a pretty certain and exact conclusion. The last 
event which it mentions, at least as we now have it, is the execution of 
Thomas and Alexander Biiice and Reginald Crauford. That event, of 
which we have a close and exact notice in the Lanercost Chronicle^ took 
place at Carlisle on Feb. 17, 1307. This parody therefore cannot be 
earlier than that date. On the other hand, it seems to me that Edward 
I. woiUd hardly have been written about after his death in the sort of 
playful tone here adopted. He died at Burgh-on-the-Sands, July 7, 
1307. If my impression is just, it must therefore have been written 
before that time. But I think I can detect a still closer indication. 
The whole tone is one of perfect, imtroubled, and indeed insolent 
security. Now, King Robert returned from Ireland after Easter, which 
fell on March 26, and soon after defeated first Aymer de Vallance, and 
then the Earl of Gloucester, whom he besieged in Ayr. But there was 
an earlier event than this, which marked the turning of the tide of 
atfairs. This was what is commonly known as the Douglas Larder, 
which took place on Sunday, March 19. I therefore conjecture that 
the composition before us must have been drawn up before that event. 
If so, we are thrown into the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th weeks of Lent, 
and the tone of the religious services of the period certainly seems a 
sufficiently probable explanation of the peculiar form of this profane 

I am of course quite aware, that it may be argued against this that 
the Extracta e variis Cronicis Scotice state Simon Eraser to have been 
taken prisoner only on the 25th of March, but I feel compelled by all 
the other authorities which I have consulted to reject that date. My 
impression is that the date in the extract^ viz., Annunctacionis Dominicce 
may have been caused by a copyist's blunder for Asmimptionia^ which 
would suit that of the execution, Vin<l is fairly accordant with the distinct 


statement of a MS. quoted in Nicolas' Carlaverockj 218, that he was 
captured on the Friday before the Assumption, viz., Aug. 12, 1306. The 
execution took place, Sept. 7, 1306 (Matthew of Westminster). 

As regards the authorship, it can only be remarked that it was 
written by some one who was intimately acquainted with the course oi 
affairs, and most probably living in Carlisle or the neighbourhood at the 
time. The object of the work is a more curious subject. It was 
evidently written for the amusement of some one who was extremely 
familiar with the Latin language, and also with the Bible, — in other 
words, in high social position. Whoever it was, he was also a person 
of singular brutality and cruelty of disposition, the lowest possible taste, 
and a turn for pleasantry of a very degraded and degrading kind. This 
consideration is quite enough to render it out of the question that this 
wretched stuff was prepared to please the great Edward. It is true that 
an exclamation of this kind, coupled with a very profane oath, is 
attributed to him by Walsingham (Historia AnglicanOy sub anno 1 300), 
but the statement is hardly reconcilable with the letter of the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury describing the very scene (Prynne's Hustory of the 
Pope^a Usurpations^ iii. 882, 883); and even if it were true, it is a very 
different thing to a piece of sustained and cold-blooded profanity like the 
Passio. I hope I may not be wronging the memory of his imworthy 
son, if I express the idea that a conjecture in that direction would not 
be an improbable one. 

The most curious circumstance with regard to this composition is that 
it is several times quoted in the penultimate chapter of Matthew of 
Westminster. It does not seem to me that this admits of the least 
doubt. The first passage is this : — 

qu£e transgressa maritali there, exar- who had transgressed against the bed 

Herat in [speciem et] concupiscientiam of her husband, and burnt for the 

fatui coronatL [Et mutavit nomen beauty and lust of the crowned fool, 

ejus impositum in baptismate], nomi- and changed the name that had been 

nana illam David. Cumque domum given him in baptism, calling him 

redisset, ferturuxorisusedixisse: Heri David. And when he was come 

vocabamur ego Comes et tu Comi- home, he is said to have said unto his 

tissa, hodie vero ego rex et tu regina own wife : Yesterday we were called 

vocamur. Cui ilia : [Timeo quod rex Earl and Countess, but this day we 


oeetivalis sis, forsltan hyemalis not 
eris.] Timeo autem ne tanquam flos 
agri, qui Lodie est, et eras in clibanum 
mittitur, sic effloreas, ac ne pro per- 
jurio Mei, per vocabulum reginm, 
Oomitatum simul perdas et regnnm, 
Qui se irrisum k muliere existimanU, 
voluit earn gladio peremisse. 

are called King and Queen. And she 
said unto him : I fear me that thou 
art a summer king, perchance thou 
shalt not be a winter one. But I fear 
lest thou flourish as the grass of the 
field, which to-day is, and to-morrow 
is cast into the oven, and lest for thy 
perjured faith, by the name of king 
thou lose the earldom and the king- 
dom together. And thinking himself 
mocked of a woman, he would have 
destroyed her with the sword. 

From this comparatively respectable edition, it may be conjectured 
that when the Countess of Buchan crowned Robert, the second time, at 
Scone, on March 27, 1306, she probably made, and not unnaturally, 
some speech in which she compared his crowning to the crowning of 
David in Hebron. That this was so, is the more probable, because 
Matthew of Westminister, a few sentences before, goes out of his way, 
as though for the sake of protest, to compare the ceremony to the 
crowning of Adonijah. I imagine the parodist to have got hold of the 
fact, and altered David into " Dafly," for the sake of calling him the 
crowned idiot. What is really rather amusing is that, through the 
perfidy of Matthew of Westminster, no less venerable and pious a writer 
than Dr Lingard is made to figure in the train of this foul jester. " When 
his wife," says Lingard, " was informed of the coronation, she ventured 
to express a hope that he, who was a king in summer, might not prove 
an exile in winter." Lord Hailes, with his usual acumen, saw that the 
story was fabulous, but he did not know where to look for the original 
fable, which I have now the honour of laying before you. 

The following passages also appear to me to be clearly quotations : — 

Execution after the Eout of Methven, 

In proelio autem supradicto capti sunt hi viri, Thomas Alius Ranulphi, David 
Inkemartyn, Johannes de Sumervile, milites Hutting Marescallus et vexillifer 
pseudo regis, et Hugo capellauus. Qui nihilominus, cum prasdictis, et cum multis 
aliis, quorum nomina hie non necitantur ne pagina his vilescat, patibulo ante 
cateros prinutus est affixus, quasi diceret : Ego presbyter tale vobis prcebeo iter. 


Nigel Bruce* s Executioru 

Nigellos de Brus, miles pulchemmae juentutis, pro eo quod consenserat 
factionlbus fratris sui, et caeteri qui cum eo capti fuerant tracti sunt atque 
suspensi, et ultimo decollatL 

The Countess of Biuihan, 

Capitur etiam et ilia impiissima conjuratrix de Bowban, de qua consultus 
rex, ait : Quia gladio non percussit, gladio nou peribit Verum propter illicitam 
coronacionem quam fecit, in domicilio lapideo et ferreo, in modum corone fabri- 
cato, firmissime obstruatur, et apud Berncum sub dio foriusecus suspendatur, ut 
sit data, in vita et post mortem, speculum viatoribus et opprobrium sempi- 

The Dress of the Bishops. 

Isti ergo perjurati Prselati in arctissimls carceribus, forma et habitu quibiis 
fugiendo capti fuerant, retruduntur, quousque per Apo&tolicam sedem disposi- 
tum eit, quid de bis fuerit faciendum. 

The Wager of Herbert de Morham. 

Quidam Scoticus miles, in Turn Londinensi yinculatus caput pro- 

prium regi dedit, quocunque die captus fuerit [Symon Freysel], amputandum. 
Nomen autem bujus Herebertus de Norbam .... Posthsec Symon Freysel ad 
Turrira Londinensem mittebatur, ut iUo viso, voti pnestiti Scotus alius 

Execution of Simon Fraser. 

Sic damnatur. A Turri Londinensi per viculos et plateas distractus ut 
proditor, suspensus eminus quia latro, truncatus capite ut homicida, refixus 
equuleo per dies 20, igne quoque finaliter est combuetus. Hujus autem caput 

super pontem Londinensem juxta caput Qulibelmi Waleis super lanceam 

est affixum. 

Execution of the Earl of Athole. 

Comes autem iste de stripe regali sibi originem vindicavit Idcirco quidam 
Palatini, ipsum cum iniquis judicandum indecens indecorumque censebant* 
Quibus rex non sanguinis lineam sed justitisd judicium attendens, dicelmt : 
Quanto gradus altior, tan to lapsus gravior esse consUit. Sed cseteris parricidis 
generosior in sanguine, altius cateris suspendatur pro scelere. Nee vos latet 
quoties voluit prodidisse nos in AngliA, in ScotiA. et in FlandriA. Haliete 


ilium V08 ut LondinijuBtissimejudicetur. Quo cum pervenisset ..... quia 
de regali sanguine fuerat oriundus, non est tractus, sed ascenso equo, in equuleo 
quinquagina pedum suspensus est. Postea semivivus demissus ut majores 
cruciatus [sustineret], crudelissime decoUatur. Truncus vero illius, prseaccenso 
in conspectu ejus vehementi igne, una cum came et ossibus, in favillas et 
cineres, funditus conflagrantur. Caput autem istius, inter alia proditorum 
capita, super pontem Londin, in superlative gradu, quia de regali stemmate, 
est at&xum. 

It may, of course, be suggested that the parody was based on 
Matthew of Westminster, and not vice versa. There are, however, 
several circumstances which point pretty clearly in the opposite 
direction, although they may not perhaps be regarded as absolutely 

(a) The consideration already proposed for fixing the time and place 
of the composition of the parody. 

(b) The speech attributed to the King of Scots is distinctly marked 
by Matthew of Westminster as a quotation — "fertur dixisse," not 
" dixit." 

(c) The language is actually appropriated, but slightly pared or 
modified, so as to lose the character of profanity. 

(d) There are facts in the parody, such as the details of the shape of 
the cage, or the execution of the Bruces and Crawford at Carlisle, which 
could not have been got from Matthew of Westminster. 

(e) Matthew of Westminster, in adding, makes at least one mistake, 
viz., the Queen of Scots having been sent by her husband to her father. 

(/) The scriptural quotations found in both are certainly at home in 
the parody and very awkward in the history, and the same may bo said 
about the remark as to Hew the chaplain. 

(g) In the parody the sequence of the events is taken very much at 
haphazard; in the history there is an attempt to arrange them 
chronologically. If the parody had been taken from the history, it would 
seem more probable that the sequence in the history would have been 

(h) The present tense, as regards the imprisonment of the Bishops and 
Abbat, who were released in 1314. 


I^rd Hailes and Dr Lingard both decried the notion that the 
Countess of Buchan was hung up to public view in a cage outside the 
walls of Berwick Castle, although, after the description by Matthew of 
Westminster, such doubts certainly seem rather astonishing. That it 
was so, was clear enough from other sources; but if the least doubt 
could have remained, it will be removed by the minute description here 

The mention of Sheen as the place where the Bishops and Abbat had 
taken the oath of fealty is certainly very singular. There is in Palgrave 
a long accoimt of the repeated swearing of fealty to King Edward by 
both the bishops, but it never appears to have been at Sheen. Under 
the circumstances, it may be suggested that the present state of the text 
is duo to the error of a copyist, possibly writing to dictation. In this 
case the words " prope London," may be regarded as a gloss, and " apud 
Sheen " as occupying the place of some such word as " soepissime." 

The name of Thomas de Roys is evidently also a copyist's error for 
de Boys, which is given correctly in Matthew of Westminster, who, on 
the other hand, at least in the common text, has de Norham by mis- 
take for de Morham. The history of these persons could no doubt be 
much illustrated by farther investigation, but it is needless here to go 
into a biographical study^ The following notes, however, which were 
the first that occurred to me, are perhaps not without interest : — 

On June 29, 1294, King Edward summoned Thomas de Morham and 
others to be in London on the ensuing Sept. 1 (Byiner, ii. 643, 644). 

Sir Thomas Morham, then called King Edward's enemy, was brought 
before him at Aberdeen, in the middle of July 1296 (Stevenson's 
Hutoriccd Documents^ ii. 29), but he evidently submitted, and was 
pardoned, for Thomas de Boys, and Thomas de Morham, both swore 
fealty to King Edward at Berwick on Aug. 28, the same year {Rwj- 
man Roll, 134, 142). 

On Oct. 12, 1297, we have the mandate of the king, committing him 
to the custody of the constable of the Tower {H. D,, ii. 235). 

His son Herbert was captured in arms at Dunbar at the end of April 
1296 (H. D.y ii. 50), and was in prison in Rockingham Castle at 
least till April 14, 1297. 


On July 30, in that year, he was released, on condition of going 
to France, his sureties being John Comyn of Badenoch and David 
Graham {Rymer^ ii. 775, 776); but it is possible that he only returned 
to Scotland, and threw himself into the arms of the Nationalist party. 
At least on Oct 25, 1299, the Countess of Fife declares that he had 
devastated her property to such an extent that she could not meet her 
debts {H. />., ii. 399, 400). 

In Sept. 1301 he was, with Simon Fraser and others, close to the 
south-west borders, and seems to have joined in the attack on Loch- 
maben on Sept. 7 {H, />., ii 431-435). 

He was a prisoner before Feb. 20, 1304, for on that day he and his 
father were specially excepted in a proposal for an exchange of prisoners 
of war (Palgrave's Documents and Records^ 281). 

But Thomas de Boys was still uncaptured at that date, as he is one 
of the four persons excepted from the proposed terms of peace, the 
others being the High Steward, John de Soules, and Simon Fraser. 
He is similarly excepted, along with Simon Fraser and David Graham, in 
a similar but undated document about the same time (Palgrave, 278). 

It thus appears that Herbert de Morham had been a prisoner for at 
least two years and a half before his execution, and it is impossible but 
to suppose that it was not originally intended to put .him to death, but 
that he was sacrificed to the anger which clouded the end of King 
Edward's career. It is a pleasure to think that his father, Thomas de 
Morham, lived to see his native land once more. There can be little 
doubt that he is the person called in the printed Fcedera (Bi/vier, ed. 
1727, iii. 501, 502), Thomas de Morrain, who was released from the 
Tower by an order of Nov. 20, 1314, that he might be returned to 
Scotland and liberated. There are grounds for hoping that his declin- 
ing years were soothed by the affection of a daughter, £uf emia, married to 
John Gyffard, and by the presence of a grandchild, Hew Gyffard, her 
son {Liber Cartarum S. Cruets, 92). He was dead before Aug. 16, 
1327, when he is mentioned with respectful gratitude by William, 
Bishop of St Andrews, as a deceased benefactor of that church {Liber 
Cartarum S. Crucis, 78, 79). 

The speech put in the mouth of Thomas de Boys, as addressed to 


Herbert de Morham, is not from Scripture, but from a portion (i. 41) of 
St Ambrose's Book on Offices, which is used in the Breviary on Aug. 13, 
and relates that when St Lawrence saw St Xystos being led to execu- 
tion, he said to him — 

Quo progrederis sine filio, pater ? Father, whither goest thou without 
quo. sacerdos aancte, sine Diacono thy eon ? Holy Priest, whither dost 
properas ? Nunquam sacrificium sine thou fare without a Deacon 1 It hath 
miuistro ofiferre consueveras. never been thine use to offer sacrifice 

without a minister. 



During the autumn of last year, J. Meliss Stuart, Esq., of the Royal 
Highland Yacht Club, Oban, forwarded to me some correspondence he 
had with Dr Joseph Anderson regarding a supposed burial-caim which 
had been discovered on the shore of the island of Eriska. This island 
is situated just at the entrance to Loch Creran, opposite the upper third 
of the very elongated island of Lismore. On its south side it is sepa- 
rated from the mainland by a small firth, the entire bed of which is laid 
bare for several hours during low water. At the west end of this firth, 
where it joins the open sea, glaciated rocks of Lower Silurian clays pro- 
trude, and the water channel is so narrow that it could be easily spanned 
by a light iron bridge — a project which Mr Stuart contemplates carrying 
out. As we move eastwards, this semi-aquatic firth widens out a little, 
and again contracts, forming a miniature bay, before curving round to 
join Loch Creran, which bounds the island on its west side. About 
half-way along this narrow firth, but considerably nearer the island shore 
than the opposite mainland, Mr Stuart's attention was directed to a 
low, circularly-shaped mound of stones and clay, which appeared to be 
artificial; and upon making some tentative digging, this opinion was 
confirmed by the discovery of bits of charcoal, burnt bones, and one or 
two large logs of wood, which were turned up from its interior. Mr 


Stuart at once communicated these facts to the Secretary of the Society 
of Antiquaries of Scotland. The extreme novelty, if not improbability, 
of a burial-caim being found in such a locality, led Dr Anderson to 
support the hypothesis, already broached elsewhere, that it might be a 
lake-dwelling, and he suggested that I might be asked to see it. Hence 
the origin of my relation with this interesting discovery. Accordingly, 
I started for Oban on the 17th September 1884, and on the following 
day accompanied Mr Stuart to the site of the mound. I may mention 
that on the island of Eriska, which had recently passed into the hands 
of Mr Stuart by purchase, he was building a mansion house, and conse- 
quently he had occasion to be a frequent visitor to the locality. Our route 
was by Connel Ferry, thence past the site of the lake-dwelling at Ledaig, 
the great cairn of Auchnacree (both of which have been explored and 
described by the late Dr Angus Smith), and the far-famed natural strong- 
hold of Dun Mac Uisneachan, on the top of which the remains of a vitri- 
fied fort are still to be seen. Upon arriving at the island of Eriska, we 
were met by Mr Stuart's manager, Mr George M^Kenzie, and some half 
dozen men, who were in readiness to make any excavations that might 
be considered desirable. The mound is most accessible from the nearest 
point of the tidal limits on the island, from which it is 50 yards dis- 
tant, and about double that distance from the opposite shore on the 
mainland. On its west side, after the tide retreated, there remained 
some stagnant water, which has got the name Poll an Ron (the seal's 
pool), and on its south and east sides the water-bed is somewhat lower 
than that which intervenes between it and the noi-th shore of the island. 
During the previous investigations a trench had been cut half-way into 
the mound, running from north to south, from which two large logs of 
soft wood had been dug out, bearing marks of some sharp cutting imple- 
ments, and one or two deep cuts as if made by a cross-cut saw. On 
inspecting the sections exposed by this trench, nothing could be made 
out as to the structure of the mound, as the sides and bottom of the 
trench had become smeared over with a thick layer of slime and sea 
mud. Before the extracted logs had been disturbed, they lay horizon- 
tally and pointing towards the .centre of the mound, but at its outer 
margin we observed that others ran along the circumference. Further 


digging showed that a wooden basement, formed of one or two lines of 
trunks laid along the margin, from which others ran inwards at right 
angles to the former, like the spokes of a cart wheel, extended beneath 
the entire mound. Above this wooden structure were stones and clay, 
rising from about a foot at the circumference to nearly 3 feet in the 
centre. The depth of woodwork was not more than the thickness of 
one layer of beams, but towards the centre brushwood was mixed up 
with the beams, and the whole structure appeared to have been originally 
placed on the littoral deposits, as on digging below the wood a soft 
clayey substance was turned up similar to that of the surrounding sea- 
bed. The original trench was then continued right across the mound, 
and in several places, about 6 inches below the surface, ashes, charcoal, 
and a few small fragments of burnt bone were met with. While 
digging at the western margin of the mound, merely to corroborate the 
inference that the wooden basement was coextensive with its area, a 
quantity of broken bones, apparently of the sheep and small ox, were 
foimd along with ashes imbedded some 2 feet below the surface and 
immediately outside the wood. Tlie average diameter of the mound, 
measuring from the outside of the woodwork, was 60 feet; and at 
spring tide the water covered it to a depth of about 5 feet. No 
stone implements, or other relics of man, beyond the charcoal and 
animal bones already noticed, were found. 

At this stage I considered it imprudent to advise any further exca- 
vations until such time as antiquaries would have an opportunity of 
having their attention directed to the unusual position and character of 
this structiu'e. Moreover, when Mr Stuart comes to reside on the 
island, which he expects to do next summer, such further investigations 
would have the advantage of his own careful supervision. Meantime 
Mr Greorge M^Kenzie, whose intelligence in superintending the day's 
work was only equalled by the anxiety he displayed in ascertaining the 
archaeological value of the discovery, thus writes in answer to a request 
to ascertain if there are any oral traditions floating among the natives 
regarding the island and its connection with the mainland : — 


Erisk4, Appin, October 3, 1884. 
There is an old story current here that a man who stole cattle off the island 
was shot on the spot (site of cairn) hy the owner of the island while standing 
on the hill towards the Ferry, or rather east from the cairn, which must have 
been quite 500 yards distant. It is not said whether the cairn was there at 
the time or not. It is said the name of the robber was Thick Sandy, and 
people thought he was buried in the mound. There was a road or ford about 
20 yards east of the cairn, and this was the only safe place for horses to pass at 
low water. My impression is that at one time the cairn was not surrounded 
by water, but that there wsa a narrow channel between the mound and the 
mainland, and that it was of late date the Imy on the island side was formed by 
strong currents. 

The name of the firth on the Ordnance Map ia " Doirlinn," which 
suggests the existence of a pool of some kind. That a stagnant marsh 
existed here in former times, suflScient to afford protection for a fort or 
crannog, before the sea encroached upon it to the extent it now does is 
probable. This might be determined by digging through the sea-silted 
bed to ascertain if the stuff below consists of mossy deposits. 

Though the result of this investigation is, so far, of a negative char- 
acter, I do not think a record of what has abeady been done, should, for 
this reason, be less acceptable to the members of this Society, more 
especially as it opens up problems in which geologists as well as archae- 
ologists may find some points of common interest. That considerable 
changes in the aspect of this country — such as the deepening of river 
channels, the fiUing up of lake basins, and especially alterations in its 
littoral borders, by partial subsidences or upheavals of land, and the 
action of the waves in denuding here and depositing there — have taken 
place within historical times, is at least rendered probable by many 
recorded facts. 

While the discovery of the Culzean bronze hatchets,^ beneath a bed 
of littoral gravel, in a position 100 yards removed from the present 
limits of the tides, and 25 feet above the level of high- water mark, 
suggests a rise of land on the Ayrshire coasts, the Eriska mound seems 
to me to indicate a reverse operation. 

The only instance in Scotland, so far as I remember, of an artificial 

» Proc. Soc. Ant Scot., llth June 1883. 


structure, analogous to that at Eriska, is in the Beauly Firth near 
Inverness, a notice of which is given in the Statistical Account of Scot- 
land, vol xvii. p. 350, as follows : — 

" To the south-east of Eedcastle, about 400 yards within flood-mark, there is 
a cairn of considerable dimensions. Many of the stones, notwithstanding their 
collision tlirough the violence of the tide, still bear the marks of art, and indi- 
cate the existence of a considerable building at some very remote period. There 
are several cairns of this description in the firth, about the origin of which even 
tradition is silent. Were there any vestiges of tumuli on which they could 
have been built, or any other circumstances which should indicate the el^i- 
bility of the sites on which they are placed, from the predatory excursions of 
rude barbarous tribes, but none such exist. Urns have been found in one of 

them Mr Fraser, minister of Kirkhill, supposes that a considerable 

part of the area which is dry at ebb tide, but covered with from 2 to 16 feet of 
water when it flows, being at least 10 square miles, must have been inhabited." 

This same structure is thus referred to by Miss Maclagan (Z%« Hill 

Forta and Stone Circles of Scotland, p. 89) : — 

"Nearly over against Eedcastle, in the centre of Beauly Loch, stand the 
remains of the * Black Cairn,' now only visible at low tide. We visited it at 
low- water of the lowest tide of the year, and believe it to be a crannog greatly 
resembling one in the neighbouring * Loch of the Clans/ but resting on larger, 
stronger piles. Our boatmen declared they had often drawn out of it beams 9 
or 10 feet long and 3 feet broad, fresh and fit for use. They had great difficulty 
in pulling them out, which they did by fixing their anchors in a log or pile. 
Tradition says that as late as 1745 the place was an island, and a refuge to 
which some of Prince Charles Edward's defeated adherents fled after the battle 
of Culloden. The country people aver that all the land has subsided, the 
houses at Fort-George having sunk several feet since they were built The 
fact of this crannog being now in the centre of Beauly Loch, the salt sea sweep- 
ing over it except at low tide, is proof enough of extensive change. . . . Near 
the mouth of the river Ness, at high- water mark, are remains of a once large 
cairn, called * Carn-aire,* or * Cairn of the Sea;' and due west from it are other 
three, at considerable distances apart.'* 

This occasional overlapping of geological phenomena with historic or 
prehistoric remains of man has frequently occupied the attention of 
archaeologists, with the view of finding some well-attested fact which 
might give more defiuiteness to the natural methods of registering the 
occurrence of past events than their mere chronological sequence. For 
this purpose the position of Roman remains, and especially of the ends 


of the two Eoman walls in Britain relative to the limits of the ac^acent 
seas, have been a fertile field for speculations as to the relative levels of 
sea and land before and since the Roman occupation of this part of the 
island. Many of the inferences derived from such investigations are well 
known to be diametrically opposed, so that while one observer says that 
a change in the relative level of sea and land to the extent of 25 feet 
has taken place in post-Koman times, another finds proof in the very 
same data that all such changes took place in pre-Roman times (see 
Geikie in Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal^ voL xiv. p. 106 ; and 
Smith of Jordanhill in Proceedings of Geological Society, vol. ii. p. 427). 
The subject has also not escaped the attention of continental archaeolo- 
gists, and a slight reference to one or two instances of a similar character 
which have come under my own cognizance during last summer may not 
be here out of place. The physical phenomena to which I refer have 
been especially observed in the Morbilian in the south of Brittany, a 
sketch of which will be found in U Homme for July 25, 1884, p. 421, 
from the pen of Professor Gabriel de Mortillet, imder the title "En- 
vahissement de la mer sur les cotes du Morbihan." 

On the small islet Er-Lanic, situated in the Morbihan sea and close 
to the island Gavr* Inis, M. G. de Closmadeuc, the proprietor of the 
latter, has described and figured, in the Proceedings of the Societe 
PolymMhique du Morbihan,^ two cromlechs, i.e., stone circles, situated so 
near to each other as to resemble the figure 8, the peculiarity of which 
is that only a portion of the upper cromlech is on the dry land, the rest 
being only visible when the tide is out. The lower cromlech is only 
discerned when the tides are specially low. Mr W. C. Lukis 
thus refers to this little island: — "El Lanic, worth visiting for the 
purpose of seeing a portion of a stone circle which the restless waves 
have encroached upon and partly destroyed, and if the tide should 
happen to be low, of also seeing upon the beach the prostrate stones of 
a second circle of equal dimensions and touching the first, as well as a 
fallen menhir still farther from the shore. Within the first circle have 
been found many flint and other stone implements, fibrolite and diorite 
axes, knives, scrapers, hammer-stones, animal bones, and innumerable 

» ^u«., 1867, p. 18 ; «< ibid., 1883, p. 8. 


fragments of earthenware vessels. The south beach, and the entire 
island, appears to be strewn with similar objects. Instead of the 
common pattern on Brittany pottery, which consists of horizontal streaks, 
or bands of diagonal indented lines made with a square -pointed tool, or, 
it may be, with a revolving toothed disc, the fragments which have been 
found here have mostly a Vandyke ornament filled in with small round 
dots, artistically and carefully made. The rims of the vessels are also 
similarly adorned."^ Some of the relics found here, when examined in 
1867 by M. de Closmadeuc, are exhibited in the ArchaBological Museum 
at Vannes. M. de Closmadeuc has frequently visited the island and 
always returned with additional discoveries. Besides pottery and flint 
implements of all kinds, he has collected stone mortars and hatchets 
similar to those found in the dolmens. Regarding the latter he writes 
as follows : — " Des centaines de celtse, ou haches en pierre, de toute 
forme, dc toute dimension, le plus grand nombre en diorite ; tr^ peu en 
(juartz-agate, en fibrolithe, &c. ; presque tons brisks."* M. de Closmadeuc 
justly argues that, since it cannot be supposed that these cromlechs 
were erected under water, the land has sunk and has thus permitted the 
waves to wash over a portion of the island, including that portion on 
which these stone monuments were placed. 

The same antiquary has also observed that some of the stones in the 
celebrated dolmen of Gavr'inis are of a kind of rock which is not found 
on the island itself, but at some distance on the mainland, as at Baden 
and Arradon. Hence he suggests that when the dolmen was built, 
Gavrlnis was not really an island but part of the mainland, a theory in 
my opinion quite in harmony with the depth of water and the disposi- 
tion of the extraordinary currents in this part of the Morbihan Sea.^ 

In the commune of St Pierre-a-Quib6ron there are several remains of 
antiquity which furnish undoubted evidence that the sea has greatly 
encroached upon the land since the Neolithic period. Among these 
may be noted particularly the menhirs or standing stones of St Pierre, 
near the village of that name, two dolmens at Port Blanc, and a Celtic 
cemetery on the isle of Thinic. The menhirs are to be seen in a ciUti- 

* Morbiharif by W. C. Lukis, p. 9. 

a BuH. Soc. Pohjmat., 1882, p. 10. ^ Ibid., p. 12. 


vated field overlooking the shore, whose abrupt crumbling banks at once 
indicate how potent is the present disintegrating power of the waves. 
Mr Lukis describes them as forming a " series of five lines, which run 
in a south-east direction for a distance of 635 feet, and appear to have 
been partially destroyed by the encroachment of the sea. The stones 
are almost all prostrate, but they may be traced to the very edge of the 
beach, and even on the rocks below when the tide is out." ^ When I 
visited the locality on the 29th June 1884, there were only seven of 
the menhirs standing. Six of them are in a group within a stone's 
throw of a dilapidated cromlech, and, owing to irregular weathering, 
present curious fantastic si i apes, two of which are called the pilgrims. 
The tide being low at the time, I took the opportimity of wandering 
among a chaos of granite blocks within the tidal mark, and greatly 
hidden by a luxuriant covering of sea- weeds ; but I confess that I could 
find no evidence to prove, from any regularity of position, that these 
had ever been menhirs, or formed part of the alignments on the shore. 
But, on the otlier hand, should they have been so, I would not expect 
much evidence of the fact to remain, as, when the soil on which they 
stood became washed away, these standing stones would topple over 
irregularly, and become like ordinary boulders among the shingle. 

To reach the dolmens of Port Blanc, we cross the peninsida to its 
west side. Here, on the summit of a high communal dune, just over- 
looking the precipitous sea-board, are to be seen two recently explored 
dolmens. They were discovered on the 18th February 1883, owing to 
the progressive demolition of the cliffs by the stormy sea which here 
constantly prevails, and which had already undermined and exposed the 
funereal chamber of a dolmen. Upon examination another dolmen was 
found close to the one thus exposed. They were at once investigated, 
under the auspices of the Commission des Monuments Megalithic, and 
found to contain skeletons, vases, and various objects of art, as bone 
pins, a bronze bodkin, two celts of diorite, flint flakes, a wild boar's 
tusk, &c. (see " Fouilles des Dolmens du Port Blanc," par Felix Gaillard, 
Rapport deposS a la Commission des Monuments M/'(jalithiques^ 1883). 

L'ile Thinic, or Jnisiilleuc, according to the old inhabitants, is a small 

» Morhihan, by W. C. Lakis, p. 29. 


oval plateau, not exceeding three quarters of an acre in extent, near the viUage 
of Pont ivy. During low water it is accessible on foot by a sort of rough 
causeway, which extends some 200 yards in length. Here an extensive 
burial-ground containing many stone cists enclosing bodies, flint flakes, 
" en quantity extraordinaire," pottery " de Tepoque des dolmens," ham- 
mer-stones, and various other stone implements, portions of stags' horns, 
&c. This burial-groimd, designated in the report as a Celtic cemetery, 
was discovered and examined in August 1883 by M. Felix Gaill^trd. This 
indefatigable and most practical archaBologist is proprietor of the Hotel 
du Commerce at Plouhamel, and among the relics in his private museum 
is now placed a facsimile of one of the cists from this cemetery at 
Thinic, containing a skeleton and other funereal furnishings in their 
natural positions (see Fouilles du Cemetihre Cdtique de UUe Thinic^ 
par F. Gaillard. Vannes, 1884). 

Professor de Mortillet of Paris, who made a careful inspection of this 
cemetery and its geological surroundings during an archaeological excur- 
sion he made last summer into Brittany with a number of his pupils, 
and whom I had the pleasure of meeting on that occasion, thus writes, 
in concluding his article already referred to : — " II faut forc^ment recon- 
naitrc qu' k Tc^poque robenhausienne Tile de Thinic <5tait enclav^e dans 
Ic plateau de terre femie et se trouvait m6me k ime certaine distance de 
la mer. Ce n'etjt que plus tard, apr^s, bien apr^ la fin de T^poque 
robenhausienne, que la mer est venue battre contre Tile de Thinic et 
I'isoler du reste du plateau. Get isolement ne pent remonter au plus 
(ju* k deux ou trois mille ans, peut-etre est-il meme beaucoup moiiis 
ancien" {U Homme, 1884, p. 424). 

It seems that the cists in this cemetery were constructed in a stratum 
of fine sand, similar to the blown dunes on the mainland, a fact which 
could only be explained on the supposition that both the island and the 
mainland were formerly united. Moreover, it cannot for a moment be 
supposed that a people, who carried their respect to deceased friends 
to the extent of rearing such extraordinary monuments as the dolmens, 
would deposit their dead or even erect any gigantic monuments 
intended for perpetuity in places liable to be destroyed by such mani- 
festly destructive agencies as the dashing waves over this boisterous coast. 


Many other examples of change of sea-level bearing on archseological 
phenomena could be adduced, but I shall confine myself to one more. 
During the years 1868-9, while extensive excavations were being made 
for the purpose of extending the harbour of Ystad, in the extreme south 
of Sweden, the foUowing sections were passed through in succession from 
above downwards: — (1) A thick bed of marine sands and gravels. (2) 
At 3 metres below the level of the sea and 5 metres below the quay, a 
stratum of moss, varying in thickness from ^ to | a m^tre. In this 
moss were some hundreds of stumps of decayed trees of various sizes 
and still attached to their roots, which spread downwards to the soil 
underneath. (3) Below the moss were irregular layers of sand and 
clay of dififerent colours mixed with striated pebbles, showing that this 
was the surface of a glacial " moraine du fond." 

In the first or marine beds, which contained shells of the ordinary 
moUusca now inhabiting the Baltic, were found twenty-three boats of 
ordinary construction, several wooden vessels, two brass saucepans, some 
tin plates, two ancient guns of the 15th century type, several iron and 
stone cannon balls, two iron hatchets, a stone candle-holder, a dirk-sheath 
mounted with lead, portions of stags' horns sawn off, and a large 
quantity of bones, chiefly the skulls of animals. The animals represented 
were the ox, horse, dog (two kinds), pig, sheep, goat, fox, cat, and a 
small portion of two human skulls. Among all these there was not a 
fragment of the extinct animals usually found in the peat bogs, nor a 
single example of the implements usually associated with the Stone Age, 
nor any other article that could be considered as having a greater 
antiquity than four or five centuries. But, on the other hand, in the 
sand and clays beneath the bed of moss were found several species of 
land shells, a knife of grey flint, portion of a polished celt of a yeUowish 
flint, a club head of bronze ornamented with lines and circles, two bone 
handles, one of which was beautifully carved and terminated in a 
dragon's head, and lastly a flint poignard neatly chipped. The inference 
drawn from these facts is, that before or about the time when Chris- 
tianity was introduced into Scandinavia, land in this locality, now sub- 
merged for the last 400 or 500 years, stood above the level of the sea,^ 
' Ctmgrr^ International (fAnthrop. et cTArch. prehist., 4th sessioD, p. 15. 


Last summer I visited a remarkable megalithic monument, just then 
explored on the island of Jersey, near St Heliers, on the road to St 
Aubins. It is called the "Mont Cochon Cromlech," and consists of an 
"all^e couverte" and a stone circle (or, according to French nomen- 
clature, a cromlech)^ surrounding a dolmen. These structures are situated 
in a cultivated field within a few feet of each other, and one peculiarity 
t>f them is that they remained for ages imbedded in a heap of blown sand. 
In addition to the value of this find, from the state of preservation of 
the megalithic structures, and the urns, flint implements, and other relics 
discovered in them, I have to note that the surface of the soil on which 
they were erected is only about 22 feet above the present level of the 
sea. The fact of this monument being now not only close to the shore, 
but at so unusually low a level, makes the author of the able and inter- 
esting description of it, published in the SocietS Jersiaise for 1844, 
suggest that its site was formerly the centre of the island, when, 
according to local tradition, its area was much larger than it now is. 

These few examples of marine encroachments on the land are 
sufficient to indicate the kind of evidence that we may expect to have 
to deal with in attempting to apply geological principles to the study 
of archeology. My chief object in drawing attention to them now is 
to suggest to future observers the importance of attending to the topo- 
graphical position of antiquarian finds, and especially their exact local- 
isation as regards sea-board, erosive streams, inland lakes, peat bogs, &c. 
I am told that in districts where blown sands accumulate along our 
coasts, flint arrow-heads and other stone implements of archaic types 
are rarely found close to the sea. In the case of the Stevenston Sandfly 
Ayrshire, so rich in aU manner of flint implements, these relics are 
generally not found within a distance of 300 yards from the present 
sea-shore; and hence this barren zone may be considered to measure 
the time since these stone implements and weapons ceased to be manu- 
factured, or at least used, in the locality. 



WILSON, LL.D., Principal of Univbrsity College, Toronto, Hon. Mem. 
S.A. Scot. 

On my last visit to Edinbui^h I was pressed into the service of 
some young friends to explore what little still remains of the memorials 
of olden times, which, in my own younger days, gave such a charm to 
the quaint old town occupying the ridge and its northern and southern 
slopes, between the Castle and Holyrood Abbey. Many a curious relic, 
once familiar to me, had vanished, though still enough remained to 
reward the search and gratify the curiosity of younger antiquaries. 
But among the vanished relics, which helped to confer on the romantic 
town of past generations so fascinating an interest, I was specially 
reminded of one curious antique, the restoration of which, as it then 
seemed to me, was as desirable as it is of easy accomplishment. Civic 
and sanitary reform have done their destructive work so effectually that 
the spirit of conservatism would fain cast its shield over what little 
remains of the past; and the work of restoration effected by Dr 
William Chambers on the collegiate church of St Giles may be accepted 
as some atonement for the wholesale eradication of so much that was 
quaint and historically interesting, though perhaps altogether unsuited 
to the wants, or even to the weU-being of this nineteenth century, in 
the old town of Edinburgh. 

The special relic of anticjuity, to which I refer, is what was known in 
my younger days as the " Roman Heads " at the Nether Bow. So many 
years have passed since I had an opportimity of looking on the ancient 
bas-reliefs that, were it possible, I should be glad to have an opportunity 
of inspecting them anew before claiming for them an antiquity of so 
remote a date as the third century. If they had been correctly 
ascribed to a Roman sculptor, and rightly identified as representing the 
Emperor Septimius Sovenis and his Empress, they would have had a 
prominent claim to interest as by far the most ancient relics in the 
Scottish capital. 


When I learned that my old friend, Dr J. Collingwood Bruce, had 
been appointed to the Rhind Lectureship, and had selected "The 
Romans in Scotland " as the subject to which he was so specially 
qualified to do justice, I recalled to his attention the old sculptures. 
But it is possible that, in the greatly overcrowded state of the Society's 
collection, to which they now pertain, he may have missed an oppor- 
tunity of inspecting them. It may not even yet be too late to invite 
his verdict as a skilled expert, in reference to the authenticity of the 
bas-reliefs as sculptures of the age to which it has been so long the 
fashion to assign them. 

In the construction of Jeffrey Street, and the adjacent approaches 
embraced in the city improvements of 1867, the old avenue of Leith 
Wynd, which skirted the eastern line of the city wall, has been effaced. 
It was, as I believe, a portion of the line of an ancient Roman road 
which led from the Roman seaport at the mouth of the Almond, by 
Canonmills, Broughton, St Ninian's Row, and Leith Wynd, to the point 
of intersection with the " King's Hie Grait," and thence by St Mary's 
Wynd and the Pleasance, — the site in mediaeval times of the Convent 
of S. Maria de Placentia, — southward by Romana, and the Roman 
Trimontium, in the vale of Melrose, to the fords of the Solway. I have 
long since set forth the evidences of the Roman footprints.^ The 
western portion of the road was still visible when Gordon was collecting 
the materials for his IHnerarium Septentrionale in the early years of 
the eighteenth century. After describing the Roman coins and medals 
in the collection of Baron Clerk, found at Cramond, " including that 
invaluable medal of Severus supposed to be coined on the peace with 
the Caledonians, one of Julia, one of Domitian, and another of Severus, 
with this reverse — Fdicitaa Atcgusiancm" he goes on to say — " From 
this same station of Cramond runs a noble military way, towards 
Castrum Alatum or Edinburgh; but as it comes near that city it is 
wholly levelled and lost among the ploughed lands, and is therefore 
discernible but a little way." Cramond, as he conjectures, may have 
been " one of the Hiberna, or winter quarters of Septimius Severus 

^ Prehistoric Annals of Scotland^ 2nd ed., vol. ii pp. 53-56. 


when he was in Scotland, as his medal found here, with the inscription 
Fundator paeis, seems to denote." ^ 

The traces of the old Roman road which, in Gordon's days, were so 
soon lost among the ploughed fields, have been recovered at various 
points in subsequent years. A coin of the Emperor Vespasian, in the 
Society's coUection, was found in 1782 in a garden in the Pleasance.* 
In digging in St Ninian's Row, in 1815, for the foimdation of the 
Regent Bridge, the discovery of a quantity of fine embossed Samian 
ware afforded still more indubitable evidence of the Roman presence.' 
At various subsequent dates, in 182 2, in 1845, and on the demolition 
of the Collegiate Church of the Holy Trinity in 1848, portions of an 
ancient causeway were brought to light, which from its materials and 
construction confirmed the idea that it was part of the old Roman road, 
over which the foundations of the church were laid in 1462. Beyond 
this it climbed the steep ascent towards the Nether Bow, and 
near the point of intersection there were found, in 1850, two silver 
denarii of the Emperor Severus, now in the Society's cabinet, one of 
them bearing on the reverse a Roman soldier, holding the figure of 
Victory in his right hand, with the legend avqg. vict. On the reverse 
of the other a Victory, in flowing drapery, bears in her right hand a 
wreath, and in the left a cornucopia ; the legend, vict. parthica. 

In the RdiquuB Galeance^ of date March 1742, Sir John Clerk gives 
an accoimt of what he assumes to have been a Roman arch, which had 
been recently pulled down at Edinburgh. " It was," he said, " an old 
arch that nobody ever imagined to be Roman, and yet it seems it was, 
by an urn discovered in it, with a good many silver coins, aU of them 
common except one of Faustina Minor, which I had not. It represents 
her bust on one side, and on the reverse a lectutteniiumy with this 
inscription, s^cvu feucitas."* Unfortunately, Sir John Clerk gives no 
definite information as to the site of the demolished arch ; but the 
Edinburgh of 1742 was confined within very narrow bounds, and 

> Itiner, SfpUnL^ p. 117. 

' Archccologia Scotica, App., vol. iii. p. 72. 

• Prehistoric Annals of ScoUandf 2nd ed., vol. ii. p. 54. 

* Biblio. Topog, Brit., vol. ii. p. 848. 


whatever may have been the true date of the masoniy, the genuineness 
of the Roman coins is beyond all doubt. Other traces of the presence 
of the Romans in Edinburgh, or its immediate vicinity, are produced 
in the Prehistoric Annals of Scotland, With the abundant evidences 
of Roman occupation of the neighbouring seaports of Cramond and 
Inveresk, it can excite no surprise to recover either coins, pottery, or 
sculptured tablets, on so important a site of early urban settlement, 
midway between the Almond and the Esk. 

The earliest notice of the "Roman Heads" is that of Gordon, in 
1726, in the appendix to his Itinerarium Septentrionale. In earlier 
years he had explored the line of the wall of Severus, in Northimiber- 
land, in company with Sir John Clerk, had enjoyed the hospitalities of 
the Duke of Queensberry at Drumlanrig Castle, and minutely investi- 
gated the famous Roman works at Birrenswark, and other remains 
between the Nith and the Solway. He had also surveyed the line of 
the Antonine wall, between the Forth and the Clyde, but it is doubtful 
if he had visited Edinburgh, prior to the publication of the prized folio 
on which T?ie Antiquary of Scott has conferred such enduring interest, 
and it was, apparently, only when he was adding the final remarks to his 
appendix that he was " favoured by the ingenious Mr Alexander with 
a draught of two very curious heads built up in a wall in Edinbui^h, 
the sculpture of which is so excellent that," he says, "I have been 
advised, by the best judges of antiquity, to give it a place in my book." 
He pronounces the sculptured heads to be "attired in Roman habits, 
and indisputably works of that nation." "A very learned and illustrious 
antiquary," he adds, "judges them to be representations of the Emperor 
Septimius Severus and his wife Julia," and he himself surmises them to 
have been originally designed as adornments for a sarcophagus. 

Immediately after the publication of the Itinerarium Septentrionale^ 
Sir John Clerk wrote to his brother antiquary, Roger Gale, informing 
him of an expected visit of Gordon. Baron Clerk was then residing in 
the fine old civic mansion, still standing in Riddle's Close, in the Lawn- 
market, where, in 1598, Bailie Macmoran entertained the Duke of 
Holstein as the City's guest, and was honoured with the presence of King 
James and his Queen at the banquet. There, as we may assume, Sandy 


Gordon found hospitable entertainment at the later date of the occupa- 
tion of the ancient lodging by Baron Clerk ; and as he wended his way 
from the Lawnmarket to Queensberry House, in the Canongate, the 
mansion of his noble patron the Duke of Queensberry, to whom the 
Itineranum is dedicated, he would pass the house of the old Scottish 
typographer, Thomas Bassendyne, into the front wall of which the 
" Romn Heads " were built, with, as Gordon notes, "a Gothic inscrip- 
tion, in the Monkish times, thrust in betwixt them." When in 1742 
the demolition of the Roman arch disclosed the urn with its coin of 
Faustina Minor, and other indubitable traces of the Roman invaders, the 
author of the Itinerarium SeptentrioncUe had itinerated far beyond the 
furthest flight of the Roman Eagles, and was making a new home for 
himself in South Carolina, where he died in 1764, leaving behind 
him, among other memorials, the curiously characteristic Will which 
is printed among the Society's Proceedings} 

Some twenty-seven years later than the first notice of the "Roman 
Heads," they were described anew by Maitland in his History of Edin- 
burgh^ and their locality defined. According to the old civic historian, 
they had stood at some earlier date in the wall of a house on the northern 
side of the street, from whence they had been transferred to their later 
site in the Nether Bow, nearly opposite John Knox's House. On their 
new site, if not before, they were inserted in a panel, separated by the 
introduction between them of a black-letter inscription, borrowed from 
the Vulgate, of the curse pronounced on Adam and Eve, after the fall : — 
in • intbore • Dull' • tut • vtfictxxfi • pane • tuo. To this is 
added the reference G. 3, which Maitland misread anno 1621. Mr 
David Laing drew attention to the correspondence of the abbreviated 
inscription vulf, to the reading of the first edition of the Bible, printed 
at Metz in the year 1466. The incongruous conjunction of this text 
with the heads of Severus and Julia had given rise to the popular re- 
cognition of them as Adam and Eve ; and on this Maitland attempts to 
improve, by noting that they occupied a panel in the wall over a baker's 
shop, and thence surmising that the inscription was put up in allusion 
to his trade. In reality such inscriptions were characteristic of the 

» Proc. Soc. Ant.^ Scot, vol x. p. 864. 


fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The town mansion of the Abbots of 
Mebose stood opposite, the site of the Chapel and Convent of St Mary 
was near by, and such an inscription was a most likely relic of some 
older building in the vicinity. Its interposition between the heads of 
the Roman Emperor and his Empress added to the quaint incongruity 
of the later arrangement which thus placed in conjunction relics of such 
widely different dates, and adapted them all the better to their site. 

But are the basso-relievos which so long figured among the lions of 
the old Scottish capital, and stood so near to the intersection of the High 
Street by the ancient line of the Roman road, which then crossed the 
ridge on its way to the Roman sea-ports of Inveresk and Cramond, really 
genuine memorials of the visit of Severus and his Empress to this remote 
northern region 1 When I last looked on them, upwards of thirty-two 
years since, they still graced the fa9ade of the old typographer's lodging 
in the Nether Bow ; and looked Roman-like enough, at the distance from 
which they were viewed, with the obscuring veil that time and exposure 
had helped to throw over them. But so far back as 1783, the celebrated 
local artist, David Allan, executed an admirable engraving of them, 
which was subsequently produced in the third volume of the Archmologia 
Scotica, and from this a sufficiently definite opinion may be formed of 
the sculptures. A renewed study of them, in so far as that can be 
efficiently done with the old Scottish painter's aid, leads me, however 
reluctantly, to the conclusion, that " the Gothic inscription in the 
Monkish times," the intrusion of which between "Severus and his 
Empress " was so distasteful to the old Roman antiquary of the Itinerary ^ 
is in all probability the older relic of the two ; and that the " Roman 
Heads " are in reality works of the Renaissance period, probably little, 
if any older than the heads which adorned the City cross, till its 
demolition in 1756. 

But whether of the third or the sixteenth century, the old sculptures, 
with their incongruous motto, and the quaint fancy to which it gave rise, 
that the Roman Heads represented the primeval human pair on the eve 
of their forfeiting paradise, constituted an interesting feature of the old 
town which it is a pity should be lost. Transferred from the site which 
they so long occupied in the Nether Bow to a place in the Antiquarian 


Museum, they present a contrast somewhat akin to tliat of a wild flower 
on its native hill-side, and the same when reduced to a withered mummy 
in a botanist's herbarium. It is not improbable that the sculptured 
heads, as weU as the medisBval inscription, belonged originally to some 
structure near their old weU-known site. Their locality, at any rate, by 
long- established prescriptive right, is unquestionably the Nether Bow; and 
much of their interest vanished on the demolition of the old house there, 
and their transfer to the safe custody of the Scottish antiquaries. A 
work of true conservatism was accomplished when the Society gave up 
the finely sculptured boss from the Kirkpatrick Sharpe collection, in 
order to have it replaced as the keystone of the ground ceiling of St 
Eloi's Chapel, in the Cathedral Church of St Giles. My object in re- 
calling the Society's attention to the " Roman Heads," now in their safe 
keeping, is to offer the suggestion that the venerable sculptures be 
replaced in a deeply sunk panel in the facade of the building which 
has replaced the tenement occupied of old by Thomas Bassendyne, one 
of Scotland's famous typographers. I would by no means divorce the 
mediaBval text from its former conjunction with the sculptures to which 
it helped to give a novel popular significance. But it would add to the 
interest if the whole were supplemented by a further inscription com- 
memorating the old typographer whose rare edition of Sir David 
Lyndsay's poems bears to be "imprinted at Edinburgh be Thomas 
Bassendyne, dwelland at Nether Bow, M.D.LXXIIII" ; and whose 
beautiful folio Bible, one of the choicest specimens of early Scottish 
typography, issued from the same press in 1576. 

VOL. XIX. o 




The following announcement appeared in the Edinburgh Courant of 
January 23, 1830 : — " The operations now going forward on the south side of 
St Giles* Cathedral have rendered it necessary to remove the tomb of the 
Regent Murray, which stood in the Old Church, part of the new wall coming 
immediately over it The contents of the vault were accordingly removed on 
Saturday to another previously prepared for them immediately to the east of 
the old one. Three lead coffins, laid one over the other, were thus removed ; 
the upper oae, with its outer wainscot case was almost entire, and bore a plate 
with the words " Francis Stuart died at Rheims, August 1768 aged 22." — The 
one in the middle was almost entire, but the outer case of wainscot fell to 
pieces in the hands of the workmen, — the lead coffin was stamped with a crown 
and the dates 1670 and 1690, the under coffin was without any inscriptions, 
and had been crushed flat by the superincumbent weight of the others. There 
was abo a small coffin, about 4^ feet in length, which had been placed at 
the side of the large ones, and on the top of the latter, also it appears, that an 
infant's coffin had been deposited, but it had fallen to pieces, and the bones of 
the child only remained. The whole were safely removed to the new vault, 
over which the old inscription will be placed when the wall is finished." 

From Notes by David Laing respecting the Earl of Moray's tomb 
(in the ProceedirujSy vol. i. p. 191) it appears that an investigation 
was made in the month of April 1850, by the authority of the Town 
Council, upon a request made by the family. The reason for the investi- 
gation is stated to have been with the view of ascertaining whether the 
Earl of Murray (that is, the second Earl of Murray, who was slain at 
Donibristle by the Earl of Huntly, on the 7th of February 1591) had 
been interred in the burying vault of St Giles' or in Dalgetty Church. 
The particulars given by Mr Laing are from a notice written at the 
time by the gentlemen who superintended the investigation on behalf 
of the family. The details ai'e much the same as in the preceding notice 
of 1830. It is only necessary to quote the reference to the third lead 
coffin, which in the preceding notice was described as having been 
cnished flat by the weight of the others that had been placed above it. 


"The third, or undermost, was also a leaden one; It bore marks 
of considerable antiquity, showing the rounded form of the head and 
shoulders, and in many places was much indented, but had no 
inscription of any kind, though it is more than probable there had been 
an inscription, which may have been torn or rubbed off when the coffin 
was removed during the alterations of the church, A portion of the 
lead opposite to the face was broken, and through the opening was seen 
a part of the skull, the top of which had been sawn through, probably 
for the purpose of embalming, and the teeth in the upper jaw were quite 
entire. Though there was no way of positively identifying these 
remains with those of the Regent, still, from the fact of there being 
only three coffins in the vault, and it being clear that neither of the 
other two coffins was that of the Regent, there seems little doubt that 
this lowest coffin did contain his remains." 

That conclusion of Mr Laing was a mistake, as was demonstrated on 
the 13th Apiil 1879, when the contents of the Moray vault in the south 
transept of St Giles' were carefully examined by Professor Douglas 
Maclagan, myself, Dr William Chambers, Mr Hay the architect, and 
other gentlemen, in the expectation of finding some clue to the remains 
of the Regent Murray. One coffin contained the remains of Francis 
Stuart, who died at Rheims, August 1768, aged 22,year8. The other 
contained the remains of the Earl of Galloway, with the words — 

"NAT 8 JANB 1670, OBIT 26 8BP 1690." 

The third was a leaden coffin, very much flattened and shaped to the 
head and shoulders as described by Mr Laing in his notice, with a 
hole in the lead opposite the face. On opening a portion of the lead it 
was ascertained that the remains were those of a female apparently about 
fifty yeara old or more, and in a good state of preservation. The upper 
part of the skull had been sawn off. The hair was red; the front 
teeth were much worn down and one of the molars was decayed, with a 
hole on one side of it. Besides the coffins there were in the vault a 
considerable quantity of rubbish mixed with human remains— decayed 
portions of old coffins and the metal plate that had been on the coffin 
of Francis Stuart. Among a number of skidls that were in the vault one 


of them excited much observation on account of the thickness of its 
M-alls. It had been sawn through in the ordinary way, was in good 
preservation, its walls seemed to be from f inch to J inch in thick- 

The foUowing extract from the Records of the Town Ouncil of 
Edinburgh, dated 19th July 1588, clearly indicates whose remains they 
were : — 

" At the desyr of the kin and freynds of the vmquhill Countess of 
Argyle laitly deceisset within the burgh, and for the luif and favour 
thai buir to hir vmquhill first husband the Erie of Murray, regent for 
the tyme, grants and consentis that sho be bureit in the Hie Kirk of 
this burgh, in the tomb and sepulchre of hir said vmquhill husband." 

It seems more than probable that when in 1588, eighteen years after 
the Earl of Murray was laid in the vault of St. Giles', his wife's remjiins 
were either placed above his, or placed alongside of them. The coffin 
containing the remains of the Earl of Galloway, which was very broad and 
exceedingly heavy, was placed above that of the Countess of Argyle and 
tliat of Francis Stuart on the top of the other two. The immense 
weight of the two upper ones sufficiently accounts for the flattened 
appearance of the lowermost. 

James Earl of Murray married, in 1561, Anne, daughter of William 
Keith, Earl Mareschal, and by that lady had two daughters — Elizabetli 
and Margaret. The Regent was assassinated on the 23rd January 1570, 
in the 37th year of his age. His widow afterwards marned Colin 
Campbell, 6th Earl of Argyle ; she was his second wife and had two sons 
to him. His lordship died in 1584, and his Countess survived him four 
years, dying in July 1588. Her age cannot be ascertained from the 
peerage books. 



By GILBERT GOUDIE, Treawuubr, S.A. Scot. 

The crown lands of Orkney and Shetland, known, since the islands 
became connected with Scotland, as the Earldom estate of Orkney and 
the Lordship of Shetland, together with the duties exigible in addition 
by the Crown and its donatories, are simply the continuation, with ever 
varying increment, of the heritable domain and traditional exactions of 
the old Scandinavian Earls of Orkney in both groups of islanda These 
lands and duties, originally held under the King of Denmark and 
Norway, gradually assumed the character of absolute and irredeemable 
property in the person of the Scottish sovereign, and successive dona- 
tories, though only holding under redeemable charters from the Crown, 
made free with them, by sale and excambion, as if they had been 
their own. 

The bishopric estates and revenues in Orkney and Shetland descended, 
in the same way, to the Roman Catholic and Reformed Bishops of the 
Scottish Church from the Scandinavian prelates who preceded them, and 
were equally tampered with by the successive holders. 

Regarding the origination and growth of these two estates in the 
islands, the absence of authentic information leaves us very much to 
conjecture. In the case of the Earldom, King Harold of the Fairhair, 
according to the Saga of Olaf Trygvisson, simply "gave" the whole 
islands to Rognvald, upon whom the title of Earl was first conferred, 
alK)ut the year 872. This cannot, however, be supposed to imply the 
creation of a landed estate in the person of the Earl or the negation of 
private propi^rty in others, for the odal landholders appear to have had 
their inalienable rights from the beginning. The charters, in much later 
times, to the Stewart Earls were not less comprehensive in their terms 
than the gift of King Harold. That in favour of Lord Robert Stewart, 
dated 26th May 1564, conveyed to him, in the ordinary legal phraseo- 
logy of the day, " all and whole the lands of Orkney and Zetland, with 


all and sundry the isles belonging and pertaining thereto, with all and 
each of the castles, towers, fortalices, woods, mills, multures, fishings," 
&c. Subsecjuent Crown charters wore still more full and precise, but 
interference with piivate property was none the less arbitrary and illegal 
The right to collect the skat from the whole islands, and to acquire & 
private domain by conquest or confiscation, was doubtless the privilege 
of the Earls from the beginning. It was thus that at Orphir, Birsay, 
Kirkwall, Sumburgh, Scalloway, and elsewhere, earldom properties were 
formed, and residences erected. The fortunes of war, private feuds, 
poverty of private owners, fines, escheat, grippings^ swelled the estate of 
the Earls to the large dimensions it had attained at the time of the 
Impignoration to Scotland (1468) ; and its extent was still farther 
largely increased by the rapacity of the Stewart Earls and other grantees 
in the course of the next and following centuries. 

When the Earldom estates and revenues were acquired by the Crown 
from Earl William St Clair in 1471, it was enacted (20th February of 
that year) that these should " nocht be gevin away in time to cum to na 
persain or persainis excep alenarily to ane of the Kingis sonnis of lauch- 
ful bed." It is weU known to every student of northern history how in 
practice this engagement was falsified ; how from age to age those crown 
lands and revenues were gifted to illegitimate sons or court favourites, 
until in 1766 the whole lands and revenues of the Earldom and Lord- 
ship were acquired from the Earl of Morton for £63,000 by Sir 
Lawrence Dundas, in the possession of whose representative, the Earl of 
Zetland, they stiU remain. The Earldom of Orkney and Lordship of 
Shetland combined has come down through all those ages as a distinct 
and determinate corpus. It is otherwise with the Scottish Maormordoms 
and Thanages, which can now be recognised only as traditional and inde- 
terminate, in respect both of their extent and their revenuea It is 
this living permanence, so indissolubly and so largely mixed up with the 
history of the islands, that gives to the Earldom its abiding interest, and 
renders the investigation of its records from age to age so important in 
tlie study of Orkney and Shetland history. 

Though we can with some certainty approximate the date of the 
erection of the Bishopric of Orkney as probably about the ye^ 1102, 


when William the Old, regarded as the first bishop, appears to have been 
consecrated, there is yet the utmost uncertainty as to the origin of the 
secular endowments, either as regards heritable estate vested in the 
bishops, or power to them to tithe as in later times. There were indeed 
Bishops of Orkney, consecrated by Archbishops of Hamburg and York, 
before Bishop William's time, ere the Archbishop of Drontheim in 
Norway had been finally recognised as the metropolitan of the northern 
see ; but we are equally in the dark as to the special provision for their 
maintenance, further than what may be assumed as acquired by direction 
of the Pope, by munificence of lay donors, by cupidity of bishops and 
clergy, by fines, confiscations, and such other resources as the power of 
the Church, under countenance of the Crown and the Earl, could make 
available for its own aggrandisement. Certainly the bishopric estate had 
grown to important dimensions by the time of the Reformation. Bishop 
Graham, reporting to the Magistrates of Edinburgh in 1642, states that 
he understood " the old Bishopric of Orknay was a greate thing, and lay 
sparsim thro out the haill parochines of Orknay and Shetland. Besyde 
his lands, ho hade the teynds of auchtene Kirks. His lands grew daily 
as irregidarities increased in the countrey." 

The mutations of the Bishopric estate have been scarcely less marked 
than those of the Earldom. By excambion and attempted consolidations, 
by appropriations to secidar purposes, when all power was engrossed by 
the Stewart Earls, and to ecclesiastical purposes of diff*erent complexion, 
as Episcopacy or Presbyterianism was in the ascendant, its character and 
extent have been materially altered. By excambion between the Crown 
and Bishop Law in 1614, the Shetland portion of the Bishopric estate 
was transferred to the Crown in exchange for lands concentrated in one 
district in Orkney. With the abolition of Episcopacy at the Revolution 
Settlement these Bishopric lands became finally vested in the Crown ; 
and what now remains of them is administered by the Department of 
Woods and Forests, under the charge of a local chamberlain. Much 
iliminishecj by successive changes in former times, its latest curtailment has 
been in our own day, considerable portions having been sold in 1854-66. 

Wliile the origin both of the Earldom and Bishopric estates in Orkney 
and Shetland is thus obscure, the RKNTAia which have been preserved 


give a vidimus of the state of these properties, and, at the same time, 
throw a remarkable light upon the condition and value of occupied lands 
in the islands at different dates, in the course of three or four centuries 
past. The peculiar complexity of the land tenure and of the burdens on 
land, resulting from the intermixtiure of Norwegian and Scottish forms 
and usages, adds additional interest as well as difficulty to the attempt to 
prosecute an inquiry in reference to those lands and duties. The 
foundation for all such inquiries was laid by Sheriff Peterkin of Orkney, 
whose " Kentals of the Ancient Earldom and Bishopric of Orkney " was 
published in 1820. In those rentals we have detailed particulars of 
different dates from the 15th century, of the lands in every district in 
Orkney — their extent, feu or scat duty, landmaills, teinds, and other 
burdens exigible from them, with incidental information otherwise of 
much value. The rentals published by Peterkin are the following, 
viz.: — 

I. Lord Sinclair's Rental Book of Orkney. H97-1503. 
II. The Rentale of King and Bischoppis Lands of Orkney. 1595. 

III. Bishop Laws* Rental of the Bishopric of Orkney. 1614. 

IV. Rentall of the Landis and Dewties thairof quhilkis apperteinit to 

the lait Bishoprik of Orknay. 1642. 
V. The True and Just Rentall of all the Fermis, Debtis, Dewties and 
Gersumes off the Bischoprick of Orknay. n.d. 
VI. Donald Groats' Bishoprick Compt.-Book. Cropt, 1739. 

But these detailed " Rentals " are not all that Peterkin brought to 
light in illustration of the successive stages of the Earldom and 
Bishopric estates. It was he who first directed attention to the series of 
charters and other documents belonging to the Bishopric, discovered in 
1819, and which are preserved in the Charter House of the city of 
Edinburgh, the city having held a lease of the Bishopric revenues for a 
period of years from 1641 to 1662.^ The mere list of the principal 
j)aper8 of this series suggests how extensive the treasures of information 

1 Charter of Mortification in favour of the Town of Edinburgh of the Bishoprick of 
Orkii«*y for maintenance of their ministers, 1641. 


are which lie available for the student who has leisure to pursue investi- 
gation there, e,g. ; — 

1. Inventory of Writs and Papers of the Bishoprick of Orkney, 
delivered to the Town of Edinburgh in 1642 (comprising numerous 
Charters from 1490 to 1614, Rentals, and Miscellaneous Papers). 

2. Certane questions to be resolved anent the Bishoprick of Orkney 
given to Mr Buchanan, 17th October 1642. 

3. Answers to certane Propositions requirit be the Richt Hon. the 
Provost, Bailzies, and Counsall of Edinburgh, cimceming the Bishoprick 
of Orkney, this 19th of October 1642. 

4. Queries to the late Bishop of Orkney anent the State of the 
Bishopric, and his Answers thereto, 1642. 

5. Further Answers by Bishop Grahame. 

6. Propositions be the Towne of Edinburgh to be resolved upon be 
the lait Bishop of Orknay, and his Answers to the Propositiones. 

7. Report on Bishopric Parishes, 1627. 

8. Report of Earldom Parishes — similar. 

In addition to what relates strictly to the Bishopric estate, these papers 
in the possession of the City of Edinburgh contain inquisitions as to 
the Churches and Church Revenues, then in many instances in a dilapi- 
dated state, both in Orkney and Shetland.^ 

Besides these publications by Peterkin, there is a small volume " The 
Rentall of the Provestrie of Orkney, 19th March 1584," printed by 
Sheriff Maconochie. 

The foregoing preliminary observations bring me to the purport of the 
present communication, which is to show that, while so much has been 
done to illustrate the nature and extent of the Earldom and Bishopric 
estates and revenues in Orkney, absolutely nothing of the kind has been 
done for Shetland ; while there is, in reality, not less ancient and valu- 
able material extant, though up to the present time practically unknown, 

' One bondlo of pnpers is descril'cd aa ** Ane uther buntbell, qnliairiii is conteinit 
the stei|>cnd dew to everie kirk in Z^atland, and quhairont of the samen is appoyntit 
to be payit,'* &c This libt of the stipends is, I suppose, the paper printed in iny 
communication to the Society on the ** Revenues of the Parochial IJenefices of Shet- 
land in the Beginning c»f the 17th Century." — Proceedings, vol. vi., new series, p. 291. 


rekting to the Lordship of Shetland. These are ancient Rentals, com- 
prising proprietary lands of the Earls, and Skat and other duties exigible 
by them, in general form resembling the Orkney rentals, but for the most 
part entirely distinct, both as regards the denomination and character of 
the duties and the commodities in which the pa3rments were made. 

In these records we are brought into direct contact with peasant 
holdings and village communities of a very early type, in which the 
lands were intermixed and runrig, with an agricultural system which has 
long since disappeared in most mainland districts of Scotland, but which 
continues to be visible in Shetland to the present day. It is here, 
therefore, if anywhere, that we may look for pertinent illustrations of 
our most simple and archaic forms of rural economy; an economy, 
locally no doubt, in many respects unique, from the nature of the case 
— remote and insular, partly Scandinavian, partly Scottish — but yet of 
widespread interest in its general bearings. It is impossible, in the 
limits of a communication like the present^ to print in full any one of 
these Rentals. I shall, therefore, content myself with transcribing such 
brief extracts as will serve to give an approximately accurate indication 
of their character, and perhaps induce some future writer to embrace 
them all in a volume relating to Shetland, of the same character as 
Peterkin's " Rentals of Orkney." The order followed is chronologicaL 

I. Thb Skat Book op Zetland (15th or early 16th Century?). 

This, apparently the most ancient of all the northern Rentals, was 
formerly in the possession of Mr Balfour of Balfour and Trinaby, who, a 
number of years since, allowed me to make a copy of his own transcript 
of it. It is now deposited in the General Register House, among the 
many other historical manuscripts relating to the islands. It bears no 
date, and makes no personal or other references sufficiently pointed to 
indicate the time conclusively. Old as it is, and expressed in a kind of 
mixed Scottish, it is a copy of a still earlier Rental, while presumably the 
islands were yet Scandinavian. If, as seems most likely, the reference 
to " my lord " (p. 220) is to one of the Sinclair Earls, the date must be 
at no great distance from the time of the impignoration to Scotland 
(1468), the language and whole tenor seeming to be inconsistent with 


what we should look for in the epoch of the Stewart Earls (1664-1614). 
The counection of the Sinclair family with the islands did not terminate 
with their resignation of the Earldom in 1471. Henry, Lord Sinclair, 
obtained, in 1489, a lease of the Earldom and Lordship, which only 
ended with his death at Flodden in 1513. " My lord" of the sodent 
line might tiieiefore apply to a time as late as the last-mentioned date. 
Its own caligraphic style is indeed sufficiently antiquated, but it winds 
up with a colophon expressive of its imperfect rendering of the more 
ancient and, to the transcriber, scarcely intelligible, original, thus 
(contractions expanded) : — 

" Finis quanti reperit. 
In avetitour this present writting be nocht our legiable for the strange leid 
and termin contenit in the samin to the reidaris ban nocht the hand that wret 
it for it is als obscoir to the wrettar nocht than equivalent cum originali In 
forma et in valore de verbo in verbum," &c. 

This rental bears no title, but is headed " The Skat of Zetland," and 
seems to contain the whole revenues of the Lordship of Shetland with 
the exception of the northern isles of Yell, Unst, and Fetlar. It is 
impossible to assign a reason for the omission of these important 
districts. The revenues are enumerated imder the two separate heads 
of (1) Skcd^ a burden apparently affecting all (or almost all) occupied 
land, and (2) Landinaills^ the rent payable by tenants of property lands 
of the Lordship, and latterly by holders of feued lands. We have thus 
the total burdens affecting every parcel of land in the islands (apart 
from the excepted districts) ; and the enumeration of the occupied spots 
at this early period is of great interest. The division into parishes, in 
no material respect differing from the present, is also noteworthy. The 
order of contents is as follows (retaining the old spelling) : — 

I. Skat, payable by 

Burray. Northt Maven. 

Tynguell. Nesting. 

I )unro8nes. Dailting. 


Sandis, Eating, and Wawiss. Lynnasting. 

Qwailsay and the Skarreis. Qiihitnes. 

Brassay. WysdailL 

II. Landmaills, payable by 

Northmaven. Dunrosnea 

Dailting. Quhitnes. 

Burrones. Sandsting, Esting, and Wawiss. 

Tynguell. Lnnnasting and Nesting. 

Brassa and Burra. Quhailsay and Scherrayss. 

Then follows (III.) a second enumeration of Skat from the parishes 
named above (No. I.) with the addition of the isle of Tronderay and 
Setir [?]. The two lists of Skat vary, both in the names of the places 
and in the extent of the exaction (when the places named are the same). 
The explanation of this is not apparent. 

The following transcription of the portion relating to a single district, 
will suflBciently indicate the character of the whole Rental : — 

(A) Skat— DuNROSNES. 

Item SMvynbrocht [Sumburgh] ij 5 iiij d in my lordis handis.* 
Item Tullope [Tolob] — iiij i viij d veafirtht. 

' Sniubiirgh, which appears to have been manorial property of the Orkney Jarls 
from an early jwriod, is thus shown to have been subject to its proper burden of skat 
like other places, though in the hands of " my lord " himself. In a subsequent 
rental, that of 1777-1778 (No. III.) it is expressly stated that the 24 merks of 
Sumburgh "never paid Scatt" No doubt, with the advent of the Stewart Earls 
the payment would be ignored, and in later times would be entirely lost sight of. 
Unluckily this reference is too vague to admit of identification either as regards 
])er8on or date. The earliest formal document relating to the lands of Sumburgh 
that I am aware of is the charter granted in 1498 by William, Earl of Caithness 
(eldest son of William, last of the Sinclair Earls of Orkney), and his other brothers 
and sisters, in favour of their brother. Sir David Sinclair, Fowde of Shetland, in 
which they conveyed to Sir David the said lands (omnes ct singulas ac integras terras 
de Swinburgh cum pertinen. et contingen. jaccn. in dominio Zellandue), Sir David, 
who was also chief captain of the castle in Bergen, Noi^ay, by his testament, dated 
at Tinjjwall, 9th July 1506, bequeathed to Lord Sinclair "the reversion from Hjalt- 
land [Shetland] for the current year, and all the landed property inherited by himself 


Item Oxinsta ii i vadmeH iij d leanger. 

Item Oxniabo iiij i vadmell viij eUis silver and vadmell viij d leanger. 

Item in Dealle ij s vadmeH x skynis and silver and iii d leanger. 

Item vj merk in Daile ix ellis wadmeU. 

Item Brow xxxij ellis vadmell xviij d leanger. 

Item Vo XX ellis iij d leanger. 

Item Clumlie vj 5 vadmeU viij d skyuis and silver vj d leanger. 

Item Exnabo in Sanedavik iiij 5 vedmel vj d leanger. 

Item Sanedavik tenetur iiij i vadmell vj d leanger. 

Item Schonderwek iij i vadmeH iij d leanger veafirtht 

Item a merk in Schonderwek iij ellis wadmell. 

Item a merk in Hoiswek iij ellis vadmell tenetar vj d leanger. 

Item Houland Cumlawek and Veaseter v i v d leanger veaiirtbt 

Item Borrowland Sandwik and Leobothen. 

after his father in Hjaltland." While Sumburgh was thns treated as private pro- 
perty by members of the Sinclair family rather than as Crown lands, forming part of 
the ancient lordship, it appears to have reverted to its former character, an*! to have 
passed on to the Stewart Earls nnder the grant by the Crown of the Earldom and 
Lordship to Lord Robert in 1561, for in 1592 we find his son Earl Patrick setting 
heritably, in fea farm, to William Brace, first of Symbister and Sumburgh, '* the 
20 merk land, 6 pennies the merk, of Soundbnrgh callit kingis landis," with 
the 4 merk laud, 6 |)ennies the merk " callit Provestis landis lyand rynrig with 
the said 20 merk land of Sonndburgh.'* These latter belonged to the Provost of the 
Cathedral of Bergen, and the title to them appears to have been regaixled as doubtful 
until ratified by the King of Denmark and Norway, as coming in place of the 
ancient church of Norway, on 28th August 1662 {Proceedings of the Society^ vol. it, 
new series, p. 13). By a subsequent feu-contract in 1604, the said ''nobill lord " 
confirmed William Bruce in the said lands, reserving always ''the ryt and titill of 
the houss laitlie biggit be him [the Earl] upon the ground of tlio said landis of Sound- 
burgh on the south syd of the new hall, togidder with aue yaird adjacent thairto at 
the south eist gabill of the said new hall off the lenth and breid of threscoir futes iu 
everie quarter tbairof, togidder with the pasturage of twa ky and twa oxene in the 
summer season.'* The " new hair* referred to is apparently the now shapeless ruin 
— JarUhofoi the Pirate— q\o9q by the residence erected by the present Mr Bruce of 
Sumburgh. In the contract in question the Earl allows to Bruce the keeping of the 
foresaid ''house and fortalice " of Sumburgh, subject to his being answerable for the 
iuMide " plennissing " and moveables therein; and the Earl further reserves the 
" right to receive and uplift the haill proftiittis and commodities of all Orknay fysche 
lioittis and Cathnes fysche boittis upon the ground of the said landis of Soundburgh,'* 
payable by the fishers for liberty to build booths or lodges, and "cast fuiU and 
dovot '* in connection therewith (Sumburgh Charters). There was thus, three cen- 
turies ago, a concourse of fishing boats at Shetland from Orkney and the coasts of 
Scotland very much as we have seen revived within the last few years. 


Item ix nierk in Burrowland bayth skat and landmaile iiij i vedmell 

V ef !l leanger tenetur with Henry Sinclair als mekill. 
Item Sandwek and Leebothin landmaile and skat i pak vadmell iij 

d leanger. 
Item Pykagar v rt h nierk vi d ye merk iij elli« vadmell. 
Item iiij merk in Qwharof vj d ye merk vij ellis vadmell. 
Item iig last h in Ayt with the guidwyff nocht pait 
Item iiij merk in Uphuss vj d ye merk vij ellis vadmell. 
Item ix merk in Setir vj d ye merk iij i vadmell tenetur ix ellis. 
Item in Bryenes [?] in Konesbrocht [Kunningsburgh] xij merk vj d ye 

merk iiij S vadmell. 
Item xij merk for Vesten*o in ye guidwyffis hand nocht pait 
Item V merk for ye Vesten*o ♦ ellis vadmell. 
Item Broustoris land iiij merk viij ellis vj d ye merk. 
Item Tenetur iiij merk with ye guidwyff. 
Item vj merk in Tow vj d ye merk xj ellis. 
Item leanger in Konosbrocht xviij d. 
Item Flatbuster vj i vadmell xj d leanger. 
Item viij i vadmell and skynis veafirtht. 

Item Kondell [Quendale] ix 5 veafirtht 
Item iij merk in Kondell iij d ye merk iij ellis vadmell. 
Item Regusta [Ringasta] xvj ellis vadmell ij d leanger. 
Item Nois [Noss] iij i veafirtht 
Item Sche\r6brocht v a tenetur a i with Sande Sincler and iiij d xiiij d 

leanger pait 
Item Rerwek iiij 5 vadmell and skynis vj d leanger. 
Item Hilduell viij i vadmell and viij d xviij d leanger. 
Item Schelberry iiij i vadmell iiij d leanger. 
Item ye half of South Yirland [Ireland = Eyrrlaud] iij i va^lmell iiij d 

Item a last i South Yirland ix ellis vadmell ij d leanger tenetur a d. 

(B) DuNROBNES [Landmaills]. 

Item viij merk in Schonderwek xxxij d fatguid. 
Item Sande [in] Schatnes viij merk ij d butir. 

Item RouU in Schatness ix merk h vj d ye merk ij t butir tenetur vij d. 
Item Thomas Copland iiij merk viij d fatguid. 

Item Yallenian for v merk iij i Skatnes a t butir tenetur a i and a merk 


tern Thomas [in] Scholiand v merk in Schatnea x ct fatguid. 

tern Quttrun in Scholiand v merk in Schatnes and ij merk in Tullope 

fiatguid XX t butir tenetur iiij d. 
tern ij merk in Tullope pait. 

tern Henry in Barrohous viij merk in Tullop viij tf fatguid. 
tem a merk in Goit pait. 

tern WiUiam [in] Vo [?] vij merk xiiij <t fatguid. 
tem Mania in Le ij merk ij uris v d fatguid. 
tem Halle in Le iij merk and iij merk now cumin ij t butir. 
tem Sowart [Si wart or Sigurd] in Loopell ij merk and ij uris v t butir. 
tem William in Vo ij merk and ij ure iiij d butir. 
tem Magnus Copland viij merk in Oxinasta xvij S. 
tem Angus in Brek ij merk iiij d butir. 
tem Nicholess Helios [7] iij merk in Oxinabo v d. 
tem Troswek xj merk xxj d fatguid. 
tem Clymlie ij merk viij d ye merk v d butir. 
tem Louesseter ij ure ij d. 

tem vj merk in Reirwek xij d ye merk ij S fatguid. 
tem V merk in Reirwek xx d. 

tem ij merk in Schoisbrucht and ij ure in Nosse for ij yeris ij t butir. 
tem vj merk in Setir viij d ye merk xvj d fatguid. 
tem iij merk in HildoweU and ij uris a t butir. 
tem ij merk in Quinesta and vj ft in Garthe vij d fatguid. 
tem Bakasater ij merk vj d ye merk hat. 
tem ij merk in KondeU iiij d butir. 
tem vij merk in Garthe a t butir. 
tem vj merk in Acratam [1] xvj d fatguid. 
tem Spens [?] v merk x d fatguid. 
tem X merk [in] KondeU iij t butir tenetur ij d x ellis vadmell. 

(C) Ddnrosnbs Schat [a second time]. 

Item Skatnes iij • viij d tenetur with Henrie Sincler iiij d. 

Item Le iij 3 iiij d. 

Item Haistensgar xiiij d tenetur iiij d grass [sum ?] ne vadmel iij d land- 

Item Oxnasta a i fatguid. 
Item Oxnabo a merk i d fatguid. 
Item Oxnabo ye Schat xvj d fatguid adt xvj d. 
Item Brow v mellis and ij d and ix merk h iiij d ye merk xiij d. 


Item Haldawell iiij « iiij it. 

Item Reggasta xvj H. 

Item Vo XX d fatguid. 

Item Schelberre ij i fatguid. 

Item Clumle iij 5 iiij (t. 

Item Hoswek a merk ij d fatguid. 

Item ye half of Burroland vj d i skat 

Item ix merk in Burroland vj d ye merk xviij d fat^'uid. 

Item Sand »vek and Leabaton v 5. 

Item vj ll merk in Pikagar iij d fatguid. 

Item a merk in Schouderwek ij d fatguid. 

Item for Vesten v merk ix d fatguid. 

Item Burrones in Konesbrocht xij merk vj d ye merk ij i fatguid. 

Item BrousariB laud iiij merk viij d fatguid tenetur iij merk. 

Item for Ayt xvj d in skat. 

Item ix merk in Satir vj d ye merk xviij d fatguid. 

Item Tow vj merk vj d ye merk xj d fatguid. 

Item Flatbuster Schat iij i fatguid. 

Item Uphons in Tomwek [?] xxi d. 

Item Quharf iiij merk vi d ye merk vij d fatguid. 

Item iiij merk in Upfud [Uphous 1] vj d ye merk viij d fatguid. 

Item Daill a i skat. 

Item Daill v merk viij d ye merk ix d fatguiti 

Item Reirwek Skat ij i. 

Item Schosbrucht Scbat i j 5 vj d tenetur vj d. 

Item iiij merk in Schosswell [?] vij d ye merk ix d fatguid. 

Item Southe Erland Skat ij 5 iij d. 

Item a last in Schowta yj d fatguid. 

I have been thus particular in transcribing the full details of one 
district, the parishes of Dunrossness, Sand wick, and Cunningsburgh, 
then and now united and fonning a single " ministry," in order to show 
the general character of the rental, and at the same time to give un- 
abridged material so far for analysis at any future time. 

The list contains almost every township (tun) now existing in the 
district comprised in it ; the most noteworthy exceptions are Levenwick 
and Maywick, which have been peopled districts for a very lengthened 
period. Their omission is not easily explained, especially as they appear 


in all later rentals. Other places omitted are mostly outsets of later 
times, probably not then existing. 

Laruimaills, it hat been already explained, are retits for lands belong- 
ing to the Earldom and Lordship in property, or feus payable in respect 
of lands feudalised. As the lands in the islands were originally all 
udal, it was only in later times that the feu-duties came to amount to 
anything considerable, as feudal charters were more and more forced 
upon the native landholders. I prefer not to enter here upon the vexed 
(juestion of the nature and incidence of skat, whether, as contended for 
by the Crown donatories, it is a feudal burden due to them as superiors ; 
or whether, as insisted upon from age to age by the landholders, it is a 
tax, originally payable through the Earls, for the support of government, 
and should stand in place of, or be superseded by, the British land-tax. 
It is needless to say that the former contention has been successfully 
maintained, and that both skat and land-tax have all along been exacted 
It is also a question whether skat was leviable upon cultivated lands as 
such, or, as I think was the case, upon such lands in respect of their 
skathald, or common pasture ground, which, not being private property; 
belonged to the Crown, and was therefore a proper subject for propor- 
tional rating. The exactions of wattle, and sheep and ox money, do not 
appear at this time. The latter was not imposed imtil about the years 

The duties are paid in wadmell, skins, butter, faJt-guid, and money. 

Wadmdl is the native coarse woollen cloth (Norse, Vadmdl), formerly 
an important article of exchange and payment in all the Scandinavian 

Fai-guid appears to comprise butter and oil. The term is used in 
this sense in Lord Sinclair's Rental (1497) p. 15, "fat guid butter, 
and ulie ; " and Pinkerton so explains it in his Glossary. Oil is not 
mentioned by name in this Rental. 

In numerous instances, the term Leanger is used as denoting the 
name or nature of the duty. This is presumably Leidangr, which, in 
the sense of a war contribtUion, a fixed perpetual didy paid to the King, 
occurs frequently in Norse, Danish, and Swedish laws of the twelfth 
and thirteenth centuries (Cleasby-Vigfusson Dictionary', mh voce). In the 



complaints against Lawrence Bruce of Cultemalindie (1576) it is asserted 
by the people that " thair is ane dewitie callit Leanger, quhilk the Com- 
monis of Zetland payis yeirlie, followand their wadraell, quhilk extendis 
to four Dense [Danish] quhy tis, or ane calf skin, with everie xxiiij cutteill 
of wadmell," which had been grievously augmented by Cultemalindie. 

The term veafirtht^ frequently occurring in the rental, is to me unin- 

Tenetur is, I imagine, equivalent to " retained " in later rentals, which 
is there used to imply that the payment is withheld, either from inability 
to pay or from the land being uncultivated, or ley, and therefore, for the 
time, not subject to the exaction. 

The rental does not indicate how the rents and duties were collected ; 
whether by the Earl or his representative direct from the individual 
occupants of the land; or whether the whole was allocated upon 
districts, and collected in slump by a servant or tacksman. The 
general understanding is that the Under Fowde of each parish was 
the representative of Government and chained with the collection of 
the dues, the Lawrightmen (Norse, Logretta-menn) seeing that justice 
and due measurement were observed between him and the commons. 
The money payments are computed in merks (13s. 4d. Scots), shillings, 
and pence. 

II. Rkntall of Yetland, 1628. 

This is a small manuscript volume, foolscap folio, preserved in the 
General Register House, part of an extensive collection relating to the 
islands. It is headed — 

" The Compt of the Landis within the severall parochines and yles of 
Yetland gevin in be the fowdis for collecting of the taxation compting 
vxx [i.e., 5-20] to the hundred." 

Anciently every parish in Shetland was administered in its local 
government by a Fowde (Norse, Foged ; still common in Norway), 
superseded in later times by the Scottish title of Bailie. The Great 
Fowde was the supreme administrator of law and justice in the islands, 
and held his principal court at Tingwall. The " Compt " rendered by 
the parochial Fowdes on this occasion, which has fortunately been pre- 



served, begins with an abstract of the extent of occupied land in the 
islands, stated separately in parishes, thus : — 




1917 1 Wallis, . 


Burray, Gulberwek, Tron- 

Delting, . 


dray, and Quarlf, . 


Nesting, . 




Northmaven, . 

. 1100 

Bressay, .... 



. 1526 


364 Unst, 

. 2087 


341 : Fetlar, . 




In all 13,392 merks. (The figures are given in the Roman notation, 
e,g.^ Dunrosnes, j" ix* xvij merk \ merk land.) The importance of 
this, as showing the extent of settled occupancy at the time (1628), and 
as forming a basis of comparison with all subsequent rentals, cannot be 
overestimated. In the dettiiled rentals of the parishes we have further 
the separate occupied rooms, or townships {tuns\ which make up the 
aggregates as above. 

The next entry is an explanatory statement "Anent the weyghtis 
nieasuris and reckningis of the dewties of Yetland," which is of sufficient 
importance to entitle it to be printed in full : — 

Anent the Weychtis Measuris and rekningis of the Dewties op 


Ane cuttell wodmell is a Zelandis elne pryce thairof is 4 i Scottis. 
Sex cuttellis is a shilling wodmeU and ten shilling wodmell is a pak. 
Ane lea'' [?] is payable be a calf skin or half cuttell wodmell, or pryce 

thairof 25.* 
Ane d. butter is 4 merk butler : six pennyis butter makis ane leispund. 

Tuelff leispund makis a barrell butter. The pryce of the leispund is 


' This contracted term "lea'" is probably Lea)iger, which occurs frequently as a 
duty in Shetland in the Sknt rental No. 1. of the present paper. I have en- 
deavoured to explain it on p. 225, anU. 


Ane can oyllie is the measure of a Scottis quart pryce thalrof iu the 

country is 12 i. 
4 canis makis ane bull and 9 buUis makis ane barrell oyllie. 
Aught uris of land makis ane merk of land : 18 merk land makis ane last 

of land, and 4 lastLs of land is a piece of cometeynd. 
Ane last land being 18 merk payis 6 meillis, viz., 3 leispund butter, 3 

buUis oyllie. 
Whair the cometeynd is payit in packit guidis ilk peice cometeynd b ane 

barrell : ane barrell butter ane yeir, and ane barrell oyllie auothir 

Ilk Zetland shilling is 2 meillis quhairof ane meill payit in butter and 

anothir in oyllie. 
Ilk meill of Scat is ane leispund butter or ane bull oyllie. 

Follows: — Chairge of monyiefor the Deicteia of Yetland^ Crop 1627, 
as it was gevin he mrjon Dick^ to his father. 

After this statement, the Rental proper begins with the headings, 
"Rentall of the Dewties of Yetland," comprising— (1) Landmeallis (or 
Landmaills), estimated in wadmell and butter ; and (2) the Scaty esti- 
mated in wadmell, butter, and oil, of which the following are specimen 
entries, viz. : — 


LandmeaUis, Butter. 

Soundburght, . . xx merk vj d the merk xl cuttell 6 lb. 4 pence. 

Clumlie, . . ij merk viij ^ merk v cuttell v d. 

* The Dick family of Edinburgh were long counecteil with Orkney and Shetland. 
Alexander Dick, before 1560, resided chiefly on his property in Orkney. He died in 
1580, and was succeeded by bis son, John Dick, who is said to have been a merchant 
of great eminence. His son, Sir William Dick, Jjord Provost of Edinburgh, farmetl 
the Grown rents of Orkney and Shetland, and it is evidently his son John who is 
here alluded to. Sir William attained to great wealth ; but, coming to misfortune 
through his fidelity to King Charles I., in the troubles which overwhelmed that 
monarch he lost his all, and died miserably in prison. From him are descended the 
family of Dick-Cunyngham of Prestonfield, Baronets. In 1676 Captain Andrew Dick 
was made Steward and tacksman of the Crown rents, and the name was continued in 
the islands for about a century later, by the family of Dick of Frackafield and 
Worraidale, now locally extinct. 



Scatnes, viij s viij ^ lea^^ Qoit the 3 part Tenentis the 2 part. 
Cluinlie and Trosweik and Lugasetter, vj i iiij tf. 
Scowsburgh, vji viij d lear. 

In a number of the parishes Conqued Land and Conquest LandmecUlis 
are enumerated, as also Kirk land meallis. Com Teynd — ^butter and 
oil — is occasionally quoted. 

There are then given — (1) The Umhothes (or Umboth Duties) ; (2) 
Wattle^ Ox, and Sheep Silver of each parish and isle ; (3) Rentall 
of the Watt ill as it was in anno 1605; (4) The Rentall of the Lauding 
Oxen and Sheep of Yetland gevin up to Mr Wfn, Levingstoun, 
Scheref deput and Chamerlane in anno 1615; (5) The Rentall of the 
Pcattis yeirlie to he casten von and led to the Castell of Scalloway 
conform to ane war rand direct to Alexr, bruce and preceptis to the 
Fowdis datit at hirsay the 20 of feh 1604; (6) The Holms and 
ylandis in Yetland extracted out of the Bisclwpis rentall producit to the 
Exchequ£r in Novr, 1612 and subscribit be Andro Edmonstoun minister 
at Yell ; (7) Rentall of the Bishopis Umbothis ; (8) Rentall of the Con- 
quest landis in Yetland be my lord in anno 1604. 27 June 1604. 

This list of contents of the Rental of 1628, even without quotation of 
details, is more than sufficient to indicate its importance. It is indeed 
a standard for estimating the state, in the beginning of the seventeenth 
century, of the Lordship of Shetland, and of the local weights, measures, 
and duties, which latter have been involved in confusion both before 
and after that time. It is impossible here either to give details or to 
analyse them, but a few special points may be referred to : — 

(a) Umboth Duties. — These were the Bishop's revenue from Shet- 
land. In 1577 a complaint was brought before the Privy Council by 
Barthill Strang of Voisgarth in the island of Unst, against Lawrence 
Bruce of Cultemal indie, for compelling him to pay the bishop's duty 
called the " bishop's umbois in Zetland " three months before the term 
(Register of the Privy Council of Scotland, vol il p. 648-9). Etymo- 
logically the word Umboth (old Norse, Umbo^) signifies administration 
by a delegacy, the duty having always apparently been collected by a 
representative of the absent bishop. According to Gifford (Historical 


DescH^itum of Zetland, p. 173), the Umhoth duties comprised one half 
of the com tithes of every parish, except the united parishes of Ting- 
wall, Whiteness, and Weistlale (which formed the Archdeanery of Shet- 
land), and were payable in butter, oil, and occasionally money. This 
explains how it came to be that only one half of these tithes came to the 
vicars of the parishes ; that is to say, the com tithes (decimcB rectorice), 
which properly belonged to the parson or rector, were divided equally 
between the bishop and the parochial clergyman ; and the bishopric 
revenues of Shetland having been acquired by the Crown, by excambion 
with Bishop Law in 1614, the one half belonging to the bishop (i.e., 
the Umboth duties) then became, and still remain, part of the revenue 
of the Lordship, in the possession of the Earl of Zetland. 

(6) Wattle. — In the complaints agauist Lawrence Bruce of Culte- 
uialindie (1575),^ which contain the earliest reference I have seen to 
this duty, no explanation of its character is given. The complaint in 
regard to it is stated thus : — 

" It is lamentit be the said auld I^wrichtmen that quhairas of the 
law and consuetude of the cuntrie in all tyme precedand the Lainlis 
entres, the Comownis payit thair dewities, callit wattill upon thair Law- 
richtmanis bismeyre, be ane nummer and calculation callit merkis. 
Quhairas the Laird now compellis thame to pay the same in gudlin-taill 
ujKjn tlie Dutche bismeyre, quhilk is thre or four merkis mair nor just,*' 

Founding upon etymological considerations, Mr Bidfoxir's Glossary to 
Oljpressions in Orkney and Shetland defines this duty as (Norse, Vottr4el) 
" the ancient assessment for the salary of the Under-foud for summing 
up the evidence at the Vard-thing, afterwards a perquisite of the Bailie.** 
(Jifibrd, writing in 1733,^ explains its derivati6n as from the Danish 
words nuit latujhj i.e., a night laying, arising from the circumstance of a 
certain saintly matron having at one time been sent over from Orkney 
by the Bishop, with the assurance that her lying but one night in each 
parish would be followed by abundemce of com and fishing, a small sum 

* Oppressions in Orkney atid Zetland in the Sixteenth Century^ by D. Balfour of Bal- 
four, p. 68. 
' Historical Description of the Zettand Islands, Reprint, 1879, p. 57. 


being paid to her yearly from each parish in recognition of these 
blessings. Absurd as this story, adopted by ail subsequent writers, may 
seem, there would yet appear to be a substratum of truth in what is 
implied in it, in so far as nigM4ying is concerned. 

In the present Rental of 1628 this duty is entered as so many 
" night's wattle." Thus :— 

Easter Quarff, 1 nyghtis wattill. 

Summa [for Burray], 4 nyghtis wattill and 6 merkis. 

This seems clearly to suggest Utdging, night entertainment, probably 
the equivalent of convethy or waiting ( Waitinga of Latin charters) in old 
Scottish deeds, known also in Irish as Coinmheada, In modem Danish 
nat-leie is the term for night quarters ; but the transition to wattle is, it 
must be admitted, not very natural or obvious. In the time of the 
Stewart Earls the inhabitants were held bound to " flit and fure," that 
is, to transport and convey, the Earl, his Chamberlain, and attendants, 
from place to place, a burden which was remorselessly exacted, usually 
without remuneration. In passing through the country, free night 
quarters were usually extorted in the same way. Adverting to Mr 
Balfour's explanation that the wattle was a payment for the Foud, or 
Bailie, it is quite conceivable that it might in the same way have 
covered expenses of night quarters for the Foud and his attendant 
officers at meetings of the Lawting or parish courts, though no direct 
evidence of this appears to be preserved. Whatever the origin, the duty 
grew in the course of time to be a permanent burden.^ 

GhrassuTnSy called also Eistercowp (Egsetter-caiip) and Landsettertown, 

^ Subsequent investigation has convinced me that the explanation of the origin of 
wattle, suggested above, is not without 8upix)rt of evidence. In the DiplotruUarium 
Norvtgieum (vol. ii. part 2, p. 466) I find a deed (No. 628) by King Erik, the 
Pomeranian, dated at Lund, 15th April 1412, in which he grants to his trusty ser- 
vant, Alexander van Klapam, all his lands in North Maveu in Shetland — "Alt 
voart godz sem ligger uppa Hieltland for nordan Mawed huiliket ])lseger att skyllda 
ok gifua tiu loduf^a marker til skat landskyld ok wesel," &c. The terms "skat, 
landskyld ok wesel " here used as expressing the dues (10 nierks iu all) exigible from 
the property can, I think, be rendered only as skat^ land-rant^ and night-quarters. 
The word wesel seems to be, in its original form, the old Norse Feizla, veitzl, thus 
defined in the Cleasby-Vigfusson Dictionary : — " As a law term, the reception or 


recognised burdens at the time of the Complaints against Cultemalindio, 
do not appear to be alluded to in this rentaL They had probably not 
as yet become of such frequent and oppressive exaction. 

(c) Sheep and Ox Money. — This has always been quoted as a tax 
imposed by Bothwell, Duke of Orkney, of an ox and twelve sheep from 
every parish. Gifford (1733), while relating the story, seems to have 
had some misgiving as to its genuineness, for he adds — " But it seems 
rather to be a tax imposed upon the country by Robert and Patrick 
Stewarts, eark of Orkney, for they were the first that made it an annual 
payment." Gifford 's surmise may now be affirmed to bo an ascertaineil 
fact. The particulars of its first imposition are given in the Complaints 
against Cultemalindie, the instrument of Earl Robert's rapacity, in 
1576 — "It was hevelie lamentit and complenit be the said auld Law- 
richtmen of the cuntrie of Zetland, that quhair the Laird of Culte- 
malindie, sen his entres [1572] hes rasit ane new exactioun upon the 
cuntrie, quhilk was never tane of befoir be na Fowde, of certane oxin 
and scheip yeirlie furth of ilk parochin at the tyme of the balding of the 
Lawting."^ Elsewhere " ane ox and twelff scheip " are specified as the 

The terms of the entry in the Rental now under consideration (1628) 
— " Lawting Ox and Sheej) " — conclusively confimi this account of its 
origin, viz., for the expense of the great Lawting Court held at Ting- 
wall annually ; though, like the other exactions, converted into money 
payment, it continues a permanent burden to this day, though Lawting, 
Foud, and Lawman have alike vanished for ever. 

entertainment to Iw given to the Norse King, or to the King's 'landed men,* or his 
stewards, for in olden time the King used to go on a regular circuit through his 
kingdom, taking each county in turn ; his retinue, the places of entertainment, and 
the time of his staying at each jdace, being regulated by law. This was called veizla 
or fara at vcizlum.^* The term is further described by the lexicographers as ** a royal 
grant, revenue." The circumstances of the case. as here laid down corre*5iK)nd exactly 
with the {»osition of matters in Shetland in early times, when inns there were none, 
and manor-houses, in the motlem sense, probably as few ; only, instead of the King 
on circuit we must understand the Jarl, or his Foude and oflBcers of court. The 
transition from vdtzl to wattle is easy, and quite in the s]>int of the dialects. 

^ Qom\\Mnt&—0)rpressions in Orhicy and Shetland in the Sixteenth Century, 
p. 54. 


The next Rental of the Lordship of Shetland to which I am able to 
refer is : — 

III. Zetland Scatt Rental, 1716-1717 (Earl of Morton's). 

This book brings us down to a century later than the preceding. Its 
8i>ecial interest lies in this, that it enumerates by name the individual 
occupiers of the land who pay the duties. It is thus a record of the 
whole population (heads of families) in the islands; and, in other 
respects, it gives an interesting glimpse at the state of society and of 
the economic conditions prevailing at the time. 

I am obliged to Mr Harry Cheyne, W.S., for the original manuscript 
voh^me, now exhibited to the Society. Probably the only copy of it 
in existence is one made by myself for my own collection several years 
since. It is in size foolscap folio, without title, but bearing the follow- 
ing explanatory note on a fly leaf at the beginning : — 

" This Rental is holograph of Thos. Gifford, Esq., of Busta, — and is 
presumed to be a copy of the Rental or Count Book for 1716 referred 
to by Mr Balfour in the Rental of the Lordship prepared by him in 
1773, and partly from that of 1716. 

"This copy was found by the subscriber among the papers of the 
late James Cheyne of Tangwick, and for the sake of preservation bound up 
by Henry Cheyne of Tangwick, Writer to the Signet, in the year 1840." 

As the contents are now of public, rather than private, interest, a 
befitting place of deposit for the volume woidd be the Historical 
Department of the General Register House, where so many documents 
of importance relating to the islands are preserved. 

Thomas Gifford of Busta, a leading man in Shetland during the 
greater part of last century, was Stewart-Depute of the islands, and 
Lord Morton's Chamberlain or Factor for the Lordship, as his father 
John Gifford had been for many years before. He was the author of 
the Historical Description of tJie Zetland Islands (1733), more than 
once referred to in the present paper. 

The Rental comprises (I.) LandmaUls and Grassums^ being (A) 
Rental (and entry money) from lands belonging in property to the 
Grown, and (B) duty payable for lands held in feu from the Crown or from 



the Cro^Ti's substitute; (11.) Skat, with Wattle, Ox and Shekp Monet, 
levied upon the whole lands in the country, with the exception of a few 
specified holdings quoted as " never in use of payment." These holdings 
are unquestionably Setterlands or outsets^ improvements, in later times, 
from the Skathctldy or common, and therefore independent of the old 
allocation of Scat The ancient duty Lmnger also reappears occasionally. 
The following extracts will serve as specimens of the Rental, under 
the separate heads of Scat, Landmaills, &c, Szc. : — 

Parish of Dunrossnbsh. — (I.) Skat. 




Lispunda. Merks. 



«. d. [Scots.] 

ScATNESH, 144 inerks. Scat, 





[Defaced, but in all such casefi 


• • • • • ■ 

• • ■ 


" Watle, Ox and Sheep money,"] 

• • • • * • 

• • • 



allocated thus : — 

Switshall, p. himself £ Scots «. 


Brought over, 

, 103 marks £32 12 


and tenents 47 merks is 14 17 


John Irving 

6 , 

1 18 

Jn. Johnston 6 „ 1 18 


8 , 

2 13 


Grisell Fordyce 22 „ 6 19 



8 , 

2 13 


Wm. Sutherland 10 „ 3 3 


John Lisk 

5 , 

1 12 


Rot. Mudy 6 „ 1 18 


8 , 

2 13 


Jno. Alison 6 „ 1 18 

Hend. Nicolson 3 , 


Sumbro 6 „ 1 18 

Wm. Hay 

3 , 
144 m( 



Forward, 103 „ £32 12 


£45 12 


Feud by Quendall thei-eof 14 

charged to his acct pays 
Feud by Sumburgh 
Bigtoun fuer of 
Grizel Fordyce fuer of 

(II.) Landmaills [Feus]. 

674 inerks [land] pays 22 













£ a. 







5 12 


• • ■ 

9 12 



4 4 


• • • 

2 8 

• • • 





4 8 

67^ summa. 


(III.) Landmaills [Rents and Gra88ums\. 

Lispunds. Merks. £ e. d. 

Vadsgabth (Kuningbrogh) 8 inerkseuresproperlielaiid 2 16 3 40 

Grassums thereof is . . 3 4 

Helen laurence daughter 5 luerks, pays . . . 1 16 4 

Malcom halcro 3 merks, pays . . 1 ... 2 8 

Okraquoy 6 merks 8 ures propertie land ... 8 8 

Grassums thereof 8 

Laurence Bain 6 merks, pays 2 10 5 6 

The following -account exhibits the results as regards the entire parish 
of Dunrossness (including the (larishes of Siindwick and Kunningsbui^h, 
then, as now, united with it), showing the rate of conversion of the 
butter and oil payments into Scots money : — 

Dunrossness. — Wholl Charge of LandmaiHs buter and Wadmell payable to 
the Right honourable the Earl of Morton yearlie, inclooding the Grassums of 
the propertie lauds as contained on the 1st and 2nd pages of this Book 
extendeth to 

Li-spunds buter. merks. £ Scots 8. d. 

196 10 261 2 

The feu duty of the Fair Isle .... .133 6 8 

The Umboth duty 407 

The Scat, Watle and Ox penny — 
Dunrossness, 3 united parishes as [Cans oil.] 

on folio 11, amount to 57 8 205 334 11 

The whole Rent 253 18 205 1135 19 8 

223 Hspnnds buter & 18 mrks at 30 sh. p. lispund is 380 11 

205 cans of oi 11 at 6 sh. p. can is .... 61 10 

Extent of the Wholl in money [tic] ^1583 8 

A large portion of this is entered as " Retentions," i.e., non-payments 
on account of lands being "ley and Wasted," and on other grounds 
(figures of the totals partially defaced). In the detailed rental these 
retentions " are carefully noted. 

The Book concludes with the following : — 



Generall Compide of the Crownrents of Zetland. 

The propertie and fewed Crown lands. 

Udel land 









Fair Isle, 

• *• 


• • • 

Burray Isle, 








Brasaj and Noes, . . . . 

• • • 



Tingwall and Trondry, .... 




Whitnes, 1 

Wisdall, ) 




Aithsting, ) 
Sandsting, ) 









( 188 

Papa, [ 


• • • 


Ffoully, ) 

( 18 

North Maven, 








Nesting, ) 
Lunasting, ) 






• • • 



• • ■ 









• • • 


ffetlor, ) 

No. yell, f 




^ .. C So. Yell, ..... 
^^^ \ Mid Yell, 










Tho summations aro not strictly accurate, and the figures given do 
not entirely correspond with the detailed lists of each parish. The 
differences are probably accounted for by the deductions for " ley lands 


and retentions," a considerable item in every parish. A column for the 
totals of " Scat, Watle, Ox and Sheep money," payable by each parish 
or district, is prepared, but not filled up. From a careful analysis of 
the detailed rentals these figures might yet be supplied. 

The total area of cultivated or occupied lands in Shetland is given as 
13159^ merks as against 13392 merks in the Rental (No. XL) of 
1628, showing a diminution in 88 years of 233 merks. The variations 
and imcertainties, however, in these Rentals, which it must always 
have been difficult, if not impossible, to avoid in recording the minute 
details of such an enormously extended and scattered area, together 
with the destruction of portions of the soil by sand-blowing and ex- 
haustion, are such as to make an attempted analysis of the differences 
of doubtful value. The relative extent of the different kinds of land 
tenure in the islands, viz.: — 

Property land of the Lordship, . . 1309f merks 

Feued land, ..... 1587^^ „ 

Udalland, 10262 „ 

13159^ merks 

is now given in this Rental for the first time, so far as I am aware, 
and is of great importance as a test of the residt of the efforts, during 
the preceding century and a half, to subvert the ancient udal system, 
and to impose feudal tenure, with feudal burdens and restrictions, 
in its stead. So successful had these persistent efforts been that by 
the time in question (1716) more than an eighth of the ancient udal 
lands of Shetland had been entered under feudal charters, granted either 
by the Crown or by the grantees of the Earldom and Lordship. At the 
same time, the property lands of the Lordship are shown to be about a 
tenth of the whole occupied area of the islands. 

The Rental contains also copies of the accounts for the year against a 
number of the principal landholders. One of these, quoted as a specimen, 
will serve to complete the present notice : — 



Dr John Scot of Scotshall, for Superior duity payable to the Right 
honourable the Earl of Morton, Cropt 1716 payable 1717. 

1 1 merks in Rerwick propertie landmaills, 

Qrassums thereof, 

Scat & Watle of 31 J merks thair is 

18 merks 6 ures feud land in Aith is 

Scat of 54 merks thair is .... 

Scat of 47 merks in Scatnes .... 

Scat of 48 merks in Exnaboe .... 

For Helen Laurence daughter in Vadsgarth 

labour of the propertie lands thair 
Nicol Halcro Levenweck for Scat . 
James Imbler, Oxensta, for Scat . 
Grisell Strang tliair for Scat .... 
Of the Elarls* buter taken up by him from the 
persons following, viz., 

Margret Halcro Cuningsburgh . 

James Jarnison ther 

Laurence Halcro ther .... 

Simon Malcomson ther .... 
To the Landmaills of 11 merks fued land in 

Scatnes bought for his nephewe Jno. Scot from 

Laurence Strang and now possessed by him 

Lispnnds Merks. 
5 12 


£, 8. d. 

6 12 O 
4 8 

15 4 6 

7 4 

13 4 O 

14 17 8 

16 O 

9 8 8 










4 8 

£^1 6 10 

It is apparent from this and other similar accounts that, while the 
occupants of the land are usually specified, with the duties due by 
each, the duties had, at any rate to a large extent, ceased to be collected 
from the individual payers, and been made a charge against the land- 
owners, recoverable by them, along with their own land rents, from the 
tenants. The collection by the Crown, or its donatory, of the rents and 
duties in kind, or partly in money and partly in kind, from individual 
tenants, must have been an intolerable and most expensive process. 

The three Rentals above described are the only complete Kentals of 
the Lordship of Shetland I have had access to. There is, however. 


another, 62 years later, comprising particulars of perhaps one-thirtl of 
the extent of the Lonlship. 

IV. Skatt Book, &c. 

For the Ministries of Dunrossness, Bressay, Gulberwick, and Tingwall. 

Crop 1778-1779. 

The more detailed title is "A Rental of Dunrossness Ministry, 
showing the Feu*d and Sir Laurence's Proi>erty Lands in each Room, 
with the names of the Present Feuers, and also all the sundry other 
Proprietors who at present possess Lands in each Room." 

This is a use and wont Rental, for the districts mentioned, supplied 
to the local collector or tacksman (apparently the then Mr Bruce of 
Sumburgh), for Sir Laurence Duudas, who had some time previously 
acquired the Earldom and Lordship, as formerly stated. This is seen 
from the note of direction given at the beginning : — 

" N.B, — The Labourers will not give more for Scat than they have 
been annually in use to pay, which has been only money. Therefore, 
Mr Bruce, like Mr Balfour, must in the meantime take the common use 
and wont, which is as stated in this account." 

This note may be by Sir Lawrence, or by his Chamberlain in Shet- 
land at the time. 

The original Rental is in the possession of Mr Bruce of Sumburgh, at 
Sand Lodge, by whose permission I made a copy of it some years since. 
It is a small volume, foolscap folio, about 12 inches X 7 J. The 
skeleton, or framework, i.e., the nUed columns, headings, and principal 
place-names, appear to be the work of a clerk, copying from a former 
similar Scat-Roll — that of Craigie (1747) is specially alluded to. The 
names of the tenants, the extent of their holdings, the duties payable, 
and certain accounts and receipts, appear to be in the handwriting of 
the laird of Sumburgh. Statements of rental, duties, and explanatory 
notes, on four pages (75, 76, 77, 78) are apparently by Robert Hunter 
of Lunna, and initialled by him " R. H." 

This Scat-Roll contains (I.) a Schedule for the whole district 
embraced in it, in columns as follows : — 


Number of Merks 
in each Room. 

Names of Rooms 
and Feuers. 

Feu'd Tiflnds. 

Udal Tiands belong- 
ing to each Heritor. 

A consecutive list (IL) of the various " Rooms," or townships, is then 
given, with the extent, and the duties of " Scat and Watle, <fec.," as 
allocated to the occupants, who, in many cases, are specified by name ; 
and (III.) copies of the accounts charged against several of the larger 

A comparison of this Rental (1778) with the preceding one of 1716, 
woidd show the changes that had taken place in the course of the 
62 years intervening — what new land had been added for rental 
purposes, and what had ceased to be chargeable with duties, as, for 
example, the lands of Lie in Dunrossness, 27 merks, stated in the latter 
Rental to be "ley or gevin down by him [Robert Sinclair of 
Quendale] to the tenents becauss of being blasted with sand. The Scat 
thereof is £12, 3 shillings." But such an investigation would be out 
of place here, the object of the present inquiry being more general. It 
may, however, be worth while to transcribe the particulars of the Scat, 
Wattle, &c. of a single township, Scatness in Dunrossness, especially 
as similar particulars of the same place have been given from the Rental 
of 1716. The extent — 144 merks — is the same at both dates, and also 
the gross charge, £45, 12 Scots, but of this only £36, 8s. 4d. is 
apparently recovered, 29 merks being given as "ley " or not sufificiently 
laboured : — 

Scatness. — 144 merks @ 68. 4d. per merk is . . -£45 12 Scots. 

15 marks Mrs Strong in the Hays, . . . . jC4 15 

11 „ Mr John Strong, junr., Virkie, . . . 3 9 8 

5 „ Mrs Mercer, 1118 

3 „ John Archibald, 19 

3 „ John Leisk, 19 

12 „ Peter Halcrow, 3 16 

16 „ Mr William Bruce, Bigtoun, . . . . 5 14 

4 „ John Stout, 15 4 

6 „ Robert Alison, 1 18 

Carry forward, ^3 15 



3 merks Alexander Aitkin, 



WiUiam Aitkin, 



Marjory Grott, 
John Shewan, 



Robert Leisk, . 



William Stout, 



Thomas Moodie, 



Thomas Hay, . 



appears to be ley 

Brought forward, £23 15 

1 • • 1 




2 17 

1 18 


15 4 


1 18 

£36 8 
appears to be ley or laboured for 28. 3d. and Is. lOd. 



It will be observed that payments in kind are not here quoted, only 
the usual money payments ; the skat, watle, &c., being reckoned in this 
instance at 6a 4d. Scots per merk, but varying in each separate town- 
ship. In the accounts rendered to the heritors, something like the old 
system is followed, with the full specification of payments in money and 
in commodities, thus ; — 

Dr. John Halcrow in Hoswick. 

For Feu duties and Scat, &c. for Crop 1777, payWc 1778. 
10 merks in Hoswick paying for Landraaills 4 lispunds and 

10 merks Butter, and in money, . . . . £06 [Scots.] 

To 4 lispunds and 10 iperks Butter @ £4, 4s. per lispund is 18 11 
To Wattle, &c., of do. O Is. 6d. per nierk 15 

£24 12 

Again : — 

Robert Allison. 

For Feu Duties and Scat, &c., Crop 1777, payWe 1778. 

6 merks in Scatness paying for Landmaills 2 lispunds Butter 

and money ® 88. per merk is £2 

To 2 lispimds Butter @ £4, 4b, per merk, .... 8 
To Scat of do. @ 68. 4d. per merk, .... 



1 18 

£12 14 [Scots.] 

The lands in those two instances are feft^d^ paying landmaills, with 
Wattle in the one case, and Skat in the other, superadded. In othor 



iustances the Skat and Wattle are charged on Udal lands only, feud 
lands having their own distinct charge of butter and money. The 
practice seems to be varying, and there is difficulty in finding any 
uniform principle. Umhoth duty, the old revenue of the Bishop, but 
possessed by the Crown or its substitute since 1614, is sometimes 
charged in slump to larger heritors. In most cases it is not specified. 

While the foregoing are the only detailed Rentals to which I can 
refer, it appears that there is extant, and I presume in the possession of 
Lord Zetland, a Bental of the Lordship for the crops 1655 and 1656. 
Reference is made to it in a portion of the printed process, Spcnce v. 
Lord Dundas (Division of Scattald of Haroldswick), 1836. It is there 
stated that " there is good reason to believe it to be in the handwriting 
of Thomas Lesslie of Burswick, afterwards of Ustaness, then Chamber- 
lain and Collector of the Crown rents of Shetland, and it was recovered 
from among his papers in the keeping of his grandson. It appears to 
have been intended as the charge against himself in his factory accounts 
for these crops. It is complete, and though sometimes inaccurate in 
computation, exhibits very distinctly every branch of the duties payable 
to the Crown." It is doubtless upon the authority of tliis Rental, or 
of others following upon it, that Gifford's Rental of 1716, described in 
preceding pages, was founded. 

In the Earl of Zetland's estate office in Edinbui^h, there are continuous 
Rentals brought down from the carefully prepared Rental of 1772 to the 
present date, and the Messrs Dickson, W.S., his Lordship's agents, are 
most kind in afibrding any information of public importance contained 
in these. Tliey are, however, private property, and have no occasion to 
be imported into an inquiry of purely historic interest, unless for the 
sake of explanation or illustration. I may, however, be permitted to 
transcribe the following statement of the total revenues of the Lord- 
ship from a private Act obtained by Lord Dundas in 1812. The Act 
(52 George III. c. 137) is titled "An Act for enabling the Right Hon. 
Thomas, Lord Dundas, to sell certain Feu and Teind Duties and 
Casualties of the Earldom of Orkney and Lordship of Zetland, upon 
entailing lands equivalent in value thereto," 9th June 1812. The state- 
ment is a copy of Schedule B. attached to it. 


2 3 
w 6 





= 2 









5 1 ■ SSS HIS s S3 S5 ■ S 









s « ; J.3 ; n ■ i a- : " 


1 ' 


a s = SS2 ; M ;« aa -2 



^i = i« 

H r ^s ■-= = =5 s^ ^ 5 








3 " ; as- 88 : " "^ MS : » 







; a = 838 -s" a s§ as ■ s 






This vidimus of the position of the Lordship duties — the now obscure 
ancient imposts — brought down ahnost to our own day, with little 
change, is of much interest While the old payments in kind continue 
to be quoted, doubtless with as rigorous exactness as the circumstances 
admitted, it will be observed that they are computed at a fixed money 
value, and the total revenue is brought out in X s. d. Scots, converted 
into sterling money. ^ 

About sixty years ago the duties were to a large extent bought up by 
the proprietors of the lands liable, so that the amount now leviable is 
inconsiderable. From a copy of the Rental of the duties, described as 
Feu, Scatty and Umhoth Duties^ for Crop 1865, payable at Lammas 
1866, kindly shown to me by Mr George H. B. Hay of Hayfield, Lord 
Zetland's representative in Shetland, it appears that the total sum 
remaining payable from the islands then amounted to only 
£88, 28. lljd. In every case, the payments are reckoned in Scots 
money, converted into sterling. The Feu duties are partly in money, 
and partly in butter (lispunds and merks) ; the Scott is in money 
only, except in the one parish of Walls. Umhoth duty is charged only 
in two parishes, viz., for Dunrossness, in one sum paid by one proprietor 
XI 70, 4s.; and for Walls, in the same way, £71, 128. 9d., both Scots 

^ It is not consonant with the purposes of the Act of 1812 to refer to lands held 
by Lord Duudas under deed of entail ; but Schedule 0. attached to the Act gives 
those in Shetland held in fee simple, which are stated to be the Island of Oxna, and 
parts of Fracafield, &c., occupied by small tenants, with rental estimated at £40 

Schedule A. gives the aggregates of tlie duties of the Earldom of Orkney. The 
mere headings of the columns are worth while being quoted, to show the radical 
difference iu the nature of the payments in kind in Orkney from that of the pay- 
ments which we have traced from time immemorial in Shetland. The headings 
are — 

Butter, £5, 28. 7d. Sterling Money, £ s. d. 

Oil, £2 i>cr barrell. Poultry, No. at 6d. 

Bear [coai-se native barley] at 6s. ^^ per Peats, Fal^homs at 6s. 8d. 

Meil. Straw, Loads at 4d. 

Malt at 15s. 6iVd. per Meil. Swine, No. at 10s. 

Meal, £10, 88. SJd. per Meil. Total in Sterling Money. 

The general total is given as £3182, lOs. 7x\ d. — ^less Public and Parish Burilens, 
£762, 2s. 6d. sterling. 



money. The price of butter (when not paid in kind) varies according 
to the state of the market. In 1866 it was charged at 2 Is. 4d. per 
lispund; at present (1885), Mr Hay informs me, the price is 328. 

While the ancient traditional duties leviable from the Lordship of 
Shetland have been largely augmented from time to time in the course 
of many centuries, the amount retained in the hands of Lord Zetland is 
only a fraction of the aggregate in former times. I am glad, however, 
to point out that the remnant of the old heritage of the Jarls, the 
property lands belonging to the Earl of Zetland, are still considerable. 
The present extent of these lands is 895 merks 2 ures, lying in the 
following parishes, viz.: — 

In Unst, .... 

289 merks ure 

„ Fetlar, .... 


» 2 „ 

„ North YeU, . 


» 4 „ 

„ Mid and South Yell, 


» „ 

„ Nesting, 


„ 4 „ 

„ Sandsting and Aithsting, . 


„ „ 

„ Tingwall, Whiteness, and Weisdale, 


„ „ 

„ Lerwick and Gulberwick, 



» 4 „ 

„ Quarff, .... 



» 4 „ 

895 merks 2 ures. 

The annual value is (1885) £995, 2s. lOd.; so that his Lordship still 
retains a substantial interest in the islanda 

In Orkney, the landed estate of the Earldom is a valuable one, the 
annual rental being stated in the parliamentary return of 1872-73 at 
£5617, 178. 

The main purpose of this paper is served by the description in the pre- 
ceding pages of Rentals, hitherto unpublished and practically unknown, 
of the Lordship of Shetland, and I trust that the result will be of some 
permanent value. I am able at the same time to refer to some Rentals 
of the Earldom and Bishopric estates and revenues in Orkney, which are 
not included in Peterkin's series, and are not elsewhere described. 
These are — 



II. Ck)MPTS OF Tacksmen of thb different parishes of Orkney, 1612. 
III. AccoMPT OF James Bischoppb of Orknay of all the risaittis 

AND intromissions HAID BE HIM, 1611. 

These three are all preserved in the General Register House, where 
they are available for purposes of historical inquiry. 

IV. The Rentall of the Bishoprick of Orkney. — This Rental 
contains the names of the lands and their occupants, and the duties 
payable in the following parishes, viz.: — Sandwick, Stromness, Holme 
and Paplay, Orphir, St 011a, Shapinshay. 

An interesting comparison might be instituted between it and the 
other Rentals of the Bishopric published by Peterkin, to which it bears 
a close resemblance. Walls and Hoy, usually included in lists of the 
Bishopric parishes, are omitted. No date is given, but among many 
persons referred to we find the names of such prominent individuals as 
Arthur Buchanan of Sound and Patrick GrsBhame of Grahamshall, who 
flourished about the middle of the seventeenth century. The Rental is 
a neatly penned manuscript of that period and is now in my possession. 

V. CoMPTiNG Rental of the Earldom of Orkney, 1740. 

This is also in my possession. It is incomplete and mutilated, several 
pages having been torn out. The nominal pagination is 1-262. Up to 
1820 it was in the hands of Mr Geoi^e Ross, son of Andrew Ross, 
Chamberlain of the Earldom about the middle of last century. It 
contains the "Particular Accompt made with the Vassals and Tennents " 
in the following parishes, viz.: — St 011a, Firth, Stenness, Harray, 
Rendal, Evie, Birsay, Deemess, Rousay, South Ronaldshay, Stronsay, 
Sanday, Westray. 

The usual payments consist of the following, viz. : — Butter (barrels, 
lispunds, merks). Malt (meils, setteins, merks). Meal (meils, setteins, 
merks), Money, Poultry, and OiL Peats, Straw, and Swine, enumerated 
in the schedule annexed to the Act of 1812, seem not to appear. Scat 
silver and Wattle are quoted, though it has been sometimes stated that 
the latter exaction was unknown in Orkney. 


MoKDAT, nth May 1685. 

G. H. M. THOMS, Sheriff of Caithness, Orkney, and SheUimd, 
in the Choir. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly 
elected ; — 

Charles Bhdce, J.P., Ifoiint Hoolj House, Wick. 

Corresponding Meuber. 
Cablob Alberto Morsiho, C.E., Rio de Janeiro. 

Tlie following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on the 
tabic, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By UisB Jbhbik Kmox SurrH, Manchester. 

Dagger-Blade of iron, single-edged, with thick back like an otdinaiy 
Highland Diik, the blade 10 inches in lei^h, with a taag of 2 inches, 

Finger-Bing of bronse, being a thin flat strip of metal about ^th inch 
in width, bent to a circular hoop. 

Hollow Diac or Mounting of bronze, 1| inch in diameter, the hallow 
on the back ^ of an inch in depth, the ex- 
terior rim also ^ of an inch in height, and 
with two notches in the lower part opposite 
each other. The circular top of the disc, 
which is slightly raised in the centre, is 
ornamented with a series of concentric circles 

in red enamel round a central circular space EntmBlled Di»o of Brauie, 
filled with yellow euamel. The enamelling found in Dun Mao Utanea- 
procesB employed is that known as cham- ='»"' l"'^"'' »«*'■ 
jJcve, the spaces to be filled by the 

colouring matter being scooped out of the metal, leaving raised 
moi^ins of metal between the different hollow spaces of the ]}attem. In 


this case the concentric circular spaces are somewhat less than Jth inch 
wide and -j^th of an inch in depth, and they are separated from each 
other by marginal partitions of the metal, having a thickness of about one- 
third of the width of the spaces enamelled. The scheme of colour seems 
to have been five concentric bands of red on the top of the disc, and two 
on the side, with a single spot of yellow in the centre. 

The interest of this small object is very great. It is one of a very few 
examples of the occurrence of this chamjAevS enamel on bronze which 
have yet been recorded in Scotland ; and it adds another example to the 
evidence of the early practice in Britain of this kind of enamelling, 
which was unknown to the Romans till after their conquest of Gaul and 
Britain. The examples which have been found in Scotland have always 
been associated with the style of decoration now recognised as Celtic, 
whether of the Pagan or of the Early Christian period. It occurs in the 
Pagan period upon such objects as horse-trappings and massive armlets 
of bronze, and in the Christian period on shrines or caskets, brooches, 
<fec., of bronze. 

The three articles above described (and now presented by Miss 
Smith) were found by the late Dr R. Angus Smith, F.S.A. Scot, in 
the course of his excavations in the vitritied Fort of Dun Mac 
Uisneachan, near Loch Etive, Argyllshire. They are referred to in 
his communication to the Society, entitled "Descriptive Listof Antiquities 
near Loch Etive," Parts L, II. and III., in the Proceedings^ vols. ix. and 
X., which were afterwards expanded and published separately in a 
volume, entitled Loch Etive and the Sons of Uisneach, London, 1879. 

(2) By Colonel David Balfour of Balfour and Trenaby, F.S.A. 


Urn of clay, found on the North Hill of Shapinsay, Orkney. 

(3) By Captain W. Gillon, F.S.A. Scot., 71st Highland Light 

Infantry, through Professor Duns, D.D., F.S.A. Scot. 

Highland Brooch of brass, 3^ inches diameter. In a note announc- 
ing the donation, Professor Duns says : — 


" At my request Captain Gillon has kindly presented this good speci- 
men of the plaid-brooch to the National Museum. It is of brass, with 
steel pin, and ornamented with small concentric circles. It was given 
to Captain Gillon by * Noble,' The Mackintosh's keeper, at his Shooting 
Lodge, Daviot. The brooch belonged to Noble's grandmother, and was 
believed by her to have been in her father's family long before her time." 

(4) By Mr J. W. Rowland, 8 Wardie Avenue. 

Ten Stone Axes from Secondi, on the African Gold Coast These 
implements, which are interesting on account of the rarity of Gold Coast 
specimens in Europe, were obtained from the side of the hill on which 
the fort of Secondi is built. Secondi lies within a hundred miles of 
Cape Coast Castle. The axes are of diorite, and are aU of small size, 
the largest not exceeding 3 J inches in length by IJ inch across the 
cutting face. Six of these are very rudely finished, and ground only on 
the lower part of the implement towards the cutting edge. A seventh 
is a short wedge-shaped axe, 2 inches in length by 1 J inch in width, 
ground smooth on the whole surface. The remaining three are remark- 
able for their nearly cylindrical and slightly tapering form, showing the 
grinding in as many as twelve to fourteen longitudinal facets. 

(5) By Mrs Macleod Powell. 

Stone Axe of Algonquin Indians, from Hull Mound, Canada East. It 
is a chisel-shaped implement of greenstone, 6 J inches in length by If 
inch in breadth, roughly chipped to shape, and ground to a cutting edge 
at one end only. 

(6) By Dr Robert Munro, F.S.A. Scot., Kilmarnock. 


Spindle, for use with the distaff, of wood and iron, from Brittany. 
It consists of a bobbin of turned wood 6 inches in length, in the upper 
end of which is fixed a spindle of iron wire 5 inches in length, with a 
spiral groove for the thread, which terminates in a slight hook at the 


(7) By Andrbw 'Muibuead, F.S.A. Scot. 

Ornamental Figure of a Man in caat brass, with a loop attached ; uso 

(8) Ry Waltbr Gborob Dickson, M.D., F.S.A. Scot. 
Phallus of stone, 10 inches in length and 3 J inches in diametet 
Phallus of wood, of similar character, and slightly larger. 

Both these Phalli were taken from among a largo niimbec of objects 
of the same description, deposited as votive offerings in a temple at 
Oonsei, Toge, neat Yumoto, in the province of Kotsuki, Japan. 

(9) By Andrew Kbrr, Architect, F.S.jV. Scot, 

Key of the Old Broughton Jail, 1 1 inches in length, with pipe and 

(10) By Rev. James Morribon, F.C. Manue, Urqnhart, Elginshire, 

F.S.A. Scot. 
Nine Flint Scrapers of various sizes, from | inch to 1^ inch 
diameter, of wliich the two largest are here figured (figs. I, 2). 

Figs. 1 2. Scrapera oF Flint, from Uniulmrt, E1gtuakir« (Mtntl eae). 

One Side Scraper of reddish flint, 3^ inches in length by 1 inch in 
breadth, the edge carefully trimmed. 

Triangular Arrow-head of greyish flint, jMutly tinged witli red, IJ 
inch iti length by 1 J inch in brciidth, the edges linely serrated, with 

Iwirbs and stem {lig. 3). 


Leaf-Blini>ed Arrow-hcad of brownish flinl, IJ inch in length, by 1 
inch in breadth, the ujiper edges stntigtit, the lower convex (fig. 4). 
All found in the parish of Utquhart, Elginshire. 

Figi. 3, 1. Arrow-heads of Flint, from Uniuhart, Elgiusliira (actual siie). 

(11) By Mnjor Thomas Bundas, through RoBBitT Dundab, E«q., 
of Amiston. 
Massive Penannular Fingcr-King of gold, flat on the inner side, the 
outer side beaded, from County Cork, Ireland. 

n2) By the Most Hon. the Mabquis of Lothian, Prciniient. 

Cost in plaster of a portion of a Sculptured Slab at Jedburgh Abbey, 
l)e.iring scroll-work of a tree or vine, with birds and beasts feeding on its 
fruit among the branches. At one side is a long panel of interlaced 
work. The slab is figured in Stuart's Sculptured St&nea of Scotland, voL 
ii. pi. 118. 

Cost of a slab with a Roman Inscription, also from Jedburgh Abbey. 
[See the subsequent communication by Dr Collingwood Brui'i'.] 

113) By James Watson, Peebles, the Author. 

Examination of Ancient Histiiry of Ireland and Iceland ; Ireland not 
the Uibcniia of the Aiicicnta ; Intcrirolations in Ikde's Uistoiy, Ac. 


(U) By Rev. E. A. Cooke, F.S.A. Scot. 

Novum Testamentum GraBce, cum Vulgata Latina, &c., et cum pre- 
fatione Ben Arise Montani. Geneva, 1619 {imperfect), 

(15) By Carlos Alberto Mousing, C.K, Rio de Janeiro, through 

R. Halliday Gunning, M.D., F.S.A. Scot. 

Itinerario e trabalhos da commissao de estudos da estrada de ferro do 
Madeira e Mamore. Rio de Janeiro, 1885. 

Series of Photographs of Rock Sculpturings in Brazil. 

[See the subsequent communication by Professor Duns.] 

(16) By Alexander Harris, F.S.A. Scot. 

Inventory of Selected Charters and Documents from the Charter 
House of the City of Edinburgh, deposited in the General Register 

(17; By Rev. B. H. Blacker, the Editor. 
Gloucestershire Notes and Queries. Parts 23-26. 

(18) By the Master of the Rolls. 

Croniques, &c., par Waurin, 1431-1447; Calendar of State Papers, 
Domestic, 1667-1658; Eadmeri Historia Novorum in Anglia; 
Chronicles of the Reigns of Stephen, Henry II., and Richard I. Royal 
8vo, 1885. 

(19) By Thomas Kerslake, Bristol, the Author. 

The Liberty of Independent Historical Research. 8vo, pp. 66. 

(20) By Charles A. Parker, M.D., F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 

Notes on a Roman Altar, and on Gosford Church and Churchyard, 
&c. 8vo, 1883. 

The following Communications were read : — 





The purely geometrical forms of ornament which occur upon Celtic 
works of art of the early Christian period may be divided into three 
classes, namely (1) interlaced-work, (2) key patterns, and (3) spiral 
patterns. The first of these has been dealt with in a previous com- 
munication ;^ and it is proposed in the present paper to treat of the 
two latter branches of the subject. 

Celtic art of the Christian period, although it differs materially from 
that of pagan times, still retains many of the most marked characteristics 
of the older style, showing that there was no real break in the continuity 
of the art history of the country resulting from the introduction of the 
new religion. What is known of the forms of ornament that prevailed 
in Great Britain during pagan times is derived almost exclusively from 
the study of objects of bronze, such as shields, helmets, sword-sheaths, 
horse-trappings, mirrors, armlets, &c., found frequently in connection 
with sepulchral remains. These objects are either cast or wrought with 
the hammer, and the decorative features are produced by the form given 
to the mould used for casting, or by means of repousse work, enamel, and 
chasing. A preference seems to have been shown for spiral curves of 
all kinds. Such curves appear to the greatest advantage in repoussS 
work, the effect of light and shade obtained by the continually varying 
direction of the curve and ever-changing amoimt of relief and breadth of 
the raised portion being very pleasing to the eye. It is almost impossible 
to give any idea by a written description of the appearance produced, 
but the character of this peculiar style of decoration is well illustrated 
by the example shown on the accompanying woodcut (fig. 1), which 
shows a circular bronze disc of unknown use,* now in the British Museum. 

' Froc. So€. Ant. Scat.^ vol. xvii. p. 225. 

' Similar discs are to be found in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy nt 
Dublin (see Catalogue, p. 137). 


Tlio groundwork of the omanicnt is n flat surfncc of metal, tlic curves 
being in relief. The section of the raised portion, if cut across, would he 
like that of a simple form of arcltitcctural tuoukUng with a sharp edge, 
the object of which is to duHne the curve nnd Bepnmtc the bright side 
from the one in sliailow, Tlic curve is close coiled when starting from 
the centre, but it soon nins off tangentially, the moidding of which it is 

Fig. 1. Circular Disc of Bronzo (10 incliea JUnii'Wr). 

composed gradually expanding and terminating in a little raised Iuid|>, 
the whole having the appeamncc of the end of a trumpet. This 
terminal lump catches the light, and looks in shape like an nlnioml. 
In the spiral-work of Christian times, drawn on a flat surface, this 
almond shape at the end of the expanded portion is still retained, being 
shown wliite on a black gmimd. As the piny of light and shaile on an 


arch moulding is mnre beautiful than on a etrnight moulding, so the 
subtletj of the effect is ^aiu increased when the mouiding is on tlif 
curve, and also alters it« section, as is the case in the Celtic repojus^ 
work (sec fig. 1). Besides the resemblance just pointed out between 
the repoaeite nictnl-work of pagan times and the ornamentation of tlie 
MSS. of the Cliristian perio«l, there arc instances of enamelled circular 
discs being found whose decoration corresponds still more nearly with 

Fifp. BS-100. SpinI Pattcnia in Eunmellcd Hetal-Work. 

that of the MSS. It is unfortunate, however, that the circumstancea 
under which these objects have hcen found give no clue as to their age. 
In one cose the enamelled disc was associated with a buHal in a 
tumulus, the body lieiiig unuremated. As, however, mound-hurial 
survived in tliis country as late as the eighth century, tho date of the 
object in question is doubtful. The following are the iiistances 1 have 
been ahle to collect of spiral ornament similar to that of the early Celtic 


MSS. occurring upon enamelled metal-work. In the year 1788 the 
Rev. Mr Pegge opened a tumulus upon Middleton Moor, in Derby- 
shire, in which he found an unbumt body buried on the natural surface 
of the ground and lying east and west. Near the point of the shoulder 
of the skeleton was a circular disc of copper 2^ inches in diameter, 
enamelled with a spiral pattern, and having a hook for suspension (see 
fig. 97). There were also found in the barrow a broken piece of a 
buckle or personal ornament enamelled with spirals, and a piece of 
bronze with a fillet round the edge.^ These objects were at one time in 
the White Watson Collection, and were afterwards transferred to Mr 
Thomas Bateman's museum at Lomberdale House, Derbyshire.* 

In the museum of the Warwickshire Natural History and Antiquarian 
Society, at Warwick, are some relics discovered at Chesterton, near the 
Foss Way, and presented by Lord Willoughby de Broke, amongst 
which are four circular discs of bronze ornamented with spiral patterns 
in red and white champlev6 enamel. They are in pairs, the discs 
forming each pair being identical in every aspect. The discs belonging 
to one pair are furnished with hooks ' (see fig. 95), and the other two 
are without projection of any kind, and are 2 J inches in diameter * (see 

fig. 96). 

In 1862 an enamelled disc, with a spiral design upon it, was found 
near the old Tilt Yard at Greenwich, and fell into the possession of Mr 
J. Brent, F.S.A.^ (see fig. 98). 

In the British Museum are two enamelled discs of a similar kind, but 
there being no catalogue of this collection I am unable to add further 

In the year 1860 some labourers, who were digging for brick earth at 
Lullingstone, in Kent, discovered a bronze bowl, ornamented with pieces 
of metal cut out into various shapes, and riveted on to the body of the 
vessel. The decoration consists of figures of stags and birds, together 

' ArchcRologiay vol. ix. p. 189. 

' Catalogue of Mr Balenmn'a Mi(^eum^ p. 154 ; nnd Batenian^s Vestiges of the 
Antiquities oj Derbyshire t>i^. 25. 

* Jour. Brit. Archceolog. Inst., vol. ii. p. 62. 

* Jour. Brit. Archmolog. Assoc., vol. iii. p. 282. 

' Proe. Soe. Aid. Lond., vol. ii. 2nd series, p. 202. 

u _ 

5 ' 
S f 







with circular discs having spiral patterns in dull red enamel ^ (see figs. 
99 and 100). This beautiful specimen of art metal-work is in the 
possession of Sir P. Hart Dyke of Lullingstone Castle.^ 

It has been shown that spiral ornament occurs upon most of the 
metal-work of the pagan period, and it is possible also that some of 
the specimens of spiral patterns in enamel are pre-Christian. The 
other two forms of Christian Celtic geometrical ornament, namely, 
interlaced-work and key patterns, are not as far as I am aware, to be 
found on any work of art prior to the sixth or seventh century, and 
therefore they must either have been developed from simple elements in 
the countiy itself, or else the style of art must have been imported from 
some foreign source. The early copies of the Gospels came from the East, 
and it is not unreasonable to trace the origin of the geometrical forms of 
Christian Celtic ornament to the same sourca Religion and art are 
intimately connected, and the introduction of a new religion has always 
given an abnormal development to art The two great schools of Eastern 
religious art are the Buddhist and the Mohammedan, in both of which 
geometrical ornament plays an important part. Key patterns are used 
largely by the Buddhists of China, and they are in most instances 
founded upon the swastica emblem. The most typical ornament of this 
class is shown on fig. 15b. It is used very largely by the Chinese for a 
background to act as a foil to the more unconventional and natural parts 
of the design, much in the same way as the pattern shown on fig. 14 is 
used on the early sculptured stones of Scotland. The Mohammedans 
being forbidden to imitate natural forms in their decorative arts, for 
fear of encouraging idolatry, fell back upon ornamental developments of 
writing and geometrical patterns of the greatest intricacy, amongst which 
interlaced-work and key patterns figure largely. The Nestorian Church 
has preserved from veiy early times the custom of ornamenting their 
MSS. of the Gospel with interlaced-work ; and some of the cross pages 
at the commencement of the Gospels produced at the present day might 
almost be mistaken for the illuminations out of an Irish MS. of the 

^ Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 53 and p. 153. 
' Archaologia Cantiana, vol. lit. pL 1. 


eighth century. The Nestorians also^ use interlaced- work in the 
architectural features of their churches. 

The Coptic Churches of Egypt ^ and the Churches of Abyssinia use 
interlaced-work in their decoration. The only other external source, 
besides the East, to which it is possible to trace Celtic forms of 
geometrical ornament is Eoman art, which in its turn was derived from 
the Greeks. The geometrical patterns used by the nations of classical 
antiquity, although very simple and effective, were few in number, and 
repeated with unvarying monotony. Plait-work occurs on Boman works 
of art, and the Greek fret (see &g, 4) is well known throughout the 
whole of the civDised world. In classical times mere ornament was 
always made subservient to the arts of painting and sculpture, whereas 
amongst the Celts the very opposite was the case. The ornamental 
portions of the designs of Celtic works have never been surpassed for 
ingenuity, complexity, and beauty of execution; but the figure sculpture 
and painting of this country, before classical influence made itself 
felt, is so bad as almost to be beneath criticism. Boman pavements 
have been suggested as the source whence the Celtic artist drew his 
inspiration; but there are two very strong arguments against this view — 
(1) that the Bomans did not penetrate into Ireland, whence all Christian 
Celtic art originally sprung ; (2) that if the Boman pavements had been 
studied the figure drawing would have been studied as well as the 
ornamental features, and the latter would have shown marks of classical 
influence, and therefore not have been so bad as it is. 

Perhaps the feeblest suggestion as to the origin of Celtic interlaced- 
work is that of an antiquary, who traces it back to the basket-work and 
wattled dwellings of the ancient Britons,* ignoring the fact that 
none of the patterns seen on the stones or in the MSS. are in the least 
like the ordinary system of wattle- work, and that with the exception of 
the plait, none of them could be reproduced in cords or wattles of any 
kind, as when drawn tight the shape would disappear, and the whole 

^ Christians under the Crescent in Asia, by the Rev. K L. Cutis. 
' Butler's Coptic Churches of Egypt. 

^ On the Ancient Sculptured Stones of Scotland^ Ireland^ and the Isle of Man, by 
Gilbert G. French ; Jour. Brit. Archxolog. Assoc., vol. xv. p. 68. 


become a mere tangle. The Celtic interlaced-work consists, in fact, not 
of knots that can be tied practically, but of curved lines passing under 
and over each other at regular intervals. 

To sum up, then, spiral-work is found in works of pagan art, and its 
origin is therefore within the country itself, and comes down from the 
Bronze Age, to which it is necessary to go back to find similar designs 
on the Continent within the classical area, as at Mycenae.^ Spiral work 
does not exist either in Mohammedan or Buddhist art Key patterns 
and interlaced-work are possibly of Eastern origin originally, being 
introduced at the same time as the copies of the Gospels, but becoming 
subsequently so modified and developed by the natural Celtic aptitude 
for ornamental design as really when combined with other elements of 
indigenous growth, to form a new style which it is impossible to 
confound with any other. Celtic works of art of the Christian period 
consist of the illuminated pages of MSS. (chiefly copies of the Gospels 
and Psalters), ecclesiastical metal-work (such as shrines of bells, books, 
and relics, croziers, processional crosses, chalices, &c.), personal ornaments 
of metal (such as penannular brooches), sculptured stones (such as 
memorial and other crosses), and lastly, a few miscellaneous objects of 
ivory, bone, wood, and leather. 

The chief characteristics of the Celtic style of art in Christian times 
are as follows : namely, first and foremost, the practice of arranging the 
ornament in panels, each complete in itself and separated from the next, 
and entirely surrounded by a marginal frame, consisting in the case of 
the MSS. of a series of broad and fine lines and sometimes rows of 
dots ; in the case of metal-work, of a raised border with twisted wire or 
other ornamental beading inserted in the angle; and in the case of 
stone-work, of a round bead or cable moulding, the panel being sunk 
below the level of the rest of the design.* These panels are filled in 
either with the geometrical forms of ornament already referred to, or 
with figures of dragons, serpents, and other animal shapes, whose bodies, 
limbs, and tails are twisted in all directions, and intertwined in every 

* Dr Hy. Schliemann's Myemtz, pp. 166 to 169, 203, 801, 811, &c. 
' The patterns on the crosses of the Isle of Man are not divided into panels, show- 
ing the effect of Scandinavian influence. 


possible way. In later times foliageous scroll-work is also added. On 
the Scottish sculptuied stones, symbols and hunting scenes occur ; and in 
the Book of Kells, figures of birds and animals, drawn unconventionally, 
are introduced into the ornament On the high crosses of Ireland, and 
on some of the Northumbrian crosses, Scripture scenes form part of the 
decorative features. The colours used in the illuminations of the MSS. 
are yellow, red, green, blue, purple, all very bright^ the yellow especially, 
which is perhaps the most typical colour of all. Shading is but seldom 
used, although examples of it occur in the Book of Kells aud the 
Lindisfame Gospela The colours of the figures and drapery are put on 
chiefly with a view to decorative effect, and with entire disregard of the 
actual colours of the object represented. In the drapery of the figures 
of the Evangelists, &c., several different colours are used, one being 
separated from the other with a band of yellow, having a fine black line 
on each side. The general effect is that of a bright Eastern carpet or a 
stained glass window. Thd drawing of the hair is veiy peculiar, con- 
sisting of a large number of separate locks curled up at the end. This 
method of representation is also to be seen on the heads which adorn 
the carved capitals in early Irish architecture. The ear and nose are 
indicated conventionally by spiral lines. An example of the ears and 
eyes of animals being treated in a similar manner occurs upon the cross 
at St Madoes, in Perthshire. The ornamental features of the MSS. are all 
carefully outlined in black ink and coloured. The groundwork of the 
interlacements of key patterns and spirals is generally black. In the case 
of interlaced- work, the panel containing it is divided into blocks of 
different colours. Key patterns are often coloured in alternate squares 
like a chess-board. Each of the separate bands forming a spiral is 
coloured differently. The effect sought in the ornament is the same as 
that in the case of the figure subjects, namely, that of a mosaic of bright 

Of the early development of Christian Celtic art, hardly any- 
thing is known, and although more light may be thrown on the subject 
by careful comparison of the ornamental, palaeographical, and other 
peculiarities of the MSS. and sculptured stones, yet it is probable its 
origin will always be more or less veiled in obscurity. The development 


must at any rate have been very rapid, and took place between the end 
of the fifth century, when Christianity was introduced, and the end of 
the seventh century, when the Gospels of Lindisfame ^ was produced, 
containing all the most elaborate forms of Celtic decoration, and indicat- 
ing that the highest pitch of excellence of the style had been attained. 
A great many very misleading statements have been made as regards 
the date of Celtic works of art, the fact being that there are only a 
very few specimens whose age has been satisfactorily ascertained from 
historical data. These, however, will form landmarks to guide the 
student. It is possible that some of the Irish illuminated MSS. may be 
as early as the sixth century, but the first MS. containing Celtic forms 
of ornament^ whose date is known without doubt, is the Lindisfame 
Gospels (a.d. 698 to 721). Although written in Northumbria and 
illuminated by Saxons, the ornament is almost purely of Celtic origia^ 
The other MSS. which serve as landmarks of the style are the Go8|)cls 
of Mac Regol, in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (a.d. 820), the 
Gospels of Mac Duman in the Archiepiscopal Library at Lambeth, and 
the Gospels of Maol Brighte in the British Museum (a.d. 1138). The 
Stockholm Gospels is proved by entries in the volume to be earlier than 
A.D. 871 to 889; and the Shrine of the Book of Durrow is of date a.d. 
877 to 916, so that the volume itself must be at least as old as the 
ninth century. From the study of the ornamental features of the 
above MSS., it would seem that, although there was not mucli change in 
the style of illumination between the seventh and the tenth century, 
yet in the latter portion of this period spiral-work was less frequently 
used, and the key patterns became more elaborate. Finally, in the 
fourteenth century, although interlaced-work was still retained in the 
initial letters, all the other forms of ornament had disappeared. As 
regards sculptured Celtic stone-work, the evidence of dated examples 
goes to show that the forms of ornament were developed in the MSS. 
first, and applied to stone-work later, but there is really no reason why 

^ Now iu the British Museum. 

' The Gospels of St Mulling and the Book of Dioima Mac Nathi are attributed to 
the seventh century on historical evidence, but not of neariy so satisfactory a nature 
as iu the case of the Qospcb of Lindisfame, and the illuminations are very poor. 


some of the sculptured stones may not be at least as old as the Lindisf ame 
Gospels — that is to say, of the seventh century. The chief landmarks 
for the study of Celtic sculptured stone-work are the tombstone of St 
Berechtuire of Tullylease (a.d. 839), the tombstones of Suibne (a.d. 
887), and St Fiacraich (a.d. 921), at Clonmacnois, the high crosses of 
Clonmacnois (a.d. 914), of Monasterboice (a.d. 924), and Tuam (a.d. 
1106). The styles of decoration of the Celtic stone- work in various 
parts of Great Britain differ far more than the styles of the MSS. 
There are the flat tombstones of Clonmacnois and other places in 
Ireland, with crosses generally inscribed, and with but little ornament, 
chiefly confined to the centres and ends of the limbs of the crosses. 
There are the high crosses of Ireland, with the most elaborate forms of 
geometrical ornament, such as key patterns, raised crosses of spiral-work 
and interlacements, together with figure subjects, and scenes from 
Scripture. There are the high crosses of lona and Kildalton, in Islay, 
of similar design to the foregoing, and possibly of the same date, but 
yet with local peculiarities which mark them off as a separate group. 
There are the erect cross slabs of the north-east of Scotland, whose 
ornamentation comes nearer to that of the illuminated pages of the MSS. 
than that of any of the sculptured stones in other areas, and having 
raised bosses of spiral- work similar to the high crosses of Ireland, key 
patterns, interlaced-work, figure subjects, and symbols. There are the 
Celto-Northumbrian stones of the south of Scotland and north of 
England, with key patterns, interlacements, foliageous scroll work, and 
figure subjects, but an entire absence of spiral designs. There are the 
Celto-Scandinavian crosses of the Isle of Man and west coast of Cum- 
berland without panelling, having scaly dragons, interlaced-work, ring 
patterns, key patterns, figure subjects, and generally inscribed in Runes, 
the names mentioned being in some cases Celtic, and in others Scandi- 
navian. There are the circular-headed crosses of Wales, with key 
patterns and interlacements, often having Latin inscriptions in Irish 
minuscules. There are the cylindrical pillar crosses of the north of 
England. Lastly, there are the West Highland crosses of post-Norman 
times, with foliageous scroll-work, and remains of early Celtic forms 
which have survived in a degraded shape. 


The dated specimens of Celtic metal- work are later than the MSS., 
the chief examples being the Shrine of the Book of Durrow (a.d. 877 to 
916), the Shrine of the Book of Armagh (a.d. 937), Maelbrigde's Bell 
Shrine (a.d. 954), the Crozier of Kells (a.d. 967 to 1047), Shrine of St 
Molaise Gospels (a.d. 1001 to 1025), Shrine of the Stowe Missal (a.d. 
1023 to 1764), Shrine of Columba's Psalter (a.d. 1084 to 1106), 
Shrine of Dimma's Book (a.d. 1120 to 1220), processional Cross of 
Cong (a.d. 1123), Shrine of St Lachtin's Arm (a.d. 1160), Shrine of St 
Patrick's Tooth (a.d. 1376). In addition to the above, mention is 
made of several works of metal in the Annals of the Four Masters 
between the years a.d. 734 and 884. Some of the most beautiful speci- 
mens of Celtic metal-work are the penannular brooches, but unfortunately 
the date of none of them has been ascertained. The penannular brooch 
found at Croy, Inverness-shire, was associated vith a silver penny of 
Coenwulf, king of Mercia (a.d. 795 to 818).^ The chief peculiarity 
introduced in the metal-work which does not occur in the stone- work, 
and of course could not occur in the MSS., is the practice of making 
incisions with facets in the triangular and other spaces left between the 
bands of the interlaced- work or between the spirals.* This kind of 
incised ornament is to be seen in Norman architecture occasionally, 
the hollow produced being the shape of an inverted pyramid. Of 
the three kinds of geometrical decoration on metal-work interlace- 
ments occur most frequently, spirals occasionally, as on the back of the 
Tara brooch, and key patterns very rarely. 

Besides the MSS., the sculptured stones, and the metal-work, a few 
miscellaneous objects of ivory, bone, wood, and leather, with Celtic forms 
of ornament upon them, are to be found in Museums, 

Key Patterns. 

Key patterns are so called from their resemblance to the alternations 
of black and white which are to be seen on that part of a key which is 

* Scotland in Early Christian TimeSt 2nd series, p. 24. 

' See Catalogue of the Royal Irish Academy ^ p. 575 ; and penannular brooch in the 
Bergen Museum, figured in Scotland in Early Christian Times j 2nd series, p. 31. 


cut away in L-shaped holes to allow them to pass the wards of the 

Key patterns are entirely composed of straight lines, so arranged as 
entirely to cover the space to be ornamented, being drawn in black upon 
a white ground. Between each black line is a white line, separating it 
from the one next to it ; and if the black and white were reversed, a fresh 
key pattern would be obtained. 

A key pattern may therefore be defined as one so drawn that the 
pattern itself consists of straight black lines on a white ground, and the 
ground consists of straight white lines on a black ground, one being the 
converse or reciprocal of the other. One set of lines is always continuous, 
and can be drawn without removing the pen from the paper ; whereas 
the other set, which form the ground, is discontmuous or broken. The 
labyrinths of the Middle Ages were arranged on the same principle as 
the lines of a key pattern, the paths being the continuous lines, and the 
hedges or walls which separated them being the discontinuous ones.^ 

In Celtic key patterns the space to be ornamented is entirely covered 
with black lines on a white ground, except when the lines intersect at 
an angle of 45^, and in this case small triangular spaces are left, which 
are filled in with black. These little black triangles (see fig. 42) give a 
peculiar appearance to Celtic key patterns, which no others possess. 
From the definition which has been given of a key pattern, it follows 
that there are primarily two distinct kinds, namely, (1) key patterns 
composed of lines branching out at angles of 90**, 60°, or 45°, from a 
stem line (see fig. 1) ; patterns of this class are introduced partially 
into Celtic ornament (see figs 19, 35, 51, and 52, where the lines first 
bend round spirally, and then branch out afterwards) ; and (2) key pat- 
terns composed of spirals drawn with straight lines bending round at angles 
of 90°, 60°, or 45°, so that for each key pattern formed of straight lines, 
there is a corresponding spiral pattern formed of curved lines (for instance, 
the key pattern, fig. 14, is identical with the spiral pattern, fig. 81). 

^ In CflBdmon's Metrical Paraphrase of the Scriptures^ a MS. of the tenth century, iu 
the Bodleian Library at Oxford, a key conventionalised so as exactly to resemble an 
ornamental pattern is to be seen. —Archmtlogiaf vol. xxiv. pi. 68. 

2 See Jour, Brit. ArchcBolog. Inst., vol. xiv. p. 216 ; Assoc Architect, Soc, Reports, 
voL iv. p. 151 ; Didron's Annates Arch^logiques, voL xvii. p. 119. 


All geometrical ornament is based ultimately on the fact that there are 
only three kinds of regular plane figures with which a flat surface can 
be completely covered, the figures being placed so that they will fit in 
any position with their comers meeting at a point, and their sides 
touching. The figures referred to are the square, the equilateral triangle, 
and the hexagon. All geometrical ornament is therefore founded on 
lines drawn at equal distances apart, and intersecting at angles of 90^ or 
60**,^ on the square system, on the equilateral triangle system (the latter 
including hexagons which are made up of six equilateral triangles). 
The system founded on squares is the only one which is used in Celtic 
ornament. Every designer begins by drawing guiding lines, such as 
those just described ; he then fills in each square with special forms of 
ornament, and finally makes the whole into one design by a series of 
connecting linea There are thus three things to be considered in com- 
posing an ornamental design — (1) the method of subdividing the space 
with guiding lines, (2) the method of fiUmg in the lines thus obtained, 
(3) the method of connecting the figures together, so as to form a com- 
plete pattern. 

Referring to the diagrams, Plate 1 shows the method of subdividing 
the space to be ornamented with guiding lines founded on the square 
system, which way may be done in the following different ways : — (A) 
squares set parallel ; (B) squares set diagonally ; (G) squares set diagon- 
ally, and every alternate vertical row subdivided into two triangles ; (D) 
squares set diagonally, and subdivided into two triangles ; (E) squares set 
parallel and subdivided into four triangles ; (F) squares set parallel, and 
subdivided into eight triangles. 

Plate 2 shows the method of filling in squares with key patterns as 
follows : — (a) single straight line spiral ; (b) double straight line spiral 
(discontinuous) ; (c) double straight line spiral (continuous) ;* (d) and (e) 
patterns used as the centres from which double straight line spirals spring ; 

^ Pentagous are largely used in Mohammedau ait, but they are placed so that their 
centres lie in lines intersecting at right angles, and the ornament is thus founded on 
squares, and not on pentagons. 

' It will be noticed that (b) and (c) are reciprocal patterns ; that is to say, that one 
is changed into the other by reversing the colours, and making black white. 



(f) quadruple straight line spiral, or swastica with two arms, or one 
bend At right angles ; (g) and (h) quadruple straight line spirals, with 
three arms, or two bends at right angles ; (i), (k), (m), and (n) quadruple 
straight line spirals with four arms, or three bends at right angles ; (1) 
aud (o) to (u) quadruple straight line spirals with five arms, or four 
bends at right angles. 

Nole. — Some oi the above variations are produced by bending one 
arm in the opposite direction to the one which preceded it, or, in other 

D E F 

Plate 1. Showinx siib-diviKion oI Space and Direction of Lines. 

words, by reversing the direction of the spiral. The variations given are 
all that BIB possible, with from one to five straight tines arranged spirally 
or swastica-wise. Several of them, such as (f), (g), (h), and (1), occur 
in Celtic art. Some again are found only in classical ornament, and 
others only in Eastern art. It is evident that designers have never 
worked out the theory of geometrical ornament mathematically, and tried 
to find all the possible variations to be derived from one element, such as 
the swastica, but have either copied what went before, or have drawn 



their lines in the direction suggested by the fancy of the draughtsman 
at the moment. 

All the patterns shown on Plate 2, can be right or left handed, which 
of course doubles their number when used in combination. The number 
of variations of the quadruple straight line spirals shown on Plate 2, 
figs, (f) to (u), is limited by the mathematical theory of permutations 










Plate 2. Methods of filling in Squares. 

and combinations, and they are obtained thus : — Starting with a simple 
cross, by adding a second arm, a right or left handed swastica is obtained 
according to the direction given to the second arm ; from each swastica 
two three-armed straight line spirals are obtainable on the same principle 
and from each two, four with four arms, and from each four, eight with 
five arms, and so on, multiplying by two each time. Some of the 



patterns which can be arrived at by working at the subject mathematically 
are quite unknown, and it says much for the fertility of the imagination 
of the Celtic artist that so many should have been already discovered. 
The modem designer seems to be content with mere copying, and is quite 
incapable of inventing anything new or developing what has gone before, 
although there is an enormous field open before him. As a single 
instance, key patterns and spirals of the Celtic type have not as yet 

Plato 3. Methods of filling iii Triau'^leR. 

been applied at all to a surface divided up into hexagons or equilateral 

Plate 3 shows the various methods of filling in half squares or 
triangles with key patterns, as follows : — (a) single straight line spiral ; 
(b) double straight line spiral (discontinuous) ; (c) double straight line spiral 
(continuous); (d) to (h) methods of filling up spaces left between lines 


of straight line spirals ; (i) to (m) double straight line spirals, one of 
the lines of which has branches at right angles, the triangular spaces 
being filled in with black. 

Note, — The special character of Celtic key patterns as distinguished 
from others, is due partly to the lines on which the pattern is based 
running diagonally, but more especially to the method of filling in the 
little triangular spaces left between the lines with black. Chinese key 
patterns are often founded on lines running diagonally, but the filling 
in of the small triangles with black is peculiarly Celtic. 

Plate 4 shows the various methods of connecting together squares 
filled in with straight line spirals. The method of connection is the 
same whether the squares are set parallel (A, Plate 1 ) or set diagonally 
(B, Plate 1). There are two distinct methods of connection employed — 
(1) where the straight line spirals are connected to each other (Plate 4, 
figs. I. to lY.), and (2) where the straight line spinds are connected to a 
central stem in the form of a zig-zag line (Plate 4, figs V. and VL). For 
every method of connecting straight line spirals, there is a corresponding 
method of connecting spirals composed of curved lines (see figs. 72 to 77). 

Fig. 1. shows the method of connecting squares filled in with double 
straight line spirals, and is founded on the principle that a surface may 
be entirely covered with H-shaped figures, placed in horizontal rows, all 
facing the same way, but with the sides of the Hs in one row opposite 
the centres of the Hs in the next row. The Hs correspond in curved 
spiral work to two C-shaped curves placed back to back, § . Here all 
the squares filled in with straight line spinds are connected together, 
so as to form a continuous net-work of lines covering the whole 

Fig. XL shows the method of connecting squares filled in with quad- 
ruple straight line spirals, and is founded on the principle that a surface 
may be entirely covered with H-shaped figures placed in horizontal rows, 
facing alternately upwards and sideways. This method of connection 
corresponds in curved spiral- work to the one shown on fig. 72. Here 
all the squares filled in with straight line spirals are connected together 
so as to form a continuous net-work of lines covering the whole 

270 phoceedings of the society, mat ii, isbs. 

Fig. IIL shows the method of connecting squares Glled in with double 
straight line spirals, and is founded on the principle that a surface may 

be entirely covered with Z-shapcd figures in rows all facing the some 
way. The Z-eliaped figures correspond to S-shaped curves in spiral- 


work (see fig. 73). Here the squares filled in witli straight line spirals 
are not at all connected together so as to form a continuous net-work of 
lines covering the whole surface, but each diagonal row of Zs forms a 
continuous line. 

Fig. IV. is the same as the preceding, except that every other row of 
Zs faces sideways. 

Fig. V. shows the method of connecting squares filled in with single 
straight line spirals. A zig-zag line is drawn, following two sides of one 
square and the two opposite sides of the next, thus forming a st^m line 
from which the spirals branch out right and left. The spirals do not 
form a continuous net- work of lines covering the whole surface, but each 
stem with the spiral branching from it is continuous. This method 
corresponds in curved spiral- work to the one shown on fig. 81. 

Fig. IV. is the same as the preceding, except that the straight line 
spirals are double instead of single, and corresponds in curved spiral- 
work to that shown on fig. 82. 

Plate 5 shows the various methods of connecting squares and triangles 
filled in with straight line spirals. 

Figs. VII. to X. show the methods of connecting squares set diagonally 
and triangles (fig. C, Plate 1), filled in with straight line spirals. 

Figs. XL and XII. show the methods of connecting triangles (fig. D, 
Plate 1), filled in with straight lino spirals. 

Note, — The connecting lines are all those in the pattern which do 
not form part of the straight line spirals, and when the number of turns 
of the spiral are reduced to nothing, a series of similar figures is obtained 
entirely covering a surface as shown on (figs. I. to IV. Plate 4). On 
Plate 5 the spaces between the connecting lines are left blank for the 
straight line spirals to be filled in ; whereas on Plate 4, the numbers of 
turns of the straight line spirals are reduced to nothing, and the connect- 
ing lines all brought up close together. 

Figs. 1 to 10 show the various forms of border key patterns, founded 
on squares set parallel (Plate 1, ^g. A), and produced by filling in the 
squares with single and double straight line spirals (Plate 2, figs, a, b, 
and c). Other border patterns can be obtained by filling in the squares 
with quadruple straight line spirals or swasticas. One of these is given 



in (fi^ 59), where it ia classed with the other swastica patterna. Border 
key patterns founded on squares set poralle], such as those shown on 
figa. 1 to 10, occur most frequently in classical art, and ara commonly 
known as Greek frets. They are to be found occasioDally iu Celtic art, 
the largest number of examples being on the cross slabs of the eighth 
and ninth centuries at Clonmacnois in Ireland. The method of cover- 
ing whole surfaces with key patterns founded on squaies set parallel, ia 



Plate 6. Methoila of connecting Squnrea and 'I'riangtoa titled in with Straight-line Spirals. 
the same as when the squares are set diagonally (see figs. 11 and 14), 
as hereafter explained. This class of key pattern looks far better when 
the squares are placed diagonally, which is almost always the case, 
except in a few instances, when the two kinds of ornament are used to 
contrast one with the other, as on the Roscmarkie Cross, InTemess- 
shire, where the design on two of the panels round a cross consist of 
square key patterns set diagonally, whilst on the other two panels they 
arc set parallel 



Fig. 1 is the simplest kind of border key pattern founded on the 
system of squares set parallel (fig. A, Plate 1), and it is probable that 
the more complicated forms were developed from it. It is produced by 
drawing straight strokes facing each other alternately to the right and 
left, at right angles to the two parallel lines at each side of the border. 

Figs. 2 and 4 are founded on squares set parallel (fig. A, plate 1), and 
filled in with double straight line spirals (fig. b, Plate 2), all the spirals 
having the same direction of twist, and can be developed from fig. 1 by 

Figs. 1 to 5. Single Border Patterns formed by filling in Squares set parallel (A). 

adding fresh strokes at right angles. The lines which connect the spirals 
form the sides of the border. 

Figs. 3 to 5 are the same as the preceding, except that the spirals 
are alternately right and left handed, instead of all having one direction 
of twist. 

Figs. 6 and 7 are founded on squares set parallel (fig. A, Plate 1), 
and filled in with double straight line spirals (b, Plate 2), all having 
the same direction of twist, and connected to each other, instead of to 
the lines forming the border. 

VOL. XIX. 8 



Fig. 8 is the same as the preceding, except that the spirals twist 
alternately in opposite directions instead of all being the same, and are 
connected to the lines forming the border as well as to each other. 

Fig. 9 is a double border pattern similar to the preceding, but the 
spirals connected by H and T-shaped lines according to method (fig. L 
Plate 4). 

Fig. 10 is the same as ^g, S, except that the spirals are continuous 
(fig. a, Plate 2), instead of broken (fig. b, Plate 2). 

Figs. 6 to 10. Single Border Patterns formed by filling in Squares set parallel (A). 

Fig. 10a is a surface key pattern founded on squares set parallel (fig. 
A, Plate 1), and filled in with double straight line spirals (fig. b, Plate 
2), the method of connection being that on (fig. in. Plate 4). 

Fig. 10b LB a surface key pattern founded on squares set parallel (fig. 
A, Plate 1), and filled in with swasticas placed diagonally. 

Figa 11 to 16 show the various forms of surface key patterns founded 
on squares set diagonally (fig. B, Plate 1), and filled in with single or 
double straight line spirals (figs, a to e, Plate 2), the methods of con- 
nection being shown on Plate 4. The simplest method of connection 



is that shown on (fig. Y. Plate 4), and used in forming the key pattern 
on fig. H, which is taken from the cross page at the commencement of 
St John's Gospel in the Book of Lindisfame,^ and is therefore as old as 
the eighth century. This is the surface key pattern which occui-s with 
greater frequency than any other upon the Scottish sculptured stones, 
there being at least twenty-four examples. It is used by the Celtic 
artist as a background to cover a large surface, much in the same way 
that the Chinese use their favourite key pattern (fig. 1 5 B). 

Fig. 1 5a, which shows one of the arms of the cross at Dunfallandy, 




Figs. 10a, 10b. Patterns formed by filling in Squares set parallel (A). 

in Perthshire, may be compared with fig. 15b, which is from a Chinese 
book of ornamental designs. In both cases the object sought is to 
produce a pleasing contrast between the stiff lines of the key pattern 
and the gracefully flowing lines of the raised bosses of spiral- work on the 
sculptural stones, or the unconventional portions of the Chinese design. 
The curved lines are concentrated on a small space, generally circular in 
shape, whilst the key pattern forms the background. 

PdUxographical Soe. PubliecUionSt pi. 6. 


Squoiea set diagonnlly (fig. B, Plate 1), and filled in with either 
double or quadruple spirals (fige. b and f, Plate 2), are veiy seldoni 
used, but the method of forming the connections is shown on (figs. I. to 
IV. and VI., Plate 4). 

The triangles left at the sides of all the patterns belonging to Um 
group, in consequence of the squares being sat diagonally, are in the 

Figs. 11 to 13. Pattema formed b; filling in Squares eet diagaimlly {B). 

MS8. generally filled in with a plain wash of colour, and on the stones 
with some of the triangular key patterns shown on Plate 3. 

Fig. 11 is founded on squares set parallel (Plate 1, fig. B), and filled 
in with double straight line spirals (Plate 2, fig. b), the connecting lines 
being H-shapcd (fig, I. Plate 4). 

Fig. 1 2 is the same as the preceding, but the squares filled in with 
pattern (d, Plate 2), and connected with a zig-zag line (fig. VI. Plate 4). 

Fig. 13 gives another method of filling in the squares similar to the 


precediiig, except that tlie zig-zag connecting line (tig. VI. Plate 4) starts 
from the bottom instead of from the sides. 

Fig. 14 is founded upon squares set diagonally (Plate 1, fig, B), and 
filled in with single straight line spirals (Plate 2, fig, a), the connecting 
line being zig-aag (fig. V, Plate 4), 

Fig. 15 is the some as the preceding, except that the st^uares are 
fiUed in with pattern (e, Plate 2). 

Fig. 15a is founded on squares set parallel (fig. A, Plate 1), and 

Fitfa- 14, IS. Patlemi furmed by tilling in Squaroa set diagonally (B). 

filled in with single straight line spirals (fig a, Plate 2). The method 
of connection is irregular by means of a zig-^ag line (fig. V. Plato 4). 
The key pattern serves as a background to contrast vith the raised 
bosaes of spiral-work. The drawing represents the left ami of the 
cross at Dunfallandy, in Perthshire. 

Fig. IGb is founded on squares set diagonally, and fiUed in with 



quadruple atraight line apirala (fig. m, Plate 2), the connection being 
H-sliapcd (fig. II. Plate 4). The key pattern serves as a background to 
contrast with the more unconventional portions of the design. The 
drawing is taken from a book of Chinese ornaments. 

Figs. 16 to 29 show border patterns founded uiwn squares set 
diagonally, every alternate row being subdivided into two triangles 
(Plato 1, tig. C), and the squares filled in either with the patterns given 

Vigs. ISA, IGb. Celtic aad Cbineae methods of OmamsntatioD. Left Ann of 
Celtic CnWB at IhmralUniiy and Cbmcae Patten). 

on Plate 2, or with curved spirals, or with plain washes of colour, and 
the triangles with the patterns given on Plate 2. The connecting lines 
are Z-shaped (figs. VIL to XL Plato 5). 

Figs. 16 and 17 give the method of drawing the setting out lines for 
patterns on figs. 19, 23, and 25, and those for the others may be drawn 
in a very similar manner. 


Fig. 18 is founded on squares set diagonally and triangles (Plate 1, 
fig. C), the squares being filled in with a plain wash of colour, and the 
triangles with double straight line spiral with branches (Plate 3, fig. k), 
the method of connection being that shown on (fig. VIII. Plate 5). 

Fig. 19 ia the same as the preceding, except that the squares are 
filled in with double curved spirals, and the connecting lines are those 
shown on (iig. X. Plato 5), but with two arms of the Hs left out, so 
that the squares can be iilled in with double instead of quadruple 




i» i» to 

And Triangles (C). 

n Squares diagonall; 

Fig. 20 has the squares filled in with pattern (e, Plate 2), and the 
triangles with (g, Plate 3), the connecting lines being those shown on 
(fig. VIL Plate 5). 

Fig. 21 has the squares filled in with a plain wash of colour, and the 

> In s similar manner. Eg. IX. Plato S, is derived from fig. X. P1st« S, by leaving out 
two of the anna of tho Za, so that tbc sqnarea can be filled in with donbla instead of 
qnadmple spirsts. 


triangles with (fig. g, Plate 3), the counectrng linee being thoae abown on 
(fig. VIL Plate 5). 

Fig. 22 bus tbe squares filled in with (fig. b, Plate 2), and the 
triangles with (fig. b, Plate 3), the connecting lines being those shown 
on (fig. IX. Plate 5). 

Fig. 23 has the squares filled in with a quadruple straight lined spiral, 
and the triangles with (fig. b, Plate 3), the connecting lines being those 
shown on (fig. X. Plate 5). 

FigB. 81 to 8S. Pattenu farmed by tilling in Sqaarei set diigonallj 
and Triangles (C). 

Fig. 24 has tbe squares filled iu with (fig. b, Plate 2), and tbe 
triangles with (b, Plate 3), tbe connecting lines being the same as those 
used for fig. 19, tbe pattern being black on a white ground, instead of 
white on n block ground. 

Fig. 25 has the squares filled in with (fig. g, Plate 2), and tbe 
triangles with (fig. L Plate 3), and the connecting lines are those shown 
on (fig. X. Phte 6). 

Figs. 26 to 28 give the setting out lines for drawing fig. 39. 


Fig. 39 baa the squarea fillod in vitk (%. e, Plato 2), and the 
triangles with (fig. g, Plate 3),' the connecting lines being shown on 
fig. 28. 

Figa. 30 to 36 show single border key patterns, founded on squares 
set diagonally, and divided into two triangles (Plate 1, fig. D), the con- 
necting lines being those shown on ^fig, XL Plate 6). 

Figs, 30 and 31 give the setting out lines for drawing figs. 32 to 35. 

Fig. 32 has the triangles filled in with (fig. b, Plate 3). 

29. PatUnis lornied by Siting in Statures Bet diagoDally 
and Trianglra. 

Fig. 33 has the triangles filled in with (fig. d, Plate 3). 
Fig. 34 has the triangles filled in with (fig. i, Plate 3). 
Fig. 35 haa the triangles filled in with (fig. m, Plate 3). 
Figs. 36 to 39 show double border key patterns founded upon squares 

' This pattern is a vei^ peculiar one, and odIj occdib, u far u I know, npon tlie 
rrou at Boaemarkie, in Inverneu-shire. It wu lirat pointed oat to me by Dr 
Andenoa, who teat me • pbotngraph of the stone (taken bj Mr D. White oF 
InvemesB), withont which I abould have been unable to have produced a drawing of 
it, w the platfi given 'mStJitit't Seulpltmd Stmus is ao inaccnnteaato beqnita Melew 
for porpoMe of etuily. 


aet diagonally, and divided into two triangles, the connecting lines being 
Z-shaped (fig. XI. Plate 5), and are drawn on the principle that a surface 
can be covered with Z-shaped lines as shown on fig, 41, or rathnr 
H shaped lines with two of the lines of the H bent at on angle of 45°. It 
has already been pointed out how a eurjace may be covered with 
H-shaped lines, (Plate 4, figs. I. and II.) 

Figs. 36 and 37 give the setting out lines for drawing figs. 38 and 39. 

Fig. 38 has the triangles fiUed in with (fig. h, Plate 3). 

so SI 

SI ■■ M M 

Fige. 30 to 35. Patterns formed b; tUUng in Triangles {D} or Half Sqnuea. 

Fig. 39 has the triangles filled in with (fig. i, Plate 3). 

Figs. 40 to 43 show surface patterns founded upon squares set 
. diagonally, and divided into two triangles, the connecting lines being 
Z-shaped (fig. XI. PUte 5). 

Figs. 40 and 41 show the setting out lines for drawing figs. 42 and 43. 

Fig. 42 has the triangles filled in with (fig. i, Plato 3). This is 
perhaps the most characteristically Celtic pattern of all those described. 
Although not very common npon the sculptured stones, there being 


only eeven examples in Scotland, one or two in Ireland, and hardly any 
in England and Wales, it is yet of frequent occurrence in the M88. It 
vill be found in the Lindisfame GoBpels, the Book of Kella, St Chnd'a 
Gospels, and is very largely employed in the Gospels of Mac Duman. 

Perhaps the best example upon sculptured stone-work is on the cross 
at Rosemarkie, in Inverness, The effect of the little black triangles, 
which appear on the pattern as drawn in the MSS., is produced in stone- 
work by deep incisions of the same shape. When the Kosemarkie cross 

Tigs. 36 to 39. PattemB rormed bj filling in Sqi 

Trianglei (D). 

was first carved it must have looked exactly like a page out of one of 
the beat Celtic MSS., but the ravages of the weather have caused the 
triangular incisions to lose their shape and look like honey-combing. 
The pattern is a difficult one either to draw or carve, and its occurrence 
in its most finished form, as at Rosemarkie, indicates that the sculpture 
ie the work of a masterhand. Although but a small fragment, the 
stone from Gattonside, near Melrose, and now in the National Museum, 
ie a well-executed example of this particular form of ornament, as is also 



a small slab on the island of Inchcolm. Professor Westwood calls it 
the Z or Chinese pattern.^ 

Fig. 43 is the same as the preceding, but with the triangles filled in 
with (fig. e, Plate 3). 

Figs. 44 to 47 show double border key patterns founded upon squares 
set diagonally, and divided into two triangles. The method of drawing 



Figs. 40, 41. Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into two Triangles (D). 

(Setting out lines for Kos. 42, 48.) 

the connecting lines is founded on the fact that a surface may be covered 
with star-shaped figures formed of three equal lines radiating from a 
point (fig. XII. Plate 5). In order that the pattern might be perfectly 
symmetrical, these three lines should make angles of 120° with each 
other, instead of one being 90® and the other two 135**, as is the case on 
figs. 44 to 47. These patterns should, in fact, be classed amongst those 

1 Jour. Brit. Archccolog. Inst., vol. viL p. 17, and toL x. p. 275. 


founded on the equilateral triangle, and not on the square syeteni. 
They are not at all common, and are to found chiefly in the Book of 
Kells, and on stones in South Wales. There ie a very fine example on 
one of the crosses at Llantwit M)\jor, in Glamorganshire.^ 

Figs. 44 and 45 give the setting out lines for drawing figs. 46 and 47. 

Fig. 46 has triangles filled in with (fig. g, Plate 3). 

Figs. i2, 43. Patt«niR formed by filling in Squtrei divided into two Triangli 

Fig, 47 haa the triangles filled in a way which is quite peculiar, and 
only occura in the Book of Kella. 

Figs. 48 to 62 show the methods of producing surface key patterns 
founded upon squares set parallel and divided into four triangles, the 
connecting lines heing drawn on the principle before explained, that 
H-shaped figures can be arranged so as to entirely cover a surface (fig, I. 
Plate 4). These patterns are generally used only to fill in a single 

' Wettwood'B Lcijndarium Walliix, p]». v. nnd vi., ind p. II. 



equare, and not as a 8nirface ornament. Exceptions to thia rule, havevor, 
occur oa the cross at Keils in Enapdale,' and in the initial page of the 
Gospel of St Matthew in the Gospels of Mac Duman. 

Fig. 48 gives the method of covering a surface with this class of key 
pattern, the triangles heing filled in with (fig. i, Plate 3). 

Fig. 49 has two of the triangles filled in with (fig. f, Plate 3), and the 
other two with (fig. g, Plate 3). 

Fig. 50 has the triangles filled in with (fig. i, Plate 3). 



*• ■ *T 

Fijta. H to 47. FaLteroB formed bj filling in 3qDarea dirided into two Triangles (D). 

Fig. 51 has the triangles filled in with (fig. k, Pkte 3). 

Fig. 52 has the triangles fiUed in with (fig. 1, Plate 3). 

Figs. 53 to 56 show the methods of producing surface ornament 
founded on squares set parallel and divided into eight triangles (fig. F, 
Plat« 1). These pattema are hardly ever used for covering a surface, but 
are confined to a single square. The connecting lines are in the shape 
of across. 

1 Stuart's Seulpturtd Slmia, vol iL pi. xiiii. 



Fig. 53 has the connecting line in the shape of a cross placed parallel, 
and the triangles filled in with (fig. b, Plate 3). 

Fig. 54 is the same as the preceding, except that the filling in of 
the triangles is done in a way peculiar to this particular pattern, which 
only occurs in the Gospels of Mac Duman. 

Figs. 55 to 58 have the connecting cross placed diagonally, and the 
triangles filled in with (fig. g, plate 3) in the case of fig. 56, and with 
(fig. b, Plate 3) in the case of figs. 57 and 58. The variation on fig. 58, 
produced by continuing on four of the lines, will be noticed in fig. 57. 

Figs. 48 to 52. Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into 

four Triangles (E). 

Figs. 59 to 65 show key patterns where the quadruple straight line 
spiral or swastica is used for filling in. They are of more common 
occurrence in classical and Eastern art than in Celtic art. The swastica 
being a Buddhist symbol, will account for its so often being used in 
Chinese ornamental designs, and it appears as one of the forms of the 
Cross in Christian times. The connection which exists between 
symbolism and ornament opens up a most interesting field of inquiry, 
but of too vast an extent to be entered upon here. It is often very 
difficult to determine where symbolism ends and ornament begins; and 
also to find whether a mere ornament has in time become a symbol, or 



whether what was first symbol has d^enerated subsequently into an 
ornament. The swastica has been used as a symbol from pre-historic 
times down to the present day; and although a great deal has been 
written upon the subject, very little seems to be known either as to its 
origin or meaning. The most reasonable theory is that which connects 
it with rotary motion (which its arms suggest), either of the sun or of 
the primitive machine for producing fire by the friction of a swiftly 
revolving piece of wood. 




V ^ 





f N 




Figs. 53 to 58. Patterns formed by filling in Squares divided into 

eight Triangles (F). 

The swastica occurs within the classical area on coins,^ on spindle 
whorls from Troy,* on pottery;* in India, on the feet of Buddha;* in 
China, on objects of all kinds; in Scandinavia upon golden bracteates;^ 
and on Koman altars found in this coimtry.* 

* Numismatic Chronicle^ vol. xx. p. 18. 

' Dr Schliemann's Troy and its Remains, 
' J. B. Waring*8 Ceramic Art, 

* The Jteliquarj/j vol. xxii. plate i. 

* Prof. Stephen's Jiunic MonumeniSy vol. ii. p. 524. 

* Dr Brace's Roman Wall. 


As a Christian emblem it is to be found in the Roman Catacombs of 
the third century,^ and occurs in Celtic MSS.,* and on Celtic sculptured 
stones;' also on metal- work with Anglo-Celtic interlaced patterns.* In 
later times it is used on mediae val sepulchral brasses and vestments,^ and in 
the sixteenth century as a bell-founder's mark.* It also occurs in Norman 
sculpture on the moulding of the doorway of Great Canfield, in Essex.^ 

Fig. 59 is a border key pattern founded on squares set parallel (fig. 
A, Plate 1), and filled in with quadruple straight line spirals (fig. f, 
Plate 2), all the spirals having the same direction of twbt. This 
pattern, although very common in classical art, only occurs but seldom 
in Celtic art, as on sculptured stones at Millport, in Buteshire, and at 
Abercromby, in Fifeshire. 

Fig. 60 is founded on squares set parallel and divided into four 
triangles (fig. £, Plate 1), filled in with pattern (i. Plate 3). It is the 
same as (fig. 50), except that the straight line spirals with which the 
triangles are filled in have all the same direction of twist, instead of 
being alternately right and left handed. 

Fig. 61 is founded on squares set parallel (fig. A, Plate 1), and filled 
in with quadruple straight line spirals (fig. h, Piute 3). The spaces 
between the lines of the key pattern are filled in with T-shaped figui:es. 
The pattern thus formed is a peculiar one. It is only found, as far 
as I know, in the Book of Durrow,® on one stone in Northumberland,® 

' Dr Smith's Did, of Christian Antiquities, p. 497. 

> Lindisfarne Gospels, Pala4>g. Soc, Publ., plato 7. 

'In Ireland, on two stones from Glencar, co. Kerry {Trans. Royal Irish Academy 
voL xxvii p. 41); on a stone near Cliffony, co. Sligo {Jour. IL Hist, and Archaolog. 
Assoc of Ireland, vol. v. 4th series, p. 376); in the )iarish of Minard, co. Kerry (Rolt 
Brash's Monuments of the Oaedhil, plate xxiv.); in Scotland on a late grave-slab at 
Balquhidder, in Perthshire (Stuart's Sc, Stones, voL ii. plate Ixvii. ; on the 
Newton stone {loc. ciL, vol. L plate i.) ; and on a slab from Ci-aiguarget, Glenluce 
{Proe. Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. xv. p. 251). 

* Found at Brougham, Westmoreland {Jour. Brit. Archceolog. Inst. , vol. iv. p. 68). 
' The Reliquary, vol. xxii plate v.; J. G. Waller's Monumental Brasses of 


* Reliquary, vol. xxii. plate vi. 

^ Essex Archceol. Soc. Trans., vol. ii. new series, p. 877. 

* Westwood's Miniatures, plate vii. It also occurs in the Gospels of MacRogol 
and the Cologne Penitentiale. 

* At Norliam; Stuart, Sc. Stones, vol. ii. plate xx vii. 




and on four stones in South Wales. ^ The ornamentation of the four 
Welsh stones is similar in other respects, and they all have Latin 
inscriptions in Irish minuscules, so that they ar« probably all of the 
same date, about the ninth century. 

Fig. 62 is founded upon sc^uares set parallel (fig. A, Plate 1), and 
filled in with quadruple straight line spirals (fig. f, Plate 3 ). This is 
the swastica symbol, which has been already arranged as a key pattern, 

Figs. 69 to 65. Patterns formed by tilling in Squares with Straight Lines 

arranged spirally. 

but whether it is intended as a symbol or ornament in Celtic art is 

Fig. 63 is a further development of fig. 61, and may be looked u^wii 
jvs four plain crosses arranged round a quadruple straight line spiral, 
instead of four T-shaped figures. This pattern is taken from ^ plate 
of inlaid metal-work from Moradabad, in India, and now in the Indus- 

* At Carew and Neveni, in Pembrokeshire ; at Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire ; 
and Llantwit Major, Glamorganshire. — Westwootl's Lapidarium WallitB. 



trial Museum at Edinburgh. It is curious that an almost identical 
design occurs upon one of the cronses at Kells, county Meath.^ 

Fig. 61 is founded on squares set porallol (fig. A, Plate 1), and filled in 
with quadruple straight line Bpirala (fig. f, Plate 3), all the spirals having 
the same direction of twist. Every alternate square is loft blank. 
This pattern is from a Roman pavement found at Wellovr, near Bath,* 
and is given for the sake of comparison. 

Fipu 66 to 71. Key Pattenu within Circle*. 

Fig. 65 is the samo as tho preceding, except that all the squares are 
filled in instead of only every other one. This pattern is from a Roman 
pavement found at Newton St Loe, near Bnth.' 

Figs. 66 to 71 show the various methods of covering circular spaces 
with key patterns. The patterns are generally formed by dividing tho 

' O'Keill'B Iriih Crosxt, plate xxix. 

' [.jsod'ii Magna Britannia. 

' J. B. Wwirg'B CcTamic Art, |.lste 42. 


circle into three sided and four-sided spaces by radial lines and 
concentric circles, and filling them in the same way as triangles and 
squares. Circles containing key patterns occur occasionally in Celtic 
MSS., such as the Book of Kells and the Grospels of MacDuman, but, 
are unknown on sculptured stones, except on grave slabs in Ireland, and 
two stones near St David's, in Pembrokeshire, one of which bears the 
Irish name Gurmarc.* The resemblance between the labyrinths of the 
Middle Ages and some forms of key patterns has already been pointed 
out. The pattern which most nearly corresponds with the design of 
the labyrinths is that shown on fig. 67.* Key patterns contained in 
circles are common in Chinese ornament, and an example is given on 
fig. 70 for the sake of comparison. 

Fig. 66 is a circle divided into eight equal three-sided spaces by 
radial lines, each of which is filled in with double straight line spirals 
(fig. b, Plate 3). 

Fig. 67 is a circle divided into eight equal segments by radial lines, 
as in the preceding case, but the key patterfi formed by portions of 
concentric circles branching out at right angles from the radial 

Fig. 68 is a circle divided into four equal segments by radial 
lines, the rest of the pattern being formed by four circular arcs and 

Fig. 69 is a circle enclosing an equilateral triangle, the rest of the 
space being divided symmetrically by six radial lines, and sets of zigzag 

Fig. 70 is a circle divided into four equal spaces by i-adial lines, and 
filled in with key patterns. 

Fig. 71 is a circle divided into eight equal segments, each of which 
is again divided by a concentric circle into a four-sided and a three-sided 
space, the former being filled in with a double straight line spiral 
(fig. b, Plate 2), and the latter with fig. b, Plate 3. 

* West wood's Lapidarium JValluBy plate 60. 

^ Compare with labyrinth sculptureil on one of the porch piers of Lucca Cathedral 
sea Assoc, Architect Soc. Jiep., vol. iv. p. 267; and Jour. Brit. ArcJueolog. Inst. ^ vol. 
XV. p. 218. 


Spiral Patterns. 

There are, broadly speaking, two distinct forms of spiral patterns 
used in Celtic art— (1) where the band of which the spiral is 
formed gradually expands into a trumpet-shaped end; (2) where 
the band of which the spiral is formed remains the same breadth 
throughout its whole length. Tlie first of these forms is the earlier of 
the two, and is copied directly from the metal-wOrk of pagan times. 
The expanding spirals are so arranged as to leave three-sided spaces 
(bounded by the various curves), which form the groundwork, and are 
ornamented with small circles, triangles, and almond-shaped figures, left 
white on a coloured or black ground. The spirals are not all of equal size 
and their centres are not generally arranged symmetrically (see tig. 85). 

In the case of the second form of spiral-work, which is composed of 
bands of unvarying width, and is later, there is only left a plain black 
ground. This class of spiral- work is shown on figs. 80 to 82, and as 
has been already explained there is a corresponding key pattern to 
each, the spirals being composed of straight lines making bends at right 
angles, instead of being curved. The centres of the spirals are all 
placed symmetrically at the comers of squares, and the space occupied by 
each spiral is the same size. 

Looked upon mathematically, a spiral is that curve which would be 
traced by a point continually moving along the radius of a circle whilst 
the radius was rotating. 

There are various kinds of spirals known to mathematicians, but 
perhaps the simplest is that drawn by means of a pencil, a cylinder, and 
a piece of string. The pencil is tied to the end of the string, which is 
wound round the cylinder. The cylinder is placed upright upon a sheet 
of paper, and the curve traced by unwinding the string, taking care to 
keep it tight the whole time. 

In Celtic art the spirals are generally composed of several bands 
diverging from one point : thus there are single spirals (fig. A, Plate 6), 
double spirals (fig. F, Plate 6), triple spirals (fig. O, Plate 6), quadruple 
spirals (fig. T, Plate 6),' and so on. Each kind of spiral can have a 
different direction of twist, or in other words, can be right or left handed. 



There are different ways of coiling the band forming the spiral ; if the 
bands are near together it is close coiled, and if far apart loose coiled. 
A spiral may either start from a central point, or there may be a circle 
in the middle. The various methods of ornamenting tlie centres*of 
spirals are shown on Plate 6, figs. A to U, and also in figs. 88 and 89 ; 
in the latter case the central circle from which the spiral starts is 
ornamented with a large number of other spirals. Sometimes the 

Plate 6. Methods of Ornamenting Centres of Spirals. 

centres of the spirals are formed of bird^s heads,^ or figures of men with 
interlaced limbs.* When the centre of a spiral is not highly ornamented 
it generally starts from a pear-shaped black spot. It is close coiled at 

' On Stones at St Vigeans and Bimie (Stuart, vol. i. pis. 42 and 70), and in the 
IV)ok of KelU (Palmog. Soc. PubL, pi. 55). 
* In the Book of Kells {Pahti)g. Soc. Publ, pi. 89). 



the beginniug, aft«r which the bands get further apart, and then round 
the edge there ara generally a few coUa very close indeed ; finally, the 
band diveiges at a tangent After dive^ncc the band expands in width, 
having a tnim pot-shaped end, which Joins on to the trumpct-shaited 
end of the next, leaving a black almond-shaped space between the two. 
The variations in this class of spind-work are made — (1) by altering 

TigL 72 to 77. Uetfaoda of irraDgiug (tid connecting Spirals. 

the nnmbei of bands of which the spiral is composed, making it single, 
double, triple, or quadruple ; {2) by making the spiral right or left 
handed ; (3) by the methods of coiling the spiral closely of loosely at 
different parts of the curve ; (4) by having ornamental centres ; (5J by 
the ways of arranging the centres of the spirals relatively to each other ; 
(6) by the ways of connecting the spirals together so as to form on« 
design; (7) by the different ornamental backgrounds. 



Figs, 72 to 77 show the symmetrical ways of arraiifiing the centKB 
of spirals relatively to each other, and of connecting them together. 
The symmetrical ways of arranging the centres of spirals are founded on 
the fact pTcvionsly mentioned that squares, equilateral triangles, and 
hex^ons are the only regular plane figures which will entirely cover a 
surface, in whatever position the figures are placed, so that their comers 
meet round a point and their sides touch. There arc only two ways of 

Figs. 7S, 79. Methods of connecting two SihtbIi 

connecting together two adjacent BpiraU. If the two spirals have an 
oi>poaite direction of twist, the curve is C-ahaped ; hut if they have the 
same direction of curve, it is 8-ahaped. 

Fig. 73 has the centres of the spirals arranged on the square system, 
and connected by C-shaped curves, the twists of the spirals being alter- 
nately right and lefUhanded. 

Fig. 73 has the centres of the spirals arranged upon the square 
system, and connected hy 8-shaped curves, all the spirals having the 
same direction of twist. 


Fig, 74 has the centres of the spirals arranged upon the hexagonal 
gyateiu, nnd connected by C-shaped curves. 

Fig, 77 has the centres of tlie spirals arranged upon the hexagonal 
system, and connected by S-shaped curves. 

Fig, 76 has the centres of the spirals arranged upon the triangular 
system, and connected by S-shaped curves.^ 

Fig. 76 has the centres of the spirals arranged upon the triangular 
system, and connected by C- and S-shapcd curves alternately. 

Plate 6 (figs. A to U) shows the various ornamental forms of centres 

Spiral Pattern od tlie Font at Deerhnrat, Qloacebtenhire. 

for spirals. A to E are single spirals ; F to N are double spirals ; O to 
S are triple spirals ; and T and U are quadruple spirals. 

Figs, 78 and 79 show the methods of connecting the expanded 
ends of the first system of spirals, S-shaped connecting curves are 
avoided almost entirely in Celtic spiral-work, either by introducing 
a fresh spiral (generally a smaller one, and forming part of the back- 
ground) between the two to be joined, or by the curious hook-shftped 
termination shown on fig. 78. Sometimes three spirals are connected 
in this way (see fig. 85), the third band hooking over the other two, and 

' A gold jilnU iritb ■ Bi>iral psttem tormed oa this lyatem U {civen in ScbliBmtnn'i 
Nyrxiite, p. 811. 


in fact forming a kind of incipient spiml. On fig. 90 there will 
be aeen na instance of an 8-ahaped connection. 

Fig. 78 givea the method of connecting two spirals whose directions 
of twiet ftre the game. 

Fig. 79 gives the method of connecting two spirals whose directions 
of twist are opposite. 

Figs. 80 to 82 show the second or later class of spiral-work arranged 
so ae to cover a surface. All the bands are here of equal width, and 
there is no ornamental background. 

Figs. SO to 82. Spiral Pattema touaded on Sqnaret. 

Fig. 80 has tho centres of the spirals arranged at the comers of 
squares placeil diagonally (fig. B, Plate I), and connected hy C-shaped 
curves, as shown on fig. 72. The spirals are composed of four 

Fig. 80a is founded on squares set parallel (fig. A, Plate I), thespimls 
being quadruple and joined by C-ahaped curves (fig. 72). The drawings 
show 3 out of 8 panels surrounding the font at Deerhurst, in Glou- 

Fig. 81 is founded on squares set parallel (fig. A, pL 1), and the 


epirab biannh out on each side of lines running in a zigiag direction 
diagonally across the paper. The spirals are composed of a single band. 
The pattern is formed exactly upon the same principle aa the Iccy 
pattern (fig. 14), except that in one case the spirals are composed of 
curved lines and in the other of straight lines. 

Figs. S3 to 86. Sqnirea filled in with Spiral. Work 

Fig. 82 is formed like the preceding, only with epirala of two bands 
instead of only one. 

Figs. 83 and S4 show the methods of filling in squares with the 
first or earlier class of spiraZ-work. The centres are all arranged sym- 
metrically upon the square system, and joined by C^haped curves. 
Variety is effected by making some of the spirals large, with a great 
number of coils of fine lines, and others small, with only a few coils. 


The triaugular spaces of the backgroutid are ornamented with white 
circular, triangular, and alnioad-abaped figures. 

Fig. 85 sliows the method of ornamenting the apaces left between 
the spirals. 

Figs. 86 and 87 show the methods of filling in circles with the first 
class of spiral-work. 

Fig. 86 has a central spiral connected by C-shaped curves with 
three others arranged symmetrically round it. The remaining spaces 

Figs. S6, S7. Circles filled in with Spital-Work. 

are filled in with 3 smaller spirals connected to the 3 large ones by an 
S-shaped cun'e, and the hook-shaped form shown on fig. 78. 

Fig. 87 has a central spiral connected by C-shaped curves, with four 
others arranged symmetrically round it, the four outer circles being 
connected together by the hook-shaped form shown on fig. 78. 

Figs. 88 and 89 show the lai^e ornamental circular centres for spirals 
The circles are filled in like those on the two preceding figures 
except that the bands of the spiral of which it forms the centre run into 
the inside of the circle, and are there connected with some of the other 
spirals. These examples are from the Book of Durrow,' and other very 
' We«twctod's Miniaiura, pi. 7 ; also copied into Stourt'* Sc. Sttma, vol. ii. 


elaborate specimena mny be found in the Book of Kella ' in the Liiidis- 
fame Gospels,* in the Irish Gospels at Paris, and on the Tara Brooch. 

Fig. 88 is the ornamental centre of a triple spiral, composed of three 
large and three small spirals arranged symmetrically round a central one. 
The three small outer spirals are connected with the one of which this 
is the ornamental centre by a book-shajied form, as shown on fig. 78. 
All the other connections are C-shaped. 

Fig. 89 is the same as the preceding, except that the three small outer 
spirals are omitted. 

FigL 88, 89. OrDamented CeDtres of Spii'&la. 

Fig. 90 is from the " Quoniam quidem" Initial page in the Book of 
DuiTOW,' and is given as an example of spiral-work filled into an 
irregular space. The centres of the spirals are disposed irregularly, and 
connected by 8, C, and hook-shaped curves. The background is oma. 
mented in the usual way. Spiral-work is especially adapted to fitting 
into irregular spaces, as the siie of the spirals njay be altered at pleasure. 

» Paltag. Sue. Publ., pis. 65 and 68. 

• Ritavg. Soc. PHbl., piB. *, E, fl, >nJ 22. 

' Westwooil's ilinintiira, [il. B. 


It is also well suited to the forma of curved letters, such as the Q, which 
begins the Gos])cI of St Luke in Latin. 

Fig. 91 is a border pattern composed of right and left handed double 
spirals alternately connected by C-shaped curves. 

Fig. 92 ia a border pattern composed of double spirals of the same 
direction of twist connected by S-«haped curves. 

Fig. 93 is one half of the semicircular border round the miniature of 
David, in the su-called Psalter of St Augustine (Brit, Mus. Vesp., A. i.). 

I. 91, 92. Spiral Border FatteniB. 

Fig. 94 (see p. 308) is a design by the Author of this ])aper foundeil 
on the method of arranging and connecting spirals, as shown in Rg. 76. 

LoCALrriEB whbrk thb Different Ornahknts occur. 

Note. — The Scottish Stones will be found engraved either in Stuart's 
Setdpinred Stones of Scotland or in tlio Proc. Sor.. Ant. Scot.; the Iiish 
Stones in O'Neill's Civsxes of h-eland and Petrie'a Ineeri}>tiotu in fh^ 


L^h Language ; the Welsh Stones in Westwood's Lapidarium WcUlicB ; 
the Isle of Man Stones in Cumming's Runic Remains of the Isle of Man, 
Some of the English examples are engraved in Stuart's Sculptured Stones^ 
otiiers will be found in Lyson's Magna Britannia and the Journals of 
the various ArchflBological Societies, but, as yet, no complete collection 
has been made. The Celtic MSS. will be found illustrated in Professor 
West wood's Pakeographia Pictoria Sacra, and his Miniatures; in the 
Publications of the Paleeographical Society ; in the National Irish MSS. 
published by the Government; and in the works of Count Bastard, 
Sylvestre, Noel Humphreys, Shaw, Astle, &c. 

Fig. 1. — Kells, CO. Meath. 

Fig. 2. — Benvie, Forfarshire; Drainie, Morayshire; Nerem, Pem- 

Fig. 3. — Instances of the occurrence of this variety of the key pattern 
in Celtic art are not yet known. 

Fig. 4. — Crail, Fifeshire; Monasterboice (S.K cross), co. Louth; 
Kells, CO. Meath. 

Fig. 6. — Instances of the occurrence of this variety of the key pattern 
in Celtic art are still unknovm. 

Fig. 6. — FameU, Invei^gowrie, and Benvie, Forfarshire ; St Andrews, 
Fifeshire ; Kilkerran, Argyllshire ; Liberton, Edinburghshire ; Drainie, 
Morayshire ; Warkworth, Northumberland ; Billingham, Durham ; Pen 
Arthur, Pembrokeshire. 

Fig. 7. — Examples of the occurrence of this variety of the key pattern 
in Celtic art are not yet known. 

Fig. 8. — Kilkerran, Argyllshire ; Clonmacnois (Sechnasach grave- 
slab, A.D. 931) King's co.; Llangaffo, Anglesey; Golden Grove, Carmar- 
thenshire; Carew and Llanwnda, PeYnbrokeshire. A double border 
key pattern of this type occurs on the Maen Achwynfan, Flintshire ; 
and at Penmon, Anglesey. 

Fig. 9. — MS. Brit. Mus. HarL, 2788, fol. 3, Penmon, Anglesey. 

Fig. 10.— MS. Brit. Mus. Harl. 2788, fol. 3. 

All the foregoing are border patterns, but surface patterns belonging 
to the same class occur in the following localities : — Dunfallandy, Perth- 


shire ; Crail, Fifeshire ; Eassie, Forfarshire ; Abbotsford, Roxburghshire ; 
Rossie Priory, Forfarshire ; Rosemarkie, Ross-shire ; Farr, Sutherland. 
MS. St Gall Gospels. 

Fig. 11. — MS. St Gall Gospels, "xP* autem generatio," initial page 
(Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 26). 

Fig. 1 2.— MS. St Gall Gospels. 

Fig. 13. — MS. Book of Durrow (Westwood^s Miniatures, pL 13). 

Fig. 14. — Maiden Stone, Chapel of the Garioch, Aberdeenshire ; Nigg, 
Ross-shire ; Golspie and Farr, Sutherlandshire ; Kirriemuir, Kingoldrum, 
St Vigeans, Inchbrayock, Aberlemno, and Monifieth, Forfarsliire ; 
Mugdrum, St Andrews, Fifeshire; St Madoes, Fowlis Wester, Meigle, 
and Dunkeld, Perthshire; Eilanmore, Argyllshire; Rosemarkie, Ross- 
shire ; Abercom, Linlithgowshire ; Canna, L of Skye ; Silian, Car- 
diganshire ; Killamery, co. Kilkenny ; Monasterboice (W. Cross), co. 
Louth ; Kells, co. Meath; MSS. Lindisfame Gospels (Pal(wg. Soc , pi. 5). 

Similar patterns but with the straight line spirals drawn with very 
fine lines close together, making a great many turns, occur in the Book 
of Durrow (Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 5), in the Gospels of Mac Duman 
(idem, pi. 22) and in the Book of Kells {Palceog. Soc., pis. 58 and 89). 

Fig. 15. — MS. Lindisfame Gospels (West wood's Miniatures, pi. 12). 

Fig. 18. — MS. GosjHils of Mac Duman (Four Evangelists, Miniature). 

Fig. 19. — Tynan Abbey, co. Armagh; Monasterboice (S.R Cross), 
and Termonfechin, co. Louth. MS. Gospels of Mac Duman (Miniature 
of St John and initial pages of St Mark's and St Luke's Gosi^ls). 

Fig. 20. — MS. St Gall Gospels (Miniature of Cmcifixion). 

Fig. 21. — MSS. Psalter of St John's College, Cambridge (Miniature 
of David and Goliath) ; St Gall Gospels (Westwood's Miniatures, 
pis. 26, 27, and 30). 

Fig. 22. — ^Xorham, Northumberland. 

Fig. 23. — Meigle, Perthshire ; Farnell. 

Fig. 24. — Kells, co. Meath. 

Fig. 25.— MS. Brit. Mus. HarL 2788, fol. 50. 

Fig. 29. — Rosemarkie, Ross-shire. 

Fig. 32.— St Andrews, 

Fig. 33. — Metal-work — The casket known as the "Domnoch Airgid." 



Double bordfir key patterns of a similar kind occur in the Irish Psalter, 
Brit. Mus. Vit. F. xi. fol. 1 and 15. 

Fig. 34. — Clomnacnois, King's co.; MSS. Brit. Mus. Psalter Vesp. 
A. i. fol. 30 ; 15ceda Tib. C. ii.; Codex Aureus, Harl. 2788. 

Fig. 35. — MS. Brit. Mus. Biblia Gregoriana Bibl. Reg. I.K vi. 

Fig. 38. — Rosemarkie, Ross-shire. MSS. St Gall Gospels (Miniature 
of Christ in Glory), St Chad's Gospels (Westwood's MinicUureSy pis. 22 
and 23), Book of Kells (Palieofj. Soc., pi. 55). 

Fig. 39. — Inchcolin ; Gattonside, near Melrose ; Clonmacnois, King's 
CO.; Penally, Pembrokeshire ; Bronze plate with Crucifixion, in the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy (Stuart's Sculptured Stones, vol. ii. 
pL 10) ; Ivory diptych in the Church of St Genoels, Elderen, Lim- 
burg (Westwood's Miniatures^ pi. 52) ; Brit. Mus. MS. Irish Psalter, 
Vit. F. xi. fol. 38. 

Fig. 42. — Shandwick, Ross- shire ; Farr, Sutherlandshire ; Meigle, 
Perthshire ; St Andrews, Fifeshire ; Rosemarkie, Ross-shire. MSS. 
Lindisfamo Gospels (^Palceog. Soc y pis. 4 and 5); Gospels of Mac Duman 
(Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 22); Book of Kells (ideniy pL 11); St Chad's 
Gospels (Palceog. Soc, pi. 35). 

Fig. 43. — Gospels of Mac Regol (Westwood's Miniatures, pL 16). 

Fig. 46. — Nigg, Ross-shire; Invergowrie, Forfarshire; Llantwit Major, 
(xlamorganshire ; Llangevelach, Brecknockshire ; MS. Ik>ok of Kells 
(Westwood's Miniatures, pi 9). 

Fig. 47. — MS. Book of Kells (Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 11). 

Fig. 48. — Keils in Knapdale, Argyllshire; MS. Gospels of Mac 
Durnan (initial page of St Matthew's Gosi^el) ; Book of Kells (Palceoy. 
Soc, PuhL, pi. 58. 

Fig. 49. — Lindisfarne, Durham ; Drainie, Elginshire ; Coychurch, 
Glamorganshire; MS. St Chad's Gospels (Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 23, 
Palceog. PuhL, pi. 21). 

Fig. 50. — The same as fig. 48. 

Fig. 51. — MS. Gospels of Mac Duman (Miniatures of Four Evange- 
lists, St Matthew and St Luke). 

Fig. 52.— MS. St Gall Penitentiale (Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 28). 

Fig. 53. — Dupplin Ciistle, Perthshire ; Invergowrie, Forfarshire ; St 
Andrews, Fifeshire ; Monifieth, Forfarshire ; lindisfarne, Durham. 


Fig. 54. — MS. Gospels of Mac Duruau ^Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 22). 

Fig. 55.— MS. St Gall Penitentiale (Westwood's Miniatures^ pi. 28). 

Fig. 56. — MS. Gospels of Mac Dunian (Miniature of St Matthew). 

Fig. 57. — Alumoutb, North urn l>erland ; Liiidisfame, Durham. 

Fig. 58. — Invei-gowrie, Forfai'shire ; St Andrews, Fifcshire ; Llangeve- 
lach, Llantwit Major, Glamorganshire ; Tuam, co. Gal way; Termon- 
fechin, co. Louth ; Winwick, Lancashire. 

Fig. 59. — Abcrcromby, Fifeshire ; Millport, Buteshire. 

Fig. 60. — St Andrews, Fifeshire ; Barrochan, Renfrewshire ; Mai^ra 
Abbey, Glamorganshire ; Merthyr Mawr, Carew, and Nevem, Pem- 
brokeshire ; Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire ; Glonmacnois S. Cross, co. 

Fig. 6L — Norham, Northumberland; Caven and Nevem, Pem- 
brokeshire; Golden Grove, Carmarthenshire; Llantwit Major, Gla- 
morganshire ; MS. Book of Durrow (Westwood's Minia'ureSy pL 7) ; last 
page of Gospels of MacRegol. 

Fig. 62. — Glencar, co. Kerry ; MS. Lindisfame Grospels (Palieoy. Soc, 
Puhl.y pi. 5) ; Cologne Penitentiale (Westwood's unpublished tracings). 

Fig. 63. — Inlaid metal- work plate from Moradabad, Lidia (Industrial 
Museum, Edinburgh). Very similar patterns also on cross at Kells 
(O'Neill, pi. 29), and MS. Gospels of Mac Duman. 

Fig. 64. — Roman pavement found at Wellow, near Bath. 

Fig. 65. — Roman pavement found at St Loe, near Bath. 

Fig. 66. — MS.Gosi>el3 of Mac Duman (Initial page of StLuke's Gospel). 

Fig. 67.— MS. Book of Kells (Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 10). 

Fig. 68. — MS. Book of Durrow (West wood's Miniatures, \t\, 7). 

Fig. 69. — On metal- work ; the Tara Brooch in the Museum of the 
Royal Irish Academy. 

Fig. 70. — On a Chinese teapot. 

Fig. 71. — Pen Arthur, near St Davids, Pembrokeshire. 

Plate 6, figs. D, E, F, 0, P, R, T, and U.— MS. Stockholm Gospels 
(Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 2). 

Figs. C, I, K, L, M, N, and S.— MS. Book of Durrow (Westwood's 
Miniatures, pis. 6 and 7). 

Figs. G and Q. — MS. St Gall Gospels (West wood's Miniatures, pi. 26). 

Figs. 78 and 79. — MS. Lindi.sfame Gospels. 

308 I'ltOCEEDlNCS OF THE SOCIETY, MAY 11, 1885. 

Fig. 80, — Rosiimarkic, Ross-shirc; BradforJ-on Avon, Wiltshire. 

Fig 80a. — Dourlmrst, GlDUtesterahirc. 

Fig, 81. — Meiglo, Pertlisliire. 

Fig. 82. — Lfmnnaglian, King's co. (Kcv. James Graves's "Cliuruh, 
anil Shrine uf St Manchan ") ; Dmiiiie, Elgin. 

Fig. 83. — MS. Book of Kells (WcBt wood's Miniatured, pi. 9). 

Fig. 84. — MS. Book of KelU (Weatwood'a Minialuvs, pL 10). 

Fig. 85. — MS. Ifook of Durrow (Wcstwood'a Miniatures, pi. 7). 

Fig. 86.— MS. St Gall GosihsIb {Miniature of St John). 

Fig. 87.— MS. Stockholm Gospels (Westwood's Miniatures, pi. 52). 

Figs. 88 and 89.— MS. Book of Uurrow (Weatwood's Miniatureg,'^\.1). 

Fig. 90.— MS. Book of Durrow (" Quoniam quideni " initial page). 

Fig. 91. — Dunfallanily, Perthshire; Ahbotaford, Koxburgbstiin). 

Fig. 92. — GolB|jie, Sutlierlaiidshire ; Stratlimartin, Forfarshire; 
.\l)crerombie, Fifoshire. 

Fig. 93.— Psalter Brit. Mus, Vesp. Al, fol. 30 {Miniature of David). 



JOSEPH ANDERSON, LL.D., Assistant Seoi:etaky and Keeper of the 

The bronze caldron which is the sulyect of the present notice was 
found by some men digging peats in a moss near Kyleakin, in the island 
of Skye. It is interesting as an example of a class of ancient culinary 
utensils of somewhat rare occurrence in Scotland — at least rarely seen 
in a condition sufficiently entire to show their form and structure. The 
circumstances in which this example was found were also interesting, on 
account of its apparent association with several kegs or small barrels of 
butter, which were found by the same persons at the same time, and, as 
they state, in the same place — the whole of the articles being said to 
have been found in close juxtaposition. As the articles thus found were 
not seen in situ by any one capable of subjecting this apparent associa- 
tion to the test of a rigidly scientific scrutiny, it is now imjxjssible to 
ascertain with certainty what may have been their actual associations or 
relations with regard to the peat, or to the subsoil, or to each other. It 
is so far fortunate that one of the kegs of butter has been preserved, and 
is now along with the caldron deposited in the Museum. They were 
seen, at Kyleakin, by the Rev. Hugh M*Kenzie Campbell, M.A. (now at 
Aberlour), when on a visit to the island of Skye in the autumn of last 
year. Being interested in the unusual circumstances of the discovery, 
he communicated with Professor Cossar Ewart, and the result was that 
the caldron and one of the small kegs of butter were sent up to Edin- 
burgh for Professor Ewart's inspection. I heard of them from Miss 
Maclagan, who suggested to Professor Cossiar Ewart that they were 
likely to be interesting to the Society of Antiquaries, and through the 
courtesy of Professor Ewart I was placed in communication with the 
Rev. Mr Campbell, who was kind enough to negotiate their purchase 
from the finder. 


The keg of butter is a wocnlen vessel, Imrrel-shaped, but hollowed out 
of a single piece of wood. It measures 1 4 inches in height by 1 3 inches 
in greatest diameter. It now wants both the top and bottom, which 
have been inserted in ledges prepared to receive them. On the sides of 
the keg there are two slight projections, with holes through them, bored 
apparently with a hot iron. The bulk of the butter which the keg 
contained has been scooped out since it was found, leaving a coating of 
several inches in thickness, adhering to the sides of the vessel. It is 
white, hard, dry, and inodorous, with a perceptible admixture of cow- 
hairs. I am indebted to Mr W. Ivison Macadam, F.C.S., Lecturer on 
Chemistry, for the following analysis of it : — 

Analysis of Sample of Bog Butter found at Kyleakin, Skye, 1884, anil 
received from Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Society of Antiquaries of Scotland : — 

Water, ..... 0*786 
Fat, and fatty and volatile acids (matter 

soluble in ether), . . . 98*275 

Casein, milk sugar, &c., . . . 0*811 

Ash or mineral matter, . . 0*126 


Appearance of Sample, dc, — White ; greasy ; cheese smell ; pieces of wood 

Hair. — Present (red). 

Application of Heat (100" C.) to Sample. — Fuses at once to a rich yellow 
liquid with flouting curd. 

Appearan4>e after Purificatimi with EtJier. 

(1) Solid. — Rich yellow colour and butter oilour. 

(2) Heated and Liquid. — Very rich yellow oil. 
Fiiidng point of purified Fat, 44°'4 C. 
Phosphonc Acid present in ash. 

W. IvisoN Macadam, F.C.S., F.I.C., «Sic., 

Lecturer on Chemistry. 

Analytical Laboratory, Sdrg eons' Hall, 
Edinburgh, 28^ July 1885. 

The results of this analysis correspond very closely with those of the 
analyses of the l^og butter from various localities in Scotland, England, 
and Ireland, previously given by Mr W. Ivison Macadam in connection 


with liis notice of the larger keg of Iiiitt«r foiiiid in a bog in Gloiigell, 
Morveni, Arffjlcshire,' anrf now also in the Mnseuni. 

It ajipeats from inquiries made by the Rev. Mr Campbell, that the 
bronze caldron (fig, I) was found in close jiixtapoaition with the kega of 
butter, under a deptli of about 7^ feet of peat. It is a vessel of con- 
sidcTablo site, semi -globular in form, and measuring 18 inches in 
diameter and about 12 inches in depth. It is formed of thin-beaten 
bronze, and scenic to Imve been originally hammered out of a single 

Fig 1. Rmute Caldron, found at Kjleakiu, Skje (IS JDihcs JmmKti^r). 

sheet of metal, but is now very much [witched in tlie bottom, the pattbea 
being also very clumsily put together with rivets made of small clip 
pingB of bronze bent in the middle, and having their heads and ends 
clinched flat, after the manner in which the patent flat-beaded pa{)cr- 
fastener of braes is now used. The rim and t^ondles are gone. The 
handles seem to have been fastened to the sides by rivets. On one side 

' 3«e tlie paper erititk'd "On tlie ResulU of a Chclnii'el Invrstigation into the 
Conipwitiou or the Bog Butten ind of Adi|H>cere, and the Miocral Begins, nilh Notice 
of a Cask of Bog Butler found in Glengell, Uorrem, Argylealiire," and now in the 
Muaenni. By W. Iviaon Macadam, F.C.3. F.f.C, in the ProoKdingi, to]. liiL 
pp. 20<-a23. 


there are three rivet-holes, the lower two of which are 4 inches apart, 
and 2 inches below the brim of the vessel, the third being about half- 
way between them and close under the brim. On the other side, the 
place where the handle has been fixed is defective, and has been con- 
siderably patched. 

Similar caldrons of semi-globidar form have been occasionally found 
in somewhat similar circumstances in other parts of Scotland. One 
such instance is recorded in the Proceedings of the Society.^ In cutting 
a drain in a haugh or meadow adjoining the Water of Eye, near 
Cockburnspath, Berwickshire, in or about the year 1837, two caldrons 
of thin-beaten bronze was found lying on the subsoil below the peat. 
They were of different sizes — one measuring 13 inches diameter and 7^ 
inches in depth, the other 21 inches diameter and 10 inches in depth. 
When found, the one caldron was inverted over the other, and both 
were filled with a quantity of implements and other articles of bronze 
and iron, but chiefly of the latter material. Among the iron implements 
are hammers, knives, bolts, hooks, staples, punches, a gouge, some 
broken buckles and blades, a chain with pot-hooks, and the outer shell 
of a lamp or crusie of ancient form. Among the bronze objects was the 
bowl of a Roman patella, 6| inches diameter. The whole deposit seeme<l 
to have been contained in a wooden pail of large size, as there were found 
with it a number of iron hoops and two iron rings 4^ inches diameter, 
with staples and nails indicating a thickness of about f inch for the wooden 
staves. These caldrons with their contents are now in the Museum. 

From the nature of the objects found with these two caldrons, it is 
evident that they belong to a time subsequent to the Christian era, and 
probably after the period of the Roman colonisation of the south of 
Scotland. They have several points of correspondence with the Skye 
caldron. They are each beaten out of one sheet of metal ; they want 
the rims and handles, and the handles have each been fastened on by 
three rivets. The larger of the two is also much patched in the bottom. 

But there is another variety of bronze caldron of larger size, which 
belongs to an earlier time, and may be classed as pertaining to the 
closhig period of the Age of Bronze. 

^ Proceedings, vol. i. p. 48. 


One such caldron (fig. 2) found in the Moss of Kincanlino, near 
Stirling, in 176S, and presented to the Museum bj John Ramsay of 
Auchturtyrc, in 1782, measures 25 inches in ditimctcr and 16 inches in 
depth. It is niado of thin plates of bronze riveted together, the 
rounded bottom part being in one piece, and the upper part in two 
separate sections, the junction of which is connected by a brood band 

Fig. S. BmuzB Cildrou, fuuuil iu the How of Kincardine (25 iuclin diameter). 

embossed with circles. Tho rim is strengthened by two banils of sheet 
bronze, rolled to a cylimlricnl fomi, and fastened on so tliat their edges 
interlock with the upper edge or brim of the vessel. The marks of tho 
attachment of tlic handles remain at either side, but the handles them- 
selves are gone. 

There is iu the Society's collection another caldron of this descrip- 
tion, which cnme from the collection of the late Mr Ari:hi1)ali.l Leckie, 


F.S.A Scot., Paisley. Having bemi bequeatln-il to the Suciuty by Iiini, 
ami received iift«r his denth, the precise locality of its iliacovoiy is not 
known, but was stated to have heen Romewhere in the west of Scotland. 
It is constructed somewhat differently from that found in Kincardine 
Mobs, and has more resemblance to a class of caldrons of which a con- 
sideralilu number of cxamjilcs have been found in Ireland. The body 
of the caldron is more compressed vertically, the neck more constricted. 

Fig. 3. Iti'oiiii' Culilraii, fmui thi: HTst of Scotland (25 iuchcs ilioiiietcr). 

the brim wider, and turned slightly upwards. The body of the 
vessel ia formed of four tiers of plates above the concave bottom-plate. 
The two middle tiers are riveted together in lengths of three to the 
circumference of the vessel ; the two tiers next the brim and bottom 
are of two Icngtlis each. The rivets have ornamental and conical hca<ls, 
projecting nearly a quarter of an inch on the outside. The upper jmrt 
'uted with short, parallel rows of knobs embossed. The rim. 


wliich is 2 inches wide, is formed by two cylindrical rolls of the thin 
metal, on the outer and inner side of a flat band, with a corrugation in 
the middle, and pierced with rows of circular holes on either side. The 
handle-rings are solid castings of bronze, 4 inches in diameter, inserte*! 
in staples or loo|)8 which pass through the brim, and are fastened by ties 
to the inside. The extreme diameter of the vessel is 25 inches, the 
depth 14 inches, and the diameter of the opening of the mouth 15 
inches. Caldrons of similar form and construction are found in Ireland, 
but not on the Continent of Europe. 

Rings and staples pertaining to such caldrons as these were found in 
connection with the hoard of bronze swords, spear-heads, and other articles 
dredged up from the bottom of Duddingston Loch ; and also in associa- 
tion with socketed celts and broken swonls of bronze at Kilkerran, in 
Ayrshire. This association shows that the lai^e sjiheroidal caldron, 
formed of plates riveted together and funiished with a brim and handles 
of this peculiar construction, belongs at least to the closing period of the 
Bronze Ago. 


MORRISON, F.S.A. Scot., Smith's Institution, Brechin. 

In the autumn of last year the church of I/ithnott underwent con- 
siderable repairs to the flooring on account of its decay by dry-rot. It 
was deemed advisable to remove the pulpit from the middle of the 
south wall, where it had stood since the Revolution, and place it at the 
east end of the church, over the spot where the altar of the original 
church stood. In order to get this done, it became ntcemtaj to ckar 
out a lai^ quantity of earth and stones to allow a cross sub-wall to be 
built to sui>port the beams on which the floor was to rest. While doing 
this the workmen came upon a stone cofl^n, which from its weight and 
position, they were unable to move, and Iwforo they had discovered 
what it was, they had broken off* its sides as well as damaged it in other 


respects. Many of the pieces broken off were used in the sub- wall just 
being built. 

The minister, who was from home at the time, was only made aware 
of the discovery by accident. He made every effort to get the pieces 
of the coffin, and in this he was tolerably successful It is now preserved 
in front of the church. It is formed of the reddish conglomerate 
stone common in the glen, and was hollowed out in rather rough fashion. 
The chisel marks are still quite fresh. The hollowed part of the coffin 
is 5 feet 6 inches in length measured along the bottom, and at the 
top it will measure about 6 inches more. It is 18 inches broad at 
the shoulders, with a depth of 10 inches. This coffin is that probably 
referred to in the Statistical Account of the parish written in 1799. It 
is there stated that a former minister, who had lived a life of celibacy, 
had left money to roof the church with lead. The church was long 
knoAvn as the "Lead-kirk," and by that name Mr Kobert Edward, 
minister of Murroes, distinguished it in the map which accompanied his 
"Description of Angus" in 1678. The minister who gifted the leaden 
roof to the church was said (according to the tradition) to have been 
buried in a stone coffin under the altar. 

While the fragments of the stone coffin were being collected, a 
fragment of a Celtic cross was picked up, which the minister the Rev. 
Mr Cruickshank sent to me, and which I have sent up to Dr Anderson. 
So far as known, no other trace of any stones similarly sculptured has 
been discovered in the parish of Lethnott, though in the neighbouring 
parish of Menmuir there are several specimens. 

[The fragment of a Celtic cross thus curiously found at Lethnott 
measures 9 inches in length, 4 inches in breadth, and 2 inches in thick- 
ness. It is of the grey fissile rock of the Old Red Sandstone formation, 
familiarly known as the Forfarshire Flagstones, and consists apparently 
of the upper limb or head of a small cross having a circular ring or 
" glory " connecting the shaft, arms, and summit. As will be seen from 
the accompanying engravings, it presents on one face a very characteristic 
example of Celtic decoration, bordered by a slightly rounded edging of 
about \ inch in width. It presents a peculiarity not often seen in 


ik'curative \vork of tliia kinil, innsmuch ns the central circular pattern 
(if Jivorying apirnla is eonnecti-J with the interlaced acrolt-work patterns 

Fig 1. rortiuDorstone Crosafouixlat LotlinottiForfsntiirc. ReverM, 

omamcDU'd with Celtic patUrus (9 ioi^hcs in length). 

on either side of it, the csc.i{iiii^ onJd of the spiiAU being continued to 
fonn the groundwork of thr interlaeed riUlion patterns above and below 


it, and thus rendering the whole of the decoration of the panel one 
continuous and symmetrical series of patterns of different designs. The 
upper circle of interlaced-work appears incomplete, and had it been 
complete, the stone would have been about 2 inches longer. The upper 
end now shows no sign of fracture, but both ends and sides have been 
evidently used for a considerable time as convenient surfaces for sharpen- 
ing edge toola But the opixjsite face of the stone, which bears the 
remains of an inscription, shows that originally the stone must have 
been longer, because the first lino of the inscription evidently shows oiUy 
about half the lengths of the letters. Unfoi-tunately they are so 
mutilated that it is now impossible to determine them with certainty. 
The first has been a circular letter with a central cross-stroke, and there 
are apparently six endings of long letters which follow each other at 
regular distances and fill up the line — as it might be filled by the word 
ENNii. The other two lines are well preserved, and quite distinctly 
legible : — 


It is unfortunate that the line which is mutilated should be that 
containing the name of the person commemorated, but the formula is 
obviously the one so common on the early Christian monuments of 
Britain, in which the name of the person is given in the genitive case 
with the addition of the patronymic formula also in the genitive case 
The meaning of the inscription may be thus taken to be — 

[the stone] or [the cross] 

[of ENNIU8?] 

the SON OF 


The names Ennius and Enniaun occur on inscribed monuments in 
Wales ; but the reading here, it must be remembered, is purely conjec- 
tural. The Llangian stone in Wales has the inscription : — 


but the name of Medicius otherwise is unknown. The peculiar form 
of the letters in the Lethnott inscription has considerable resemblance 


to tlie style of tlii; niauuscrijits known as tlie GusptU of MacDumaii, in 
tile libnivy of tlic Ai'ditiiahop of Cantei'bury at LaTubeth, and the 
Gospels of MiiuKi^gol in the lloilleian Library, Oxford, hoth of the nintli 

Fig. 2. Porlion of Slone Crosa found at liethDotl, Forfnrshirf . 
Obverse, with iDecriplJou (9 iiichct in kn};tli). 

centuij'. With the exception of tliis fragment and the St Vigean'fi 
■lone, no monument in Sciitlnntl oniamentod with Coltic ilcuomtion 


bears an inscription in any other character than Ogham. The St 
Vigean's stone is still unique, inasmuch as it has its inscription carved 
in the Celtic langujige and character. The Lethnott fragment is also 
unique, inasmuch as it has its inscription carved in the Latin language, 
but in Celtic forms of lettering used by the writers of the Grospels in the 
Celtic monasteries of the ninth century. 

Professor J. 0. Westwood, Oxford, the highest living authority on 
Celtic Palaeography, who has seen the engravings of the Lethnott stone, 
gives his opinion that, judging from the interesting forms of the letters 
of the inscription, its date can scarcely be later than the commence- 
ment of the ninth century, and that both letters and ornament seem to 
indicate a strong connection with lona and Lindisfame acting on Brechin 
and its neighbourhood. Mr Romilly Allen, who has also seen the 
engraving, observes that the lettering resembles that on a fragment of a 
cross foimd at Carlisle {Arch. Jour., xv. p. 85), and also that on a belt- 
clasp with Daniel in the Lion s Den on it (Martigny's Diet., p. 258), 
and that the interlacing pattern is found at Monasterboice and Clon- 

Drome Celt from Durness. — The accompanying bronze Celt was found 
by one of the labourers employed in making the road along the eastern 
shore of Loch Hope from Cashel-Dhu to Hope Lodge. Knowing little 
of the nature of the object he took it to his lodgings, where it lay for 
two or three weeks on the kitchen window silL It was there found by 
Mr Donald M*Kay, Portnacon, who kindly lent it to me for exhibition, 
and who, I hope, will present it to the National Museum. 

It is 2 J inches in length and \^ in width at the cutting edge, which 
is slightly curved. It has a slight flange on each side. Immediately 
below the termination of the flanges the width is a little over half an 
inch, and widens again to J inch near the upper end. The wings or 
flanges are not of equal size, and the larger is bent over so as to keep 
a better hold of the shaft. It weighs 2^ oz., and is in a good state of 



D.C.L., LL.D., Hon. Mem. S.A. Scot. Communicated by the Most Hon. 
THE MARQUIS OF LOTHIAN, President of the Society. 

The stone which bears the following inscription forms the lintel over 
the entrance to the north turret stair at the west end of Jedburgh Abbey. 
The inscription is on the under side, and covers about half the stone, 
the lower portion of which is rougher than the inscribed part, and 
appears to have been buried in the earth. As will be seen from the 
following letter by Dr CoUingwood Bruce, the stone appears to have 
originally formed part of a Roman altar : — 

Newcastle-on-Tyne, Jutu 8, 1885. 

My Lord, — ^Through your kindness, I have been supplied with a cast 
of a stone, bearing a Roman inscription, which has been built into a 
staircase of Jedburgh Abbey. You ask for my views as to the reading 
of the inscription, which I have great pleasure in giving you. (A 
representation of the inscription^ is given in fig. 1.) 

The stone no doubt forms the largest part of a Roman altar, but 
probably a portion of it has been removed by the masons of the abbey 
to fit it for its place in the structure. As represented by the cast, it 
measures 21 by 15 inches. 

The letters are well formed, and though one or two of them have 
been purposely obliterated, and one or two others are slightly obscure, 
I have no doubt that the inscription has originally stood thus : — 


rvm oaesa 

Q • C • A • IVL 

> The Society is indebted to the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, through Dr 
CoUingwood Brace, for the use of the illustrations in this paper. 



and may be tlrna expandeilt — Jiivi optiitw maximo, vexUlcUio Saetfrum 
Gaesaloi-um quorum eurarii <ujil JuJitis Severimis ti-ibunvt ; and may l>e 
thus traiialattil : — " To Jupiter the beet and greatest the vexillaticii 
of Rhaetian spearmen under the command of Julius Severinua tlie 
tribune . . . [erected this]." 

I believe n " vexillation " waa a body of men selected from various 
cohorts or even ffgiona for some special expedition, but all fighting 
under one common standard or vexUlum. 

I need hardly say that Raetontm is a rustic spelling for Rkaettirum. 
It is interesting to find in Jedburgh at tlie present day traces of men 

Fig. 1. Stone irith Roman Inscription in Jedbur};h Abbey {21 by 15 ioihcx). 

who in the infancy of our country's history had travelled all the wny 
from Rhaetia, the country of the Orisons on the Alps, near the Hon-y- 

Thc word Oaoiatorum is aoniewhat peculinr and of rare occurrence. I 
have only met with it once before. The word gaesum seems to have 
been the name of a jwculiarly formed javelin or spear. This weapon 
was at first only used by savage tribes, but it was eventually adopted by 
some Roman troops, who hence took the name of GcBuati. \Vherein the 
peculiarity of this wcajton consisted we have no means of knowing. 

In the Roman station of HabiT-^ncitm, the modem Risingham, in the 



north of Northumberland, we meet with a much fractured inscription 
(fig. 2) in which the Rai4i Gaesati are mentioned. The last line of the 
inscription is as follows : — 

[COH I VAn]0I0N\^M item BAETI GAE8ATI KT EXPl[oRATORBs] . . . 


There can be little doubt that the Raeti Gaesati on this Risingliam 
stone are the same troops as carved the Jedburgh stone. Risingham is 
on the Watling Street, and a march of a comimratively few miles would 
bring them to the Jedburgh of the present day. The inscribed stone 
to which I here refer to is given and figured in the Laptdanum 
Septentrionc^e, Xo. 628. It is also given in the Corpus Inscriptionum 
Latinarwni^ voL vii. No. 1002. The stone itself" is preserved in the 
Museum of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle. 

The letters Q, C, A in the fourth line are each followed by a leaf 
stop. When we moderas contract a word we put a full stop after it. 
Two other inscriptions have been found at Risingham with these 
letters upon them. I follow Professor Hiibner of Berlin, one of the 
most learned of epigraphists, in reading them " quorum curam agehat or 

There is one more stone from Risingham (fig. 3) now in the 
Museum at Newcastle, which throws light upon the Jedburgh inscrip- 
tion. It is an altar to Foriuna Rediix — " Fortune which brings back 
in safety.*' It is figured in the Lapidarium Septentnonale^ and is also 
given in the Cnrp^is Inscriptionum Latinnrum^ vol. vii. No. 984. It 
i*eads thus :-^ 

BALINEO • V • 8 • L • M. 

" Julius Severinus the tribune erects this altar on the occasion of 
the completion of a bath to Fortune who brings back in safety, in 
discharge of a vow, most willingly, and to a most deserving object." 

The value of this inscription on the present occasion is to give us 
the name in full of the tribune who dedicates to Jupiter the altar in the 


whIIb of the Abbey of Jedburyh. I wiw disiKweJ at first to reml the 
name of the dejicator ;iE Julius Severus ; there ciwi l>e no doubt, how- 
ever, that the HEVBit of tlie Jcitbur^'h etoue is but a contmctiun for the 
HBVBRiNvs of the Kisiiigham stone. 

Fig. 3. Koniuti Altar, rroiii Itisiiighuiii. 

Prolwibly a hue or two of the Abbey stone is wanting. As the first 

coliort of VonKioiies wiis quartered at Hahilancum, Uisinghnm, our 


tribune Severinus may have, when on home duty, ranked as their 
commander. There may therefore have been in the last line of our 


and perhaps also yet another bearing the letters 

V • 8 • L • M 

Votum solvit Hbens mei*ito. Those, however, are doubtful points. 

I trust the explanation which I have ventured to give may on tlio 
whole be approved of. I have communicated my views to Professor 
Hubner, and I am glad to say he agrees with me. 

I have the honour to be, 
Yours faithfully, 


To the Most Hon. the Marquis of Lothian, 
President, Soc. Antiq. Scot. 

Monday, Sth Juiie 1885. 

Profbssoh NORMAN MACPHERSON, LL.D., Sheriff of Dumfries 

and Galloway, in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentleman wtis duly 
elected a Fellow of the Society : — y 

TaoMAS Steedman, Clydesdale Bank, Kinross. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on the 
table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By Robert Thomson, Architect, Glasgow, through James 
Dalrymple Duncan, F.S.A. Scot. 

Cinerary Urn of clay, 13 J inches in height, by 11^ inches diameter 
at the mouth, ornamented in the upper part with a band of raised 
zigzags and bosses. 

Cinerary Urn of clay, 12 J inches in height, and 9 J inches in diameter 


at the mouth, ornamented with impiessed lines and zigzags above the 

These urns were found at Uddingstone, in the parish of Bothwell, 
Liinarkshire. [See the subsequent communication by J. Dalrymple 

(2) By Rev. James Russell, Minister of Walls and Flotta, Orkney. 

Polished Celt of granite, adze-shaped, 2 J inches in length, by 1| 
inches across the cutting face, found at Bumhouse, Longhope, Orkney. 

(3) By Rev. C. J. Cowan, B.D., F.S.A. Scot., Minister of More- 

battle, Kelso. 

Fragments of a Bronze Sword, and a small Ring of Bronze, foimd in 
the glebe at Kelton, Kirkcudbrightshire. 

The Rev. Mr Cowan has supplied the following notice of the circum- 
stances in which they were found : — 

" These fragments of a bronze leaf-shaped sword were found in March 
1 885, in the glebe of Kelton, near Castle-Douglas, some two feet below 
the surface. The sword appears to have been perfect, but was broken and 
otherwise injured by the workmen in removal ; and, when search was sub- 
sequently made, the missing part, the point, could not be recovered. 
The fragments, when pieced together, measure just over 17 inches in 
length, with a greatest breadth of 1§ inches. As apparently about a 
third of the blade is awanting, and as the cutting edge on both sides 
has been broken oflf, the sword may be described as of average size. The 
characteristic nick on the blade near the hilt can be plainly observed. 
There are nine rivet-holes, three in each of the wings, and three in 
the hilt-plate — one of the latter still containing the rivet, which is of 
bronze. A ring, also of bronze, was found beside the sword, of the 
furniture of which it m^y have formed a part. Its diameter is, inter- 
nally, J inches, and externally, 1 1 inches. The interest of this discovery 
chiefly depends on the rarity of such finds in the S.W. of Scotland. 
Although nearest to Ireland, where they are comparatively common, 
Galloway has hitherto yielded, so far as I am aware, but few swords 


of this type. One of these, it may lie noteil, was found in Carlinwark 
I^ch, which is within half a mile of the site of this discovery." 

(4) By Major Colin Mackenzie, F.S.A. Scot. 

Fragments of Cinerary Urn, Flint Scraper, and Nodule of Pyrites of 
Iron, from a cist at Floworburn, Ross-shire. [See the subsequent com- 
munication by Major Mackenzie.] 

Two portions of Sculptured Stones, from Kosemarkie, one showing a 
lx)rder of interlaced- work on the side and edge, the other bearing the 
figures of two ecclesiastics. 

(5) By the Lady Constance Campbell, through l)r Mitchell. 

Full-sized Drawings of a Hoard of five Bronze Swords, a Scabbard-end, 
and a Spear-head, found in Kintyre, and now preserved in Inveraray 

(6) By the Society of Antiquaries, London. 

Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, London. Vol. IX. Parts 

(7) By the Cambrian Archaeological Association. 

Archceologia Cambrensis, Journal of the Cambrian Archaeological 
Association. Fifth Series. Nos. 2-5. 

(8) By the Numismatic Society. 

The Numismatic Chronicle. Third Series. Nos. 14-17. 

(9) By the British Arch^ological Assocl^tion. 

The Journal of the British Archaeological Association. Vol. XL. 
Parts 2-4, and Vol. XLI. Part 1. 

(10) By the Arch^olooical Institute of Great Britain, &c. 

The Archaeological Journal. Vol. XLL Parts 2-4, and Vol. XLIL 
Part 1. 


(11) By the Socibty of Antiquaries of Newcastle. 
ArchsBologia ^liana. New Series. VoL X. Parts 1-3. 

(12) By the Royal Historical and ARCHiEOLOoiCAL Association. 

Journal of the Royal Historical and Archfeological Association of 
Ireland. VoL VI. Nos. 56-59. 

(13) By the Royal Irish Academy. 

Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy. Series II., VoL If. No. 5 ; 
VoL IV. Nos. 1 and 2. Transactions, VoL XXVIII. Nos. 15, 16. 

(14) By the Royal Society op Northern Antiquaries, Copen- 


Aarboger for Nordisk Oldkindighed, 1884, Parts 2 4, and 1885, 
Part 1. 

Memoires de la Societo Roy ale des Antiquaires du Nord, 1884 and 
1885, Part 1. 

(15) By the Smithsonian Institution. 

Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology, 1880-81. 

(16) By Alex. Malcolm Scott, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 
The Battle of Langside, 1568. 4to. 1885. 

The following Articles, acquired by the Purchase Committee during 
the present Session, from 29th November 1884 to 8th June 1885, were 
exhibited to the meeting, viz.: — 

1. Axe-head of diorite, 8^ mches in length, by 2 J inches across the 
cutting face, oval in the cro^ section in the middle of its length, and 
tapering to a conically pointed butt. It is peculiar in having one of its 
faces flattened to an adze-shaped fonn, while the other presents the 
rounded curves of the common form of stone axe. It is said to have 
been found in the neighbourhood of Monkton House, Mid-Lothian. 

String of forty Beads of a green vitreous paste, with intercrossing 
bands of yellow, red, and black. 


2. Highland Flint-lock Pistol of steel, by John Murdoch (Doune), 
with scroll-ended butt, the barrel fluted, and stock and barrel both finely 

Highland Flint-lock Pistol of steel by Alexander Murdoch (Doune), 
with globose butt, the barrel plain, the lock engraved, and the stock 
inlaid with scroll-work in silver. 

3. Polished Celt of a greenish mottled quartz or jasper, 2f inches in 
length, by If inches across the cutting face, greatest thickness not ex- 
ceeding f inch, somewhat triangular in shape, and flatter on one face than 
the other. It is said to have been found in the neighbourhood of 

Polished Celt of granite, 4 inches in length, by 2-^ inches across the 
cutting face, which lies obliquely to the axis of the implement, the sides 
ground flat, and tapering to a narrow, thin, and rounded butt. It is 
said to have been found at Carl ops, Mid-Ix)thian. 

4. Polished Celt of felstone, 5^ inches in length, by 2| inches across 
the cutting face, the sides ground flat, the butt rounded and slightly 
chipped, from Kirkcowan, Wigtownshire. 

5. Polished Celt of basalt, 3f inches in length, by IJ inches in 
breadth across the cutting face, found in Fifeshire. 

Polished Celt of basalt, 3| inches in length, by 2 J inches in breadth 
across the cutting face, found in Fifeshire. 

Polished Celt of flinty slate, 3| inches in length, by 2 inches in 
breadth across the cutting face, found near Auchtermuchty, Fife. 

Polished Celt of porphyry, adze-shaped in form, 3f inches in length, 
by If inches in breadth across the cutting face, found in Fifeshire. 

Arrow-head of flint, with barbs and stem, found in Fifeshire. 

Snuff'-Box, being a section of walrus-tooth, roughly made, and bound 
with till. 

6. Digging Stone, from Caflfraria, being a globular mass of sandstone, 
3^ inches diameter, with a hole 2 inches wide, bored through the centre. 
These stones are used for weighting the " digging stick," with which 
the natives of South Africa dig for edible roots. 

7. Flat Celt of bronze, 5f inches in length. 

Flanged Celt of bronze, 4f inches in length, with slight flanges and 


stop-ridge, the blatle widely expanding, the flanged part nearly of uniform 
width, or about an inch in the middle, the butt crushed down by recent 

Flanged Celt of bronze, 5J inches in length, 2 inches in greatest 
breadth across the cutting face, the flanges bent over and peaked, the 
stop-ridge more prominent on one side than the other, and the whole 
surface roughened. 

These three Celts are stated to have been found somewhere in the 
west of Scotland, the precise locality being unknown. 

8. Collection of rude Stone Implements, from Leenow, Tenston, 
parish of Sandwick, Orkney, about 250 in number, including some 
very large examples of the oblong, oval, and club-shaped implements. 

9. Reproduction of the largest known example of the " double cup- 
shaped Fibula" of gold, found in 1819 at Castle Kelly, county of 
Roscommon, Ireland, and now preserved in the Museum of the Royal 
Irish Academy. It measures 3f inches in height, and the cup-shaped 
discs are 5 inches in diameter and 1 f inches deep, while the bow-shaped 
part that unites them is 4| inches in circumference at the thickest part. 
The original weighs 16 oz. 17 dwt. 4 grs. of pure gold. 

10. Urn of steatite, oval in shape and flat-bottomed, measuring 12^ 
inches by 10| inches at the mouth, and 8| inches high, and containing 
burnt bones. 

Urn of steatite, measuring 8 inches by 5^ inches at the mouth, and 
4 J inches high, rather rudely made. 

Urn of steatite, measuring 6f inches by 6^ inches at the mouth and 
4 inches high, also rudely made. 

These three urns were found in a cairn on the summit of the highest 
hill in the island of Uyea, Unst, Shetland. The stones of the cairn 
were removed for building purposes, and the urns were found subse- 
quently, about two feet below the original surface of the soil, and 
covered with rough flag-stones. Each urn contained burnt bones. 

1 1. Oblong Knife of dark-coloured porphyry, 6^ by 4| inches, no- 
where exceeding § inches in thickness, the back and sides nearly 
straight, the face rounded and sharp, but somewhat broken. 

Oblong Knife of dark-coloured porphyry, 5 J by 4 J inches, nowhere 


exceeding ^ inch in thickness, the back and one side nearly straight, the 
other two sides curved, and sharpened to an edge. 

Oblong Knife of dark-coloured porphyry, 6 by 3| inches, nowhere 
exceeding f inches in thickness, the back and one of the sides nearly 
straight, the other two sides curved, and sharpened to an edge. 

Oblong Knife of dark-coloured porphyry, 4| by 2 J inches, and no- 
where exceeding f inches in thickness, the back nearly straight, the 
sides rounded, and the face also rounded and sharpened to a cutting edge. 

These four knives of porphyry, which are of a type peculiar to the 
Shetland Isles, were found together in a bog in the island of Uyea, 
Unst, Shetland. 

12. Collection of Urns, Flint Implements, &c., comprising the whole 
contents of a chambered cairn at Unstan, in the Loch of Stennis, 
Orkney. [See the subsequent communcation by Mr R. S. Glouston.] 

13. Harp-shaped Fibula of silver, closely resembling that found in 
the crannog at Lochlee, and figured in the Proceedings (new series, voL i. 
p. 231, fig. 99). It is stated to have been found in Ayrshire, the 
precise locality being unknown. 

14. Penannular Brooch of silver, with interlaced ornamentation, 
from Ridgemount, King*s Coimty, Ireland. 

15. Old Highland Brooch of silver, with engraved ornamentation and 
niello-work of the usual patterns. This brooch is remarkable for its 
great weight and thickness. 

16. Four small Highland Brooches of copper, probably made out of 
copper i>ennies, and a Meal-Sieve, from North Uist. 

17. Polished Adze-head of flinty-slate, oval in shape, 5f inches in 
length, 2 1 inches in breadth, and not exceeding | inch in greatest 
thickness, from New Guinea. 

18. Fourteen Collections of Flint Implements, &c., from Culbin and 
Findhorn Sands, amounting to about 2000 specimens. 

19. Papworth's Ordinary of British Armorials. Imp. 8vo. 1874. 

20. Selections from the Charters of the Burgh of Stirling. 4to. 1884. 

21. Twenty-two Photographs of pages of Celtic MSS. 

22. Twenty one Roman Imperial Bronze Coins; one Testoon of 
Mary of Scotland ; one Farthing of Alexander III. of Scotland. 


23. Laing's Sulect Kemaina of the Ancient Popular and Romance 
l'.)etry of Scotland. Editeil by John Small, M.A. 4to. 1885. 

24. Dickson's Introduction of tlio Art of Printing into Scotland. 
8vo. 1885. 

Tliere were also exhibited — 

(1) By His Grace The DiiKE of Athole, K.T. 

Two finely ornamented Uras {fig. 1) of the low, thick-li))pcil form, 
usually deposited with unburnt bodies, and to which the name " foocl- 
veasel" has been commonly applied. Botli are nearly of the same 
shape, with a slightly contracted neck above the shoulder and a aUgbtly 
everted rim. Underneath the shoulder the larger vessel is surrounded 

Fig. 1. Uriis Touud in > cist at Kincmigie, Little Duokeld (&t luid 
3J inches in height). 

by six projections placed at equal distances round the circumference. 
In the smaller vessel the number of these projections is eight, but they 
do not seem to have been pierced with holes, ns has sometimes been 
oliserved in other cases. They are Iwth highly ornamented with hori- 
zontal hands of linear ornamentation impressed in the soft clay by a 
twisted cord or hy a comb-Iikc tool In the larger vessel the ornament 
takes the fomi of short oblique lines, and in the smaller vessel it takes 
tlic form of lines encompsssing the circumference. The larger vessel 
inches in height, and 6j inches in diameter across the 


mouth ; the smaller measures 3| inches in height, and 3f inches 
diameter across the mouth. They are preserved at Blair Castle. 

The circumstances in which the urns were found have been communi- 
cated to the Secretary as follows : — 

Blair Castle, Blair Athole, 4th May 1885. 
Dear Sir, — Tlie two urus I left with you on the 2nd were found in a cist 
on the farm of Kincraigie, parish of Little Dunkeld, Perthshire. The cist was 
discovered on 10th April this year by a man ploughing. The minister of 
Logierait ordered it to be covered up till my orders were received. I accord- 
ingly visited the spot on 13th April, when we cleared out the cist It was 
situated on a dryish knoll in the middle of a plough e<l field, aud lay from 
N.W. to S.E., the wider end being toward the N.W. Its dimensions were as 
follows : — Length 4 feet, breadth at one end 15 inches, at the other end 10 
inches, depth 15 inches. The cist had evidently been previously discovereil 
and disturbed, as the pieces of the urns were discovered in various parts of the 
cavity. It was filled up with earth. — I am, yours faithfully, Athole. 

(2) By the Right Hon. Lord Napier and Ettrick, K.T. 

Sculptured Stone (fig. 2) from Over-Kirkhope, in Ettrick, being an 
oblong naturally-shaped slab of close-grained sandstone, 4 feet in length, 
13 inches in greatest breadth, and about 4| inches in thickness, bearing 
on the upper part the figure of a man rudely incised. The figure is 
represented with upraised hands, suggestive of the ancient attitude of 
prayer, as in early Christian sculptures, and more particularly on the 
belt-clasps from Burgundian graves, which commonly show this attitude 
rendered with almost equal rudenesa (" Bracelets et Agrafes Antiques," 
par F. Troyon, in the MittJieilungen tier Antiquarisclien Geadlschaft in 
Zurichy vol. i.) The head of the figure is very large in proportion to 
the body ; the dress consists of a tunic, and the feet are bare. An 
equal-armed cross is incised upon the breast, and on each side there is 
a circle with a central depression. Above the head on the right side is 
a small rectangular space bordered by an incised line, with the letters 
P P in the centre. The top of the stone is hollowed into an oblong 
cavity 7 inches in length, 2 inches in width, and about an inch in depth. 
The lines of the figure are picked out with a pointed tool, those of the 
letters and bordering are cut by a driving chisel. 


(3) By the Right Hon. The Earl op Stair, K.T., F.S.A. Scot. 

Polished Celt of serpentine, 12f inches in length, by 4 inches across 
the cutting face, the edges ground flat, the butt shaped like the cutting 
edge, but not sharpened, found at Kirkcolm, Wigtownshire. 

Wedge-shaped Stone Hammer of Silurian sandstone, S^ inches in 
length, 3^ .inches in greatest breadth, and 2^ inches in thickness, 
perforated at a distance of 2 inches from the wide end by a hole for the 
handle 1^ inches in diameter. 

(4) By Dr John Douglas, Whithorn, through Rev. George 

WiMON, Glenluce, Corr. Mem. S.A. Scot. 

Stone, 17 inches in length by 7 inches in breadth and 5 inches in 
thickness, bearing on its weathered face the incised figures of a man 
with a crook in his hand, an animal (dog ?), and a figure consisting of a 
double-disc with two connecting lines, somewhat suggestive of the form of 
the so-called " spectacle-ornament," or double-disc symbol of the sculp- 
tured stones of Scotland. The figure of the man measures 3^ inches, 
and that of the double-disc over his head 2 inches in length. Beside 
them is also incised the word " William " and the date 1768. The stone 
is apparently broken off from a larger block or from an outcrop of rock. 

The following Communications were read : — 



Sbcretary, Glaboow Arohjbological Society. 

The circumstances attending the discovery of the iinis now exhibited 
may be very shortly stated. 

On Wednesday, 25 th March last, while some workmen were excavat- 
ing the ground preparatory to the construction of a road in front of a 
row of cottages recently erected at Kylepark, Uddingston, they dis- 
covered two urns embedded in the gravel at a depth of about 1 foot 
from the surface of the field. There was no trace of any enclosing cist, 
and both urns, in accordance with a not unusual practice, had been 
merely placed in the earth mouth downwards over the bones they were 
intended to protect. 

The fact of their discovery was reported to me next day, and on 
Saturday the 28th I proceeded to Uddingston. By this time the urn 
first found had been got out comparatively uninjured, although unfor- 
tunately the workman who discovered it had sent his pickaxe through its 
}x>ttom before he realised what it was. The other, and by far the finer 
in the character of its ornamentation, as ill-luck would have it, lay under 
one of the lines of rails of a tramway used for conveying the building 
material, and had been broken to fragments by the heavy weights pass- 
ing over it. We collected the pieces as well as we could, and I am 
informed by Dr Anderson that he believes it will be quite possible to 
put them together again. 

Subsequent to the discovery of the urns, and about 3 yards from the 
place where they were found, the workmen had come on a quantity of 
bones. With the assistance of a couple of men whom Mr Thomson, the 
proprietor of the field, kindly put at my service, I had the ground dug 
up for a considerable space round the spot, when after some search we 
were successful in discovering a few small portions of a third urn. 



The urna are of the large cinerary class, and are, aa usual, formed uf 
coarse clay paste mixed with minute fragments of stone. 

The unbroken um (fi)}. 1) stands a little over 12 int:hes in height, 
with a diameter across the mouth of 9j inches. The ornamentation on 
it is almost wholly fouud above the shoulder, and consists of two hori- 
lontal double lines of indented markings, as of a twisted cord. The 
lines are 2J inches apart, and between them run zigzag lines similarly 
formed. The lower portion of the urn is flowerjiot ahaped and plain. 

Fig. 1. Urn foand at Uddiugiitou {12 iuches Id lieiRht). 

The double line of indented markings running just below the nlioulder 
is uncommon. Round the inside of the lip run two double lines of 
indented markings parallel to each other, and nearly an inch apart. 

The second um (fig. 2), which is now reconstructed, and measures 
13 J inches in height, is characterised by much more elaborate ornamenta- 
tion, consisting of strongly-raarked moulded lines rutming zigzag, with 
1>osses in the angles. The mouldings are enriched by a double row of 
indented markings on each side, and the inside of the lip has two rows 
of holes (each about li inches from the other) running rcund it, with a 


cltsarly -marked ilividing line between them. The Ixisscs have evidently 
been moulded on the um from the exterior. 

The trifling portions of the third um, which have 1>ceu preserved, do 
not enable us to judge with any certainty as to its size or character. 
Its ornamentation, however, seems to ha^e consisted of lines of indented 

The field in which the nms were found is bordereil by the Clyde, and 

Fig. 2. Vm found at Udtliajjituu (IS^ iucli^i in lifijfht}. 

the particular spot where they were discovered ia alwut TO yards from 
the bank of the stream. The soil is of a specially dry and gravelly 
nature, and Mr Thomson informs nie that this characteristic distinguishes 
it and a field immediately opposite on the other side of the river from 
tha adjacent lands, which are boulder clay. The line of ilemarciition is, 
I understand, very clearly marked. 

The field has been regularly ploughed, and it is somewhat remarkable. 


in view of the inconsiderable depth at which the urns were found, that 
they should liave remained so long undiscovered, and should have 
received no injury from the plough and the feet of the horses passing 
over them. 

I have had the bones which were found with the urns examined by 
Professor Young of Glasgow University and Professor Buchanan of 
Anderson's College, but they both report that they are unable to say 
anything definite as to the number of persons represented in the remains, 
or as to their age and sex. Professor Buchanan says he is able to dis- 
tinguish portions of the bones of the fore-arm, and would infer from their 
small size that the person to whom they belonged was comparatively 
young — about seventeen probably. Professor Young recognises a 
clavicle, which he says must have belonged to a man of no great stature 
— about 5 feet 6 inches probably. A portion of a jaw-bone in all 
likelihood belonged to a person of about 4 feet 8 inches. They both 
agree that parts of the skeletons of at least two persons, one full-grown 
and the other comparatively young, are present, but inextricably mixed 

The group of urns found at Uddingston forms evidently a specimen of 
the small local cemeteries of the Bronze period described by Dr Anderson 
in the Proceedings of the Society for 1879, and the discovery is 
specially interesting from the fact that it is the first instance, so far as 
I am aware, of one of these having been brought to light in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood of Glasgow. 




The " knowe of Unstan " is situated in a piece of land jutting into 
the Loch of Stennis, a few hundred yards to the north-east of the Bridge 
of Waithe. It is in the property of Mr William Lcith, who courteously 
gave me permission to open it in July 1884. 

To the north of the knowe, and within about 20 yards of it, the cape 
in which it stands is traversed by a moat from shore to shore. This 
moat, at a point nearly opposite the knowe, is crossed by a narrow 
passage of filled-in earth. 

The knowe, prior to excavation, presented the same appearance as the 
usual Orkney tumulus, having an unbroken slope to the ground. This, 
however, is due to the slipping down of the stones of which the cairn is 
composed, as there is an external wall surrounding the whole structure, 
which, in the parts where we found it tolerably entire, was some feet in 
height, and built of lai^er stones than those used in the interior. 

On the top of the knowe there was a considerable depression, giving it 
very much the appearance of a previously opened tumulus ; but I have no 
doubt this was occasioned by the falling in of the roof, more especially as I 
was assured that the depression had become sensibly deeper of recent years. 

Digging was begun in the east side of the knowe, as there appeared 
to be a slight sink in the formation of the caun at this part. A few 
feet brought us to several large stones, some placed edgewise, others laid 
flat. These we found to be the roofing of the passage by which the 
interior is entered. 

Its direction by compass is a little to the north of east, this being as 
nearly as possible in the opposite direction from Maeshowe. 

At the inner end of the passage, and built partly over the last of the 
roofing stones, were two walls composed of small stones, converging to 
a space of 14 inches apart, and resembling very much, as my workman 


remarked, the bow of a ship. Before the excavation of the passage 
could be completed, I was reluctantly compelled to remove the whole of 
one of these walls and part of the other. 

The passage has no door stone, as in Maeshowe, and the roofing only 
extended 1 1 feet from the interior. Below the last roofing stone is a 
downward step of about a foot to the level of the interior. The step is 
formed by one large stone laid across, the outside being rudely built up to 
its level. In the passage wore found a flint scraper and a barbed arrow- 
head, also some fragments of pottery. The passage leads into a lai^e 
chamber 21 feet long, and averaging about 5 feet broad. This b sub- 
divided by large flagstones into five compartments, off the middle one of 
which is a small side chamber. These compartments of the chamber 
will be referred to in their numerical order, countuig from the southern 
to the northern end of the chamber, or fi-om left to right in the plan. 
The passage does not enter into the central or third compartment, but 
into the second from the south, the distance from the south-east comer 
to the middle of the passage being exactly one-thini of the entire length 
t»f the wall. 

The first compartment of the chamber, which lies to the south side 
of the entrance, varies from 4 feet 9 inches in length in its east wall, to 
4 feel 1 inch in its west. The width of the end wall is 4 feet 9 inches, 
gradually widening to 5 feet 6 inches, where the flagstones divide it 
from the second compartment into which the entrance-passage opens. 
The end wall is formed below of one large flagstone, with building 
above it. This is also the case in the fifth compartment at the opposite 
end of the chamber, as well as in the small side chamber. 

The opening into the first compartment from the second (which lies 
to the north of it) between the wall-fast slabs projecting across the floor 
is slightly over 2 feet in width at the base of the flagstones. Across 
this opening, and in the inside of the compartment, is a stone 1 foot high 
and 2 feet 9^ inches long, laid edgewise. Level with this a line of 
stones, also set edgewise, runs from it to the south wall, subdividing 
the compartment into two nearly equal parts, the space to the east being 
rudely paved at a level of about 6 inches above the other, which, like 
the rest of the chamber, was floored with white clay. About 3 feet 


4 iuclies above the clay floor are live suall stones, about the size of a 
tunii's hand, jutting out from the wall. In this firet compartment were 
found a considerable quantity of bones, partly human, a curious black 
substance which appears to me to be a mixture of peat and charcoal, 
the bottom of a email flat-bottomed urn, and some other fragments of 
pottciy. Tbia compartment was much freer of soil than any of the 
others, most of it being more easily cleared by the hand than the pick. 

The side walls of the second compartment are 4 feet 8 inches in 
length, but the dividing flagstones, not having been set square, give it a 
minimum length of i feet 3 inches. The distance from side wall to 
side wait varies from 6 feet 3 inches to 5 feet 6 inches. 

y « ^ "1^ 

Fig. 1. Grouud Tlan of Chambereil Caim at Unatan. 

The whole structure, indeed (as will bo seen from the ground-plan, 

flg. 1), is irrej^lar in shape, none of the walls being quite straight, and 


tlio wall at one side of the dividing flagstone rarely coinciding with that 
on the other. At the side of the S.W. flagstone in this compartment 
there was a small space, not covered with white clay, and in this we 
found several fragments of different urns. A more striking instance of 
how the relics must have been scattered is the fact of a piece of pottery, 
foupd in the fourth compartment, fitting into an urn, the rest of which 
was dug up in this second compartment of the chamber. By far tlie 
greater portion of the relics found in the chamber were in this compart 
ment. Overfying its clay floor was a stratum of black ashy or earthy 
matter, largely composed of charcoal, in which great quantities of i)ottery, 
and several flint chips and flakes were found. 

In the Caithness chambered cairns excavated by Dr Anderson, the 
burials were of two classes, viz., in the floor, burnt ; and on the floor, 

Several fragments of bones were found in the floor of this com^uirt- 
ment, but none which showed any trace of burning. Curiously enough, 
however, the flints present indubitable indications of the action of fire. 
\J[x>n the black stratum there were laid several burials in the contracted 
]>osture, as in the Caithness cairns. 

The third compartment of the chamber, lying to the north of that 
which is entered by the passage, varies from 5 feet 8 inches to 6 feet 
1 J inches in measurement from east to west, and averages a trifle over 
4 feet in length from north to south. The black stratum which covered 
the floor of the second compartment extended a couple of feet or so into 
this compartment, and also into the first compartment and the passage. 
A large quantity of bones were found in this third compartment, among 
which, close to the door of the side chamber, opening off it, there 
were several large vertebrae. A flint implement, 3 J inches long, of 
the class styled by Mr Evans as "fabricators or flaking tools," was 
the only relic discovered here, with the exception of a few fragments of 

2'he side chamber oj^ens off the third compartment on its west side. 
The door is formed of two large upright stones, thus making a short 
l>assage. Unlike the rest of the building, with the exception of the 
passage, the roof here is entire, its height being 3 feet 6 J inches. A 


rude floor is made by a flagstone, small enough to have been introduced 
after the chamber was completed, and supported on blocks of stone. 

There were two distinct burials here, in the contracted posture, one 
of the skulls being the most complete of any of those found, though 
scarcely half remained. A tooth, which has been pronounced by Dr 
Garson to be that of a small dog, was found near the door. A stone 
ix)under lay under the bones of one of the skeletons, and this, with two 
flakes, comprised the whole of the relics found. 

The fourth compartment measures 5 feet 7^ inches from east to west 
imd about 4 feet from door to door. Only a few fragments of pottery 
and a quantity of bones were found here. On the east side there seems 
to have been a rude pavement of the same kind as in the flrst com- 

The fifth compartment, at the northern extremity of the chamber, 
is the smallest of the chambers. It measures only 3 feet from the door 
to the end wall, and the sides taper northwards to 3 feet 9 inches. 
This compartment, as has already been stated, resembles that at the 
other end of the chamber, in having a stone placed across the door, and 
an end wall composed jmrtly of one flagstone. It has also stones jutting 
out from the wall at a height of about 4 feet above the clay floor. 
Large stones were laid on the floor, which may have been covered, as in 
the side chamber, with a flagstone ; but, if so, it was too much broken 
to be recognised, A small and rudely formed arrow-head was found 
here. Some burials, and several small fragments of pottery, were also 
foimd; also, at a higher level than any other relic, a small piece of 
ornamented ix)ttery of different pattern from all the others. 

[Referring to the fragments of pottery found in the chamber of the 
cairn of Unstan, Dr Anderson stated tliat having carefully examined 
the whole of them, it appears that the total number of different vessels 
they represented must be somewhere about thirty. Of these, however, 
only six or eight have been found capable of reconstruction, so as to show 
their complete form and the character of their ornamentation. 

The largest urn (fig. 2) is of reddish clay, softer and more porous 
than the rest, and thicker in the body. It is a large shallow round- 


buttoDied veaael, meaeuriug 15j inches in diameter and 5j inches in 
depth in the centre. Under the broad flat lip, wliich measures Ij 

Fig. 2. Um from the Cliambered Cairn of CoatiiD, Orkney (16J iocboa in diameter). 

Inches ocrofB, there is a slightly curved rim ornamented with scorings 
of oblique lines. In 'the form of the vessel there are thus three 
difitinct parts — the round bottom, the upright brim, and the flat but 
slightly bevelled and everted lip. The ornamentation is confined to 
the upright brim of tlie vessel. 

Tike next largest um (fig. 3) is 14 inches in diameter and 5 inches 
deep in the centre. It is well-modelled and neatly made — almost as 
evenly turned as if it had been thrown on the wheel. The paste of 

Fifi. 3. [Trii from Chamber of Utisuii Cniru (1* intbes diaiiirtrr). 

which it is coni[K>sed is dark-coloured, li aril-baked, and &ee &wn 
ndiiiixturc of stones. The rounded under part of the veanl is thin, the 


upright rim slightly thicker, nml the hji, wliich is bevelled from the 
iiiaido outwards, expands to J inch in thickness. There is no onia- 
lucnt on any portion of the vessel except tho vortical rim, which is 2^ 
inches high, and scored obliquely to right or to left in alternate 
triangular spaces. Another urn, almost exactly similar in form and 
character (tig. 4) is 13J inches diiuneter and 4j inches deep in the 
centre. It is not circular, but slightly oval ; and the vertical rim, nhich 

Kig. i. Urn fruin Cliaiubcr of Uiiatau Cairo (13^ incLea diametei). 
is only 2 inches high, has its lip almost flnt, nnd | inch in thickneim. 
The onminentation on the vertical rim of this vessel has the scorings of 
e.irh alternate triangular space parallel to the lip of the vessel, while the 
others are placed obliiiuely to the left. Another uin of the same character 
(Rg. 5) is 11 J inches in diameter and 4 J inches deep in the centre, 

>r Viittaa Cuim 

the lip fldt, and | inch iu thickness, the vertical rim 2^ inches high, 
ornamentiid like tho first, except that it has two horizontal lines carried 
round under the hrim. A fmirth urn of the siiuie clmrncter, hut smaller 
(lig. 6), measures 9] inches diameter and 3\ inches deep in the centre. 


tlie lip flat and J inch in thickness, the vertical rim 1 j inch high, and 
ornamented as the first, hut witli triangidar spaces of longer base. 
The riraa of two other urns {figs. 7 and 8) of lOj and lOj inches 

Figs. 7, 8. Kiins of Uius rr«m Unstsn Cuim (lOj and 10} iachcB diameter), 

diameter, are extremely thin, and both ornamented with triangular spaces 

similar to the second nm. A distinct variety of this form, with the rim 

Figs. 9, 10. Fngmeata of Urns, from UdsUq Cairn. 

slanting outwards, is indicated by several fragments (6ga. 9 and 10), 
with somewhat similar ornamentation. A ijerfectly plain vessel of 
oval shape (fig. 11) measures 9 
inches in its greatest diameter 
across the moutli, and 4 inches 
deep, the sides bulging consider- 
ably, and then contracting to 
the rounded bottom. Another 
form of plain unomamented um, 
indicated by several fragments, 

seems to have had deep and al- 
FiB. 11. Urn from CaLrii of Unatau . , , . , 

(£• inches Jianiettr). "lost straight sides, and a rounded 

bottom. These appear to have 

been tall, con-shaped vessels, but as none show more than a small 

portion of one side, with an indication of curvature nt the bottom, their 


precise form and proportiou haa not been ascertained. One flat bottom 
only waa found, about 3J inches diameter, but the upper part of the 
veesel hae not been recovered. The prevailing type is therefore that of 
a round-bottomed vcBsel of a hard dark-coloured paste, with vertical 
brim, and thick flat or bevelled lip. In the Cliambered Cuima of 
Caithness,' the round-bottomed fonn of urn, made of a thin, hard, 
dark-coloured paste, was also the prevailing form. The Chambered 
Caims of Argyle had likewise yielded to the researches of Canon 
(Ireenwell a round-bottomed form of um, of which the example (fig. 
12), from the caim at Largie,* will show the resemblance to the 

Fig. 12. Uro from Largie Ctdm (12^ inchci diameter). 

Orkney vessels. In the caim at Achnacree, Argyleshirc,' Dr R. Angus 
Smith also found several roimd' bottomed urns, which are now in the 

The stone implements found in the Unstan caim, with the single 
exception of a "pounder," or oblong pebble of sandstone, were all of 
flint, and their calcined condition indicates that they must have passed 
through the fire. They form a very interesting and suggestive group. 
There are four leaf-shaped arrow-heads (two of which are shown in 
f)g. 13), and one with barbs and stem. The Icaf-sliapeil arrow-heads 
arc of large size and well made, the shape inclining to the elongated 

' Proceedings, vol. vi. p. 412, and vol. vii. p. 480. 

• Ibid., voL vi. p. 311. ' Ihiil., vol. ii. p. 415. 


lozenge with curvilinear butt. The fifth arrow-head, which is barl>ed, id 
of smaller size, nnd has suffered dami^, but not to such an extent as to 

Fig. 13. Flint Arrow- IjeailK, from UmUn Ctim (actual size). 

obliteratfi its distinctive form. There was also found a finely-finished 
scraper (fig. 14) of a form which is not at all common in Scotland, 

Figs. II, 15. Scritper anil Knife of Fliut, from CastaQ C'airu (actual size}. 

with both sides as well as the front bevelled to a cutting or scraping 
edge ; and one of those rare implements of flint (fig. 15), an elongated 


knife, with the edge ground Bmoolh instead of being merely chipped. 
Such ground-edgud knives liavc also heen found in the chambered 
caims of Caithnesa. Another flint tool, 
found in the chamber of the Unstan 
cairn, however, is of exceptional interest, 
inasmuch aa it is the first recorded instance 
of its occurrence in connection with sepul- 
ture in Scotland. It is formed of a long 
ridged flake, nearly triiingulAr in the cross 
section, and greatly worn by use at both 
extreraitiea It belongs to the class of 
implements styled by Mr Evans "fabri- 
cators," or flaking tools, and its use is 
presumed to have been that of a tool 
employed in the fabrication of arrow-heads 
and other iniplenienta of flint. 

The bones found in the chamber have 
been submitted to Pr J. G. Garson, Royal 
College of Surgeons of England. In 
anticipation of a more detailed report 
from Hr Garson, it may be siiflicicnt to 
state at present, that along with the 
fmgmentary remains of several hunisn 
skeletons, he recognises the presence of a 
large quantity of animal bones, among 

which he has identified those of the horee, /«■ J?- ^^'^»'8 Tool of Fliut 
, , ™,, . ''"'" Uiistan Cuini (netiuil sue). 

ox, Bhee|>, swine and dog. There arc also 

numerous remains of birds, some of which have been of considcmbic 




On the 7th of November 1883, while staying at Flowerbum House, 
in the Black Isle, Ross-shire, I heard that when trenching a piece of 
waste ground during the previous spring, a small cist had been discovered, 
and that it lay almost exactly at the spot where an urn had been pre- 
viously dug up. This urn had been destroyed by its careless finders, and 
only the bottom of it had been preserved, and given to me some two 
years before. I was informed that a lai^e stone happening to come in 
contact with the plough, it had been determined to remove it, when it 
was found to form the capstone of a small cist. After a rough examina- 
tion, the cist was filled in again, having been found by the labourers 
employed to contain nothing but decayed bones. 

On the morning of the 8th, accompanied by the keeper, I proceeded 
in search of the cist. I first examined the capstone, which lay near the 
edge of a small wood bordering one side of the field in which the cist 
was situated. It was a rude whin boulder, somewhat in the shape of 
an irregular rhomb, the edges and angularities being smooth and rounded 
through weather- wearing. Its extreme superficial measurement was 
2 feet by 1 foot 10 inches, its thickness being about 8 inches. 

I then sent for the tenant of the ground, to point out the spot where 
the cist itself was situated. He pointed to a small hollow lying on one 
side of what seemed to be a natural mound, and here two or three 
strokes of the pick succeeded in finding a resisting mass a little way 
below the surface. Its position was upon an inclined surface, and, 
through the scanty soil, the rock occasionally cropi)ed out. On the 
N. and W. sides the declivity of the mound was gentle, ninning into 
the upper portion of the slope of the ground, while on the E., and par- 
ticularly on the S. (where the road had been cut through the edge of it), 
it was more abrupt The highest point of the mound was the highest 


point in that part of the field. The measurements which I took showed 
the shorter axis of the mound, E.KE. by W.S.W., to be 109 feet, and 
the longer, N.N.W. by S.S.E., to be 119 feet. The centre of the cist 
about to be described lay nearly W.S.W. of the highest point of the 
mound, distant about 20 feet. The mound had at one time borne a 
small natural plantation of birch and fir, but judging by the remains 
and the poorness of the soil, the trees must have been of but small size, 
sharing the scanty nourishment obtainable with whins and junipers. 

Having succeeded in finding the site of the cist, we began with great 
care to remove the superincimibent earth. This was in no part very 
deep. Upon the natural trap rock rested about 3 feet of hard yellow 
sand, and above that another foot or so of black mould, giving a total 
depth of 4 feet. We first removed the soil from an area of some 
8 feet square. We found the resistance we had encountered to be 
caused by a number of small whin boulders, mixed with small slabs 
of red sandstone from 6 inches to 1 foot in length, 4 inches to 6 
inches in width, and 1 inch to 1^ inches in thickness. The sand- 
stone is natural to the district, the weather-worn whinstones, which 
are turned up in all directions in the fields, seem to have been carried 
thither by glacial or other action. The stones in question had formed 
the top course of the cist, which had been built like a sunk fence, the 
interstices being filled in with small stones and hard sand. In removing 
the capstone previously, this course had been destroyed by the labourers, 
and, when it was determined to shut up the cist, these stones had been 
merely heaped on the top and covered over. We carefully lifted out the 
stones, and uncovered the second course of the cist The interior was 
f oimd to be pear-shaped, its longest axis K by W. being 1 foot 1 inches, 
and its shortest N. by S., 1 foot 6 inches. It was well and substantially 
built, the top width of the second course varying from 1 foot to 1 foot 
6 inches. The interior was found to contain black mould and yellow 
sand, mixed at the top through previous disturbance, but the bottom 
portion contained sand only. 

Both mould and sand contained osseous remains, the portions in the 
mould being very fragmentary, and those in the sand larger, though very 
few recognisable pieces, except portions of the skull, were noticed. With 

VOL. XIX. z 


the bones were a number of small pieces of charcoal. Proceeding 
further, the bottom of the cist was found to consist of hard yellow sand 
which had never been disturbed, and which contained no bones. From 
the top of the second course to the bottom of the cist was 1 foot 
9 inches, and I conjecture the cist, when perfect, to have been about 
2 feet 6 inches deep. The bottom portion of the wall of the cist was 
formed by eight flat stones of irregular height, from 1 foot to 1 foot 
6 inches high, and 5 to 7 inches broad, placed upright on edge, and 
after these had been built round outside, and their heights equalised by 
the addition of smaller stones, the two courses, already alluded to, had 
been built upon them, the remains deposited within, and the capstone 
placed over the whole. The contents of the cist seemed to have been 
but little disturbed, and nothing save the soil, charcoal, and bones were 
found within. 

We now began excavating a trench all round the cist, about 2 feet 
wide. The cist was foimd to have been constructed, as far as we could 
judge, in the hard sand alone. This outer sand contained no remains 
and we now proceeded to remove the black mould all round for some 
little distance, and to sift it with great care. Portions of compact black 
mould, containing many minute fragments of bone, were first found; and 
it seemed that this, from its resemblance to the mould containing bones 
within the cist, had been removed along with the top course of stone. 
Colour was further lent to this by finding, along with this mould, 
several small sandstone slabs, similar to those used in the construction 
of the second course of the cist. 

We now began to widen the area of our operations. On examining 
the mould taken from a spot about a yard to N.W. of the cist a piece of 
rude pottery, accompanied by pieces of bone * and charcoal, was found. 
A diligent search revealed several other pieces, apparently forming the 
lip and a portion of the side of a rude baked clay urn, the pottery being 
reddish coloured outside, but black in the fracture. No portion of a 
bottom was found, and I am decidedly of opinion that these pieces of 
pottery formed part of the urn which had been discovered two or three 

^ One piece of bone resembled a finger or toe joint. A friend has suggested that 
it might have formed a portion of the fibula. 


years previoufily near this spot^ and which was broken at the time by 
an ignorant labourer. Having submitted the bottom of l^e urn, as well 
as the portions of the lip found by me, to Dr Joseph Anderson, he con- 
curs in the opinion I had formed, and says : — " The urn has been a large 
and wide vessel, but not exceptionally so. Unfortunately, we have not 
enough of the pieces to discover the height and diameter at the mouth." 
The missing pieces may probably be accounted for, as having been taken 
away attached to the bottom and afterwards broken off and lost, the 
material being very brittle. 

I am convinced that this urn was not originally within the cist. 
When it was first discovered, no mention was made of the cist. And 
again, when the cist was discovered in the process of trenching early in 
1883, it appeared never to have been disturbed before, and those who 
were present are positive that no urn was noticed. The urn therefore 
must have been deposited in the soil outside the cist, and probably 
without any protecting structure. Such a burial is by no means 
uncommon in the British Islands and Scandinavia, and wherever large 
tumuli exist, it is customary, as all archsBologists know, to find enclosed 
in them burials of different periods, both crematory and non-crematoiy.^ 

I have already mentioned that the mould and sand within the cist 
contained very many fragments of bones and charcoal, but nothing 
further was found which could positively be connected with the cist- 
burial, which was manifestly one by cremation, judging, not by the 
charcoal alone, but also by the condition of the bones and the size of 
the cist, which could not have contained a skeleton, even in a con- 
tracted posture. I have also stated that some detached pieces of bone 
were found in the soil outside the cist, with pieces of charcoal and 
portions of an urn ; and, taking everything into consideration, I con- 
clude that these point to cremated remains having been originally 
deposited within the urn, as the pieces of bone differ in size from the 
very fragmentary bones found in the black mould of the cist, and as the 
larger' pieces of bone found imbedded in the sand of the cist had never 
been disturbed till removed by me. 

' Oreenwell, British Barrows, p. 12 f< seq, ; L. Jewitt, Cfravemounds, and their 
ConUnts,** p, 7 ei s^q. ; O. Montelios, La Suide Prihistarique, pp. 75, 76. 


Want of time pievented a further exploration of the mound, which 
might have resulted in the revelation of other sepultures. But I am of 
opinion that our exploration proved that two separate burials were repre- 
sented, one in a ciet, the other in an unprotected urn, but both cremated. 

Whilst gathering together the broken pieces of the urn, a round-nosed 
fliut flake or semper^ (fig. 1), chipped at the edges, was found amongst 
the debris, and proved to have a bluish tinge, as if it had been subjected 
to the action of fire. Close beside it there was found ft round piece of 
iron pyrites, flat on one side — in shape somewhat bke the half of aji 
egg, divided lengthways, only smaller (see fig. 1), Dr Joeeph Anderson 

Fig. 1. Nodule of Pyrites ind Socaper of Flint, found at Eloverbnni. 

at once recognised this as forming, along with tho solitary Bint, nothing 
lees than a prehisbDric " strike-light " apparatus, only one example of 
which is recorded, I believe, as having been found in Scotland,^ and 

' No (tints are noticeable in that part of RoBa-sliire, and both Mr Davidson of 
Caotray, and lit Mackenzie of Fortrose (to vhom I ahowed it), aa well as myself, 
were impressed with the importance of this flint scraper. Every effort was made, 
and the closest search instituted, in the hope of cominf; acrosa other aciapen or 
flakea of flint, but without success ; and I am perfectly satisfied that the implement 
in qaeation naa the only one present. 

' At Tyiieside Farm, near Minto, Boxburghshire, b; Lord BosebJII ; GreeuweU, 
Britith Barrows, p, 288, note, and Proe. Soc AtU. SaoL, vol. viiL p. 137. 


but few elsewhere. As the flint and pjrrites were found on the same 
spot as the fragments of urn, it is most probable that they formed part 
of the same burial It is possible even that they were about the person 
of the corpse when cremated, and colour is lent to this supposition by 
the fact that the flint bears traces of the action of fire. As to whether 
the " strike-light " was contained in the urn, that is another question, 
on which in the circumstances no sufficient evidence is forthcoming. 

As the flint and pyrites (sulphuret of iron), now before the meeting, 
is the first example of a prehistoric ** strike-light" which has been 
brought before this Society, I may be pardoned if I make some remarks 
relative to " strike-lights " in general, with a view to render clearer, if 
possible, the antecedents of this one in particular. The first point is to 
prove that these two objects do actually form a "strike-light," or to 
answer Mr Evans' pertinent question — "We have instances of the 
association of lumps of iron pyrites with circular-ended flint instruments 
in ancient interments. Can they have been in use together for producing 

We will first consider the flints. Mr Evans has remarked that 
nearly simUar forms of flint flake or scraper have served undoubtedly 
dissimilar purposes. For besides those which are believed to have been 
used for cleaning hides, &c., " we find some of these instruments with the 
edge battered and bruised to such an extent that it can hardly have 
been the result of scraping in the ordinary sense of the word."* He 
argues that as fire must have been one of the primary necessities of 
prehistoric man, we must consider whether he was in possession of any 
method for generating fire, other than that of the slow and laborious 
process of friction; and he cites the example of two widely-distant 
races, the Esquimaux and Terra-del-Fuegians, who obtain fire by 
striking sparks into a ball of fungus, and whirling it round till it bursts 
into flame. He further remarks : — 

" There is yet another argument In many instances these circular-ended 
flinty when found upon the surface, have a comparatively fresh and un- 
weathered appearance ; and, what is more, have the chipped part stained by 
iron mould. In some cases there are particles of iron, in an oxidised condition, 

> Erans, Ancient Stone Implements, p. 282. * Ibid,, p. 281. 


still adherent Such iron marks, especially on flint which has weathered 
white, may, and indeed commonly do, arise from the passage of harrows and 
other agricultural implements, and of horses shod with iron, over the fields ; 
but did the marks arise merely from this cause, it appears hardly probable 
that in any instance they should be confined to the chipped edge, and not 
occur on other parts of the flint" ^ 

And he finally clinches his argument by the results of his own experi- 
ments. For he finds that by working " a flint and a steel or briquet 
together, much the same bruising of the edge is produced as that apparent 
on some of the old * scrapers,'" and he comes, "therefore, to the conclusion 
that a certain portion of these instruments [flint flakes] were in use, not 
for scraping hides like the others, but for scraping iron pyrites, and not 
improbably, in later days, even iron and steel for procuring fire."* 

We now turn to the iron pyrites, and ask, Is it possible that the 
nodules of this substance, found in connection with chipped flint flakes, 
can have been in use for any other purpose than that of obtaining fire t 

Mr Evans has remarked upon the presumed use of iron pyrites for 
obtaining a red pigment, that — 

" It is hard to imagine any other purpose for which pyrites could be scraped 
by flint except for producing fire. It cannot have been merely for the purpose 
of producing a paint or colour, as though the outer crust of a nodule of pyrites 
might, if ground, give a dull red pigment, yet the inner freshly broken face 
would not do so ; and, if it would, the colour would be more readily procured 
by grinding on a flat stone, than by scraping."' 

Canon Greenwell, writing on the same subject, also observes — 

" It is true that certain ores of iron have long been employed by savage 
tribes as a source from which to obtain a red pigment, whether for their own 
personal adornment or for colouring articles of dress and implements, but the 
particular ore to which the nodules [of iron pyrites] under notice belong is not 
adapted for producing any pigment when in a fresh and unoxidised condition ; 
neither are the appearances of wear upon the pyrites those that would have 
resulted from a scraping process necessary in the production of such a substance. 
There certainly are the marks of what may perhaps be called scraping along 
the middle of the fractured surface of the nodules ; but that is just the part 

^ Evans, Statu Implements, p. 283. * /Wd., p. 283. 

' Evans, SUme Implements, p. 285. 


where the ore would be quite fresh and unoxidised, and therefore the least 
available for use in providing a pigment."^ 

We may therefore, at once, and safely, assume that none of the 
nodules of pyrites found in connection with flints were in use for any 
other purpose than that of strike-lights ; and that the flint and pyrites, 
now before the meeting, form together a veritable strike-light, an 
assumption which other discoveries, to be subsequently referred to, will 
fully substantiate. A nodule of pyrites, with a deep scoring upon it, 
found in one of the Belgian bone caves — the Trou de Chaieux — has 
been engraved by Dr K Dupont, who regards it as having been used as 
a fire-producing agent ^ This takes us back to an era contemporaneous 
with that of our own Kent's Cavern at Torquay, in which, however, no 
remains of pyrites of iron have yet been discovered. 

Several instances of the occurrence of pyrites and flint in British 
burials are on record, while " part of a nodule of pyrites may be cited 
which had apparently been thus used, and was found in the Lake-dwell- 
ing of Robenhausen."^ Engelhardt found pieces of pyrites, apparently 
having been used as fire-producers, at Thorsbjerg, " with iron and other 
antiquities of about the fourth century of our era. He says that steels 
for striking fire are not at present known as belonging to the Early Iron 
Age of Denmark."* The Abb^ Cochet describes some of the flints found 
with Merovingian interments [from the middle of the fifth to the middle 
of the eighth century], as resembling gun-flints. One of these was 
apparently carried at the waist, in a purse with money and other 
necessaries.* Passing to more modem times, we know that pyrites was 
in use as a spark-producer some two hundred years ago. About the 
year 1530, the match-lock was superseded in England by the wheel- 

' Greenwell, Brit, Bar,, p. 267. 

* The flint that prodaced the scoring appears to have had a pointed rather than a 
rounded end. Possibly the wearing away of the ends of certain flakes, for which it 
has been difficult to account, may be due to their having been used in this manner 
for striking a light — Evans, Stone Implements, p. 286 ; Dupont, Les Car. de la Bel- 
gique, u, pi. ix. 2. 

» Evans, Stone Implements, p. 14 ; Morlot, in Bev, Arch, (1862), v. 216. 
^ Ihid,, p. 14, note ; Engelhardt, Thorhjerg Mosefund, p. 65, Eng. ed. 

* Ibid,, p. 882 ; Cochet, Normandie Souterraine, p. 268. 


lock, which had been invented in Nuremberg seventeen years before. 
The wheel-lock remained in partial use as late as the reign of Charles 
IL It " consisted of a steel wheel rasped at the edge, which protruded 
into the priming pan ; a strong spring ; and a cock into which was fixed 

a piece of pyrites (sulphuret of iron) When it was required 

to discharge the gun, the lock was wound up by means of a key or 
spanner which fitted on the axle or spindle, and the cock was let down 
to the priming pan, the pyrites resting on the wheel ; on the trigger 
being pressed the wheel was released and put in motion, when sparks 
were emitted which set fire to the powder in the pan."* This was 
probably the last occasion when pyrites, as a fire-producer, was employed 
for any purpose of practical utility.* 

Mr Evans is of opinion that the late use of pyrites " affords strong 
evidence of iron and steel having been unknown to the makers of flint 
implements;"* and he has further more shrewdly observed, that "the 
lower beds of our English chalk are prolific of pyrites, though not to the 
same extent as the upper beds are of flint; and it is not impossible that 
the use of a hammer-stone of pyrites, in order to form some instrument 
of flint, gave rise to the discovery of that method of producing fire."* 
In view of this prolificacy, it may prove a matter of surprise that no 
more than eleven cases (including the one now before the Society) are 
on record, in which pyrites and flint have been found in ancient British 
graves, under such circumstances as to warrant their being classed as 
strike-lighta Flint scrapers, which, however, are almost indestructible* 
are certainly found in many parts of the country, notably in places 
which had once been centres for the production of worked flints.^ 

1 School of Musketry, Text'Book, p. 94. 

3 There Ib, however, one little machine, still in ose, as a cigar-lighter, which re- 
minds me forcibly of the wheel-lock. It consists of a small silver or steel box, con- 
taining a " rat's tail,'* or cotton match, which is ignited from a spark obtained by a 
steel rasp working against an emery wheel which is made to revolve. 

* Evans, " Stone Implements" p. 14, note. 

* Ibid., p. 281. 

^ At Cisbury Hill, near Worthing, Sussex, the author has collected hundreds of 
scrapers and chips, and here the ancient shafts or workings were explored some 
years ago, under the auspices of the trustees of the British Museum, but with little 


But though flints may be numerous, it is not so with nodules of 
pyrites. This, however, may be partially due to the fact which Evans 
remarks, that " when exposed upon or near the surface of the ground, 
pyrites is very liable to decomposition, and even if occurring with 
ancient interments it would be very likely to be disregarded."^ 

This latter is the real, or at least the chief, point of remark. The 
flints and nodules of pyrites found in graves do not seem to have been 
conclusively regarded as strike-lights, until the investigations of Evans 
and the discoveries of Greenwell brought them into prominent notice, 
and practically demonstrated them to be so. Many, therefore, have in 
all probabilty been cast aside unrecognised and unrecorded. 

It may, therefore, be of some importance to notice the instances 
in which pyrites and flint have been found in British graves. 
Evans states that " nodules of pyrites occurred in such numbers in a 
barrow at Broad Down, near Honiton, as to suggest the idea of their 
having been placed there designedly, but none of them are described as 
abraded." It was in the year 1844 that the late Mr Thomas Bateman, 
when opening a barrow in Elton Moor, Derbyshire, found near the 
head of a skeleton " a piece of spherical iron pyrites, now for the first 
time noticed as being occasionally found with other relics in the British 
timiuli." Along with the same skeleton was found a " drinking-cup " 
[i.e., a clay vessel of drinking-cup shape], " a flat piece of poUshed iron 
ore; a small celt of flint, with the peculiarity of having a round 
polished edge instead of a cutting one as is usual; a beautifully chipped 
cutting tool; twenty-one circular instruments, almost all neatly chipped; 
and seventeen pieces or rude instruments, all of flint."* At Green 
Lowe, Derbyshire, Mr Bateman further found with a skeleton "a 
piece of spherical pyrites, and a flint instrument of the circular- 
headed form," also a drinking-cup, and splendid flint dagger, some 
barbed flint arrow-heads, and instruments of bone.' Again, at Dowe 
Lowe, Derbyshire, Mr Bateman discovered a skeleton which "was 
accompanied by a fluted bronze dagger, and an amulet or oma- 

^ Evans, Stone ImpUs, , p. 281. 

* Evans, Stone ImpUs,, p. 282 ; Bateman, Vest. Ant, Derb,, p. 53. 

' Evans, Stone ImpUs., p. 282 ; Bateman, FeH. Ant, Derb,, p. 69. 


ment of iron ore, with a large flint implement which had seen a 
good deal of service." ^ In a barrow at Brigmilston, Wiltshire, Sir 
R. Colt Hoare found, with an urn containing ashes, some '* chipped flints 
prepared for arrow-heads, a long piece of flint, and a pyrites, both 
evidently smoothed by usage.'** In a barrow at Angrowse Mullion, 
Cornwall, a pyrites was foimd with a deep groove worn on the flat 
surface, in company with an urn and a bronze dagger.' Evans says : — 
" Mr Franks has called my attention to another half nodule of pyrites 
preserved in the British Museum, which is somewhat abraded in 
the middle of its flat face, though not so much so as that from 
Yorkshire. It was discovered, with flint flakes, in a barrow in Lam- 
borne Down, Berkshire, by Mr E. Martin Atkins, in 1851."* Green- 
well states that: — " Lord Rosehill foimd with a burnt body in a cist at 
Tyneside Farm, near Minto, Roxburghshire, a slice of a nodule of iron 
pyrites, together with a long and thick flint flake, apparently a flint and 
steel.'' 5 

We now come to the instances of the occurrence of pyrites with flint 
discovered by Greenwell, and very accurately figured and described by 
him as well as by Evans. Greenwell thus describes an interment 
examined by him in a barrow in the parish of Rudstone, East Riding of 
Yorkshire : — 

" Immediately beneath the child was an oval grave, north-east and south- 
west, 8 feet by 4^ feet at the bottom, and 9 feet by 8( feet at the Borface- 
level, and 6^ feet deep. It was filled in with ohalk. On the bottom of the 
grave was a quantity of charcoal. At the bottom of the grave, about the 
middle, was the body of a man, laid on the left side, with the head to S.E. by 
E., the right hand being up to the face and the left on the upper part of the 
stomach."* [The following articles were found with the body : — a white stone 
of mica-schist, an engraved jet ring, a plain jet button, a jet button engraved 
with a Maltese cross, and a bronze knife-dagger, and rivets which had once 
held an ox-horn handle : — ] " A little nearer to the face were two articles, a * flint 
and steel,' not hitherto noticed as such in their relative capacities, though 

* Greenwell, BrU. Bar,, p. 266 ; Bateman, Vest. Ant. Derb., p. 96. 
s Evans, Stone ImpUe., p. 282 ; Hoare, South Wilts, p. 195. 

» Greenwell, BriL Bar,, p. 266 ; Borlase, Nenia Comuhice, p. 285. 

* Evans, SUme ImpUs., p. 285. * Greenwell, BrU. Bar., p. 266. 

* Greenwell, BrU. Bar., p. 263. 


Ihej have been before found with Etncient BrJtbh iutennenta. The steel hod 
been made from a round nodule of iron pyrites split in half; the flint was 
placed below the split noilule which ceated upon it, the flat surface beinf; 
downwards ; the flint is 2^ inches long aud ] inch square. Both show signs of 
continued use, in their worn and smoothed edges, but the spark of fire seems 
priucipalty to have been obtained b; rubbing the end of the flint along the 
flat surface of the nodule, which is worn into a considerable groove in conse- 
quence. The nodule has had a portion ground oflTon the rounded surface, pro- 
bably in order to remove a projecting piece which rendered it inconvenient to 

Evans tbua describes this half of a nodule of iron pyrites, and the long 
round-ended flake of flint (see fig. 2) which lay underneath it — * 

" A portion of the ouUide of the pyrites has been ground smooth, and a 
projecting knob has been ground down so as to bring it to an approximately 

bemispherical shape, and adapt it for being comfortably held in the hand. 
The fractured surface, where the nodule was broken in two, is somewhat oval, 
and in the centre, in the direction of the longer diameter, ia worn a wide 
shallow groove (see Hg. 2), of juBt the same character as would have been 
produced by constant sharp scraping blows from a round-headed flake or 
scraper, such as that which was found with it The whole surface is somewhat 
worn and striated, in the same direction as the principal central groove * 

' Qroonwell, Bril. Bar., p. 28*. 

' The Society is indebted to Mr John Erans for this and the following woodcut 
from his Andent Slant ImpUmenla qf Ortai Britain. 


and the'edge of the fiat face of the pyrites is more worn away at the top and 
bottom "of the groove than at the other parts. The scraper (see fig. 2) is 
made^from a narrow thick external fiake, the end of which has been trimmed 
t() a semicircular bevelled edge ; a portion of one side has also been trimmed. 
At the end, and along some parts of the sides, this edge is worn quite smooth, 
and rounded by friction, and there are traces of similar wear at the butt end."^ 

Greenwell discovered another specimen in the same barrow — 

" At the sou^h-west end of the first grave there was an extension, form- 
ing a second one, not so deep as the first by a foot It extended 7 feet to 
the south-west, with a width of 4| feet At the north-east end of it was the 
body of a man, laid on the left side, with the head to S.E., the right hand 
being up to the face and the left on the stomach. The body was but 
slightly contracted, the head being 3J feet away from the knees. Behind 

the back were two jet buttons, placed one upon the other ; close to 

them, on the north, was another * fiint and steel,' almost indentical in form 
and appearance with those found in the preceding grave, but both of the 
latter showing signs of having been a longer time in use. As in the first 
instance, the nodule of pyrites was placed upon the flint." 

Mr Evans, referring to the occurrence of the pyrites and flint in the 
second grave in this barrow,* says : — " There can, I think, be no reason- 

Fig. 3. Method of using Pyrites and Scraper of Flint for striking a Light 
(From Evans* Ancient Stone Implemenls of Britain,) 

able doubt of their having been, in these instances, fire-producing 

implements, used in the manner indicated in the annexed figure (see 

fig. 3). The finding of the two materials together, in two separate 

1 Evans, SUme ImpUs., p. 284. ^ Greenwell, Brit. Bar,, p. 266. 


instances, in both of which the pyrites and the flint present the same 
forms and appearance, establishes the fact of their connection."^ Speak- 
ing of the Rudstone barrow, Greenwell observes that it presents some 
features which seem to require a more particular notice than the mere 
record of their occurrence : — 

" The most important matter is the discovery of two articles which cannot 
have been anything else than a ' flint and steel,' the means of producing fire. 
So far as I know, this is the first instance of anything of the kind appertaining 
to the Bronze Age having been speciaUy recorded ; and although the probability 
that in these early ages fire was obtained by such a process may have suggested 
itself to many, as it has indeed to myself still, before this discovery of the 
' flint and steel,' unmistakably adopted and also used for that purpose, there 
was no tangible evidence of the fact This evidence seems now to be supplied 
by the contents of the present barrow ; for not only were the two materials — 
the flint and the iron pyrites — found in such juxtaposition as to imply connec- 
tion the one with the other, but both by their appearance clearly indicate the 
nature of that connection and mutual use ; the bruised and smoothened edges 
and ends of the flints and the grooved surface of the pyrites showing tokens of 

long-continued reciprocal friction The marks in question have no 

doubt been made, as has already been mentioned, by rubbing the flint rapidly 
across the flat surface in the process of obtaining the required spark. The 
value of the evidence is further enhanced by the fact, that like articles occurred 
in connection with two separate interments, under precisely similar circum- 
stances, and with exactly identical appearances of use upon them. It might be 
naturally expected that a people who had so far progressed in civilisation, as 
the various remains belonging to the Bronze Period attest that the inhabitants 
of Britain had at that time arrived, would have attained to some better mode 
of producing fire than the tedious process of rubbing two sticks together, or 
even by the use of a fire drilL There was, however, no evidence to show in 
what improved way so important an essential to human existence, especially in 
a climate like ours, might have been obtained at the time in question, until 
this important discovery in the barrow at Rudstone supplied the interesting 
fact It might seem strange that a people who were dealing in this manner 
with an ore of iron should not have made the discovery of the possibiHty of 
smelting it, if we did not bear in mind that the diflerent pyretic ores are 
intractable enough to bid defiance to the appliances of modern science.** ' 

The third instance in which Greenwell discovered flint with pyrites 

^ Evans, Stone ImpUs., p. 285. 

* Greenwell, BriL Bar., p. 256 et scq. 




















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in an interment, was in a cairn in the parish of Crosby Grarrett, West- 
moreland He thus describes it : — 

'* The first of the three calms was of rather an unusual form, being markedly 
oval, 66 feet long and 40 feet wide, with the longer diameter north and 

south There cannot have been fewer than a dozen unbumt and burnt 

interments, and it is probable that there were more Five feet south 

of the presents centre, but probably at what had in the first instance been the 
centre, and if so then the primary interment was the body of a young man, 
from twenty to twenty -four years of age, which had happily almost entirely 
escaped disturbance.- He was laid on the right side, with the head to N. and 
the hands up to the face. In front of the knees was a hammer, made from the 
brow end of a red deer's antler. .... Between the humerus and the radius 
and ulna of the right arm was a long and thick piece of chert, triangular in 
section, and having the lower end worn quite smooth by long continued use. 
In the right hand was a piece of iron ore much oxidised, no doubt the * steel ' 
with which, in combination with the chert flake just described, this ancient 
Briton had obtained fire. This is the third instance where I have met with 
a man buried with his ' flint and steel,' the other two having both been in one 
barrow near Rudstone. In front of the face was another and thin flake of 
chert ; it is 2^ inches long, i inch wide, chipped along both edges, and has 
most probably served the purpose of a knife. Close to the body was half the 
lower jaw of a young fox." * 

In order to render the foregoing information more useful as a means 
of comparison, I have prepared the preceding tables (pp. 366, 367). 

A glance at these tables serves to bring forward several important 
facts : — 

I. That an 11th example of the pyrites and flint "strike-light," has 

been added to the already recorded 10 found in Great Britain. 

II. That the area of finds, formerly ranging from Cornwall to 

Roxburgh, has now been extended to Ross-shire. 

III. That the northern counties of England have been the most 
productive of these finds, claiming 6 out of 1 1 (viz., Derby, 3 ; 
Yorkshire, 2 ; Westmoreland, 1), as against 3 in the southern 
counties, and 2 in Scotland, according to present geographical 

IV. That they are usually contained in barrows. 

^ Groenwcll, BrU. Bar., p. 889 el acq. 



V. That they belong to both the cremation and inhumation periods, 

and that they are found with skeletons, burnt remains, and ashes 
contained in urns. 

VI. That though the nodules of pyrites are sometimes spherical in 
shape, they are usually split, as affording a better surface for 
obtaining the si)ark, and they, as well as the flint, in most cases 
show signs of wear and long use. 

VII. That they were used coevally with the manufacture of pottery, 
as evinced by the presence of urns and " drinking cups." 

VIII. That in Great Britain their use continued at least from the 
Later Stone Period till the Later Bronze Period, the latter being 
proved by the presence of 3 bronze daggers, one fluted. 

IX. That they continued in use until an epoch when art had made a 
considerable advancement in this island, as evinced by the 
fluted dagger and the engraved jet ring and button. 

X. That no article of wrought iron has been found in British 

burials, in conjunction with flint and pyrites. 

We now come to the last portion of our inquiry, viz., the period to 
which, and the people to whom, these burials containing strike-lights 

We see, from the preceding table, that flint and pyrites were in 
use in Britain as strike-lights during a considerable period ; and that 
the few examples foimd range over a considerable area. We also 
see that examples have been foimd in localities which produce 
neither pyrites or flint; and from this, and other circumstances, the 
strike-light seems to have been among the most treasured possessions 
of the early Britain, accompanying him even to the tomb. We further 
see that no articles of iron have been found with strike-lights in 
British burials. But the Thorsbjerg find proves that pyrites and flint 
were still in use during the £arly Iron Age. We must therefore avoid 
laying down a hard-and-fast rule, though we may, I think, safely 
assume that the proper period of the strike-light ranges from the Later 
Stone to the Later Bronze Age. Until the crania of the barrows, 
in which strike-lights have been found, have been thoroughly described, 
we shall remain in considerable ignorance as to the race or races therein 

vou XIX. 2 A 


interred; while in ctemated burials we have, of course, no crania to 
guide us. Any opinions, therefore, as to the personality of the users of 
these strike-lights, must be based almost entirely on conjecture. I 
therefore merely start an idea in suggesting that these strike-lights 
were in use by our Celtic ancestors ; as well, probably, as a Turanian 
race, allied to the modem Lapps or the Esquimaux (amongst which 
latter people we know pyrites and flint to be still in use for producing 
Are), who preceded them as occupants of these islands. 



Plans. By Rev. JAMES PETER, F.S.A Scot. 

In the parish of Old Deer or Deer the stone circles must have 
formed from a very remote period a notable feature in the landscape. 
According to the late Dr Stuart, there were almost within the 
memory of man twelve circles, generally pretty complete ; and on the 
testimony of an aged man still alive, who had the intelligence from 
those who were old in his young days, several more had existed. 

So long as agriculture was in its infancy, and when there was 
little disposition to cultivate any land but that which was of fair 
quality or free from obstacles, coupled perhaps with a belief that it was 
uncanny to meddle with that which, through age, and the mystery 
naturally attaching to these colossal stones set upright in regular order, 
they had an impunity from the hand of the destroyer ; but when land 
increased in value, through improved methods of agriculture, and the 
introduction of extraneous manures, old boimdaries and the most 
sacred enclosures were ruthlessly swept away. 

Before proceeding to a description of the individual circles, with a 
detail of their form and their respective measurements, as shown in the 
outlines and sketches herewith submitted, it may be deemed fitting that, 
as an introduction to this paper, some description should be prefaced of 
the district in which they are situated. 

The district of Deer or Old Deer, so called after a large part of it 


had been detached in 1694 to form a separate parish, then named New 
Deer, occupies the centre of the laige district of Aberdeenshire known 
as Buchan. Its mean length from N. to S. is about 1 1 miles, with 
a mean breadth of 5 to 6. It is intersected from W. to E. by the 
small stream called the Ugie, on which are situated the parish church 
where religious houses have successively stood since the first was planted 
by St Columba in the year 673, according to Adamnan his biographer ; 
and the Cistercian Abbey of Deer, a mile to the west, founded in 1219. 
From this point — the parish church — the sea is distant on the east 10 
miles (at Peterhead) and on the north (at Fraserburgh) 14. Its surface 
is diversified, consisting mostly of a succession of rounded knolls or 
hills not exceeding 500 feet. It is on the summits of the secondary 
knolls, about 350 feet above the sea, that the stone circles have been 

From very early times the district must have sustained a large 
population, if we may judge from the great number of tumtdt containing 
urns or other memorials of the dead ; while on either side the stream 
referred to, for 3 miles to the west of the church, and at right angles 
to the line or disposition of the stone circles, almost every height shows 
traces of a rath or circle of varying proportions. We pass by these as 
only interesting in connection, though bearing testimony to the fact of a 
considerable population having existed at a period long anterior to 
written history.* 

With this paper is submitted a reduced Ordnance map, on which are 
placed marks showing the exact position of the circles existent, in part, 
as well as of those whose locality is well ascertained, though every 
vestige of them has disappeared. The circles in red are distinguished 
as those which, though incomplete, are marked by stones standing, while 
those extinct are filled in in black. 

On referring to the map, it will be seen that a certain regularity 
attaches to their position; while an examination of them singly, in 
relation to their contiguity, suggests that the chain (if we may so designate 
the series) was so constructed, that each link should be so placed as to 
be visible from the nearest. Thus the circle numbered 2 is visible from 
1, 3 from 2, and so on to the last ; while from Aikey Brae Circle, the 



centre one, all, but for the intervening modem woods, would be visible 
on either side. 

The following are the individual circles in detail : — 
No. 1. Stricken Circle. — ^The most northerly, above Strichen House, 
just outside the parish of Deer, but forming part of the group. The 
stones are composed of grey granite, unlike all the others to be noticed, 
which are of whinstone or highly crystallised gneiss. The recumbent 
stone (fig. 1) is narrower than any in the group, being only 1 J foot across, 
owing to the square cleavage. There is a peculiarity attending this circle, 
that the recumbent stone and its side stones, if we may so designate 
them, are placed on the north of the circle instead of the south, all others 

Fig. 1. Recambent Stone with its two uprights in Strichen Circle. 

being to the south, while the recumbent stone has (on its east end) been 
hollowed atop for some purpose. Trending to the S.R from this point is 
No 2. White Cow Wood Circle^ with dolmen enclosed. — This circle 
(fig. 2) is 40 feet in diameter, and the circumference is lined out by a 
number of small, sharp stones, none of them over 2 feet 4 inches in 
height. At the S.E. point some stones have been removed to a little 
distance, to allow of ingress. The dolmen is formed of five supporting 
stones, one on the east and two on either side. It was open to the west. 
The covering stone lies at an angle towards the N.E., so that one standing 
at west, and running his eye along the centre, would find the line of vision 
strike the horizon on or about the point where the sun rises at mid- 


suDuuer. The dolmen is not exactly in the centre of the cirde, but in 
the N.E. quadrant, only the S.W. supporting stone being near the centre. 

Fig. 2. Sketch of White Cow Wood Circle (dUmeter 40 feet— not to scale). 

No 3. Avchmaehar Cirde. — This circle was comparatively complete 
until about forty years ago. The recumbent stone remains in poeition, 
but was shattered several yeara since by the kindling on it of a 
Halloween fire. One of its side stones remains ereCt. The other is 
thrown down ; while beyond it, or two spaces or distances, a stone is 

Fig. S. EnUrged View of Dolmea ia White Cow Wood Circle. 

standing in position, having been spared, as forming a handy rubbing 
stone for cattle. One large stone bad been removed, and laid length- 
wise to form a good portion of a stone fence ; another had been long since 


taken to be used as a bridge across a amall bum ; auother had beeu 
utilised for the keystone ol a thrashing mill support. The form of this 
enclosure seems to have been an oblong. From being able to identify 
the exact spot, through one who had assisted at the removal of one of 
the absent stones, sufficient data were obtained to realise the form and 
size of the circle. The size of the single stoue is considerably in excess 
of the average, and when complete and standing in the skyline, the 
circle must have formed an imposing object. So far as could be ascer- 
tained this circle would appear to hare been an exact counterpart of the 
next to be noticed, situatod about a mile east, viz.. 

Fig. i. RecatubeDt Stone with its tiro uprights in Londou Wood Circle. 

No 4. The Lowlon Wood, Pit/our Circle. — This circle can be traced 
without difficulty, in consequence of the recumbent stone and its side 
stone on the west being still in position, as shown in fig. 4, while the other 
side stone on the east has simply fallen over. Besides, on either side, 
and about the middle of the circle, there is still one of the stones 
standing as originally placed. The ground plan of the circle is shown 
in fig. 5. 

No 5. Aikey Brae or Parhhouee CircU. — This is the most complete 
circle of the group. Its recumbent stone is the largest of those still 
extant, formed of whinetone, and weighing according to estimato, 31 tona 
The circle is wholly complete on the west side, with the exception of the 


stone next to the recumbent stone, which has fallen, and in so doing 
broken in two. On referring to the ground plan (fig. 6), it will be seen 
that there is a graduation in height, the stones being of less size towards 
the north. The section at the base of the stone shows in each case a 
rude triangle pointing to the centre of the circle. On the opposite side 
the stones are still on the spot, though broken, more or less, and their 
original position is easily ascertained. 






Fig. 6. Qronnd Plan of Loudon Wood Circle (diameter 64 feet). 

No. 6. Upper Crichie Circle, — ^This circle was destroyed nearly one 
hundred years ago, according to the testimony of one whose father was 
witness to the destruction. 

It would appear the stones were sold by the tenant en hloc^ to aid in 
building a steading. Not long after it was noted that his family were 
visited by illness, one after the other dying. The superstition of these 
days was at no loss in assigning a cause. As in the case of the Keiths, 
after their forcibly appropriating the lands pertaining to the Abbey of 


Deer, the lilies referring to their so-called sacrilege in Pratt's Buchan 
may be quoted here as embodying the general belief — 

** Meddle nae in haly things ; 
For gin ye dee, 
A weird, I rede, in some shape 
Shall follow thee." 

No. 7. East Orichie Circle^ entirely destroyed about 60 years since. 

No. 8. Circle on Skdmuir HUl, the most southerly of the group, now 
represented by one solitary standing stone. 

No. 9. Circle at Gaval, mentioned last, because not so ostensibly con- 
nected with the group. 

This circle was pretty complete about forty years since. The recum- 
bent stone was a prominent object in the field until sixteen years ago, when 
it was shattered by gunpowder by thoughtless yoimg apprentice masons 
working in the neighbourhood. A single stone now only remains, 
spared, as in a former case, to be desecrated as a rubbing stone for cattle. 

Referring to the recumbent stones, it may be noted that they are 
generally flat in the top till towards the western end (No. 4, Loudon 
excepted), where there is a rise of several inches ; that they are not 
sunk in the ground, but are firmly kept in a position by a simple con- 
trivance — a large stone wedge on the one side within a foot or two of the 
end, and a similar wedge, but on the opposite side and towards the 
opposite end, care being seemingly taken to leave an open space between 
the inner end of the wedge and the stone. 

In every case the length of the stone is from E. to W.; and in all cases 
(save that of Strichen, which is in the north) in the south of the circle. 

As to the composition, as before remarked, they consist of whin- 
stone, or highly crystallised gneiss (Strichen again excepted, which is of 
granite), and were likely derived from the large erratic boulders which 
probably at one time were strewed thickly over the district — there 
being yet in some places vast numbers of smaller ones, which are being 
removed in the process of clearing and enclosing fields of arable land. 

With regard to sepulchral remains, either within or in the neighbour- 
hood of the circles, I am not aware that any well-marked traces have been 



found In the case of the Aikey Brae or Parkhouse circle {hg. 6), several 
years ago, an examination was made by Mr C. Dalrymple and the late 
CoL Forbes Leslie, accompanied by the proprietor of the land, but 

6. •'-■^^^^^^ -►"'■''' ■■'■^4 



Dtm*n»l»9' ^S'^t 








Fig. 6. Ground Plan of the Circle at Aikey Brae (diameter 45 feet). 

nothing, I understand, was found except some charred substance a few 
yards outside the circle ; while in the matter of the Gaval circle, when 
the fragments of the recumbent stone were being cleared off, nothing 
save a small quantity of black fatty earth was found underneath. 



F.S.A. Scot. 

In a paper by Dr Daniel Wilson, printed in vol. xvii of the Society's 
Proceedings^ p. 52, he refers to me by name as differing from him in 
regard to his reading of the earliest noted inscription of St Molio's Cave. 
That is the " Nikulos " risting, which, he concludes, is the only one 
known to me. " Though the Kunic inscriptions of this cave," he says, 
"cannot compare, either in number or diversity," with those of the 
Maeshowe tumulus, " they merit greater attention than they have yet 

In view of these remarks, I submit sketches of two additional 
ristings in St Molio's Cave, which have apparently escaped the notice of 
Dr Wilson. They are not given in his recent paper to the Antiquaries, 
nor are they to be found in either of the two editions of the Prehistoric 

The first of these is here represented (fig. 1) to half the size of the 
original It reads ioan-i-ure, the ure apparently a place name. The 
Kunic character representing the letter U is doubtful, the modem 
Roman letter D having been carved over it. The second is what 
Professor Stephens reads as a man's name in the nominative case 
=iTEDLnEAB. The KA is a bind. It is here represented also to half 
the size of the original in fig. 2. 

A cast of the risting, which Dr Wilson, in his paper to the Anti- 
quaries reads ^ H^ A 4 ^ R : (amudar), was submitted by me to Professor 
Stephens, who confirms Dr Wilson's reading of this name, except that it 
is in the nominative case, and not, as he supposes, in the genitive. This, 
at least, is the opinion of Professor Stephens. Amudar, the latter 
explains, is equal to amundar. The question of AR = the common R, 
as a nominative singular ending, is treated by Professor Stephens in his 
Old Northern Runic Monuments, voL iii. p. 143. I should mention 


that Professor Stephens reads the former of the two natings ioam i niu, 
not, as I have it, UBS. The reason is that the tracing of my original 
sketch sent him was imperfect, in tliat I omitted the circular point from 
the centre of the straight line, which forms the letter £. 

In regard to the risting in dispute, I should like to be allowed to 
place on record the opinion of Professor George Stephens, who in June 
1884 wrote me as follows: — " 1 will add to my Old Northern Runic 
Monuments your explanation, that in the St Molio Cave the word is 
really raxus — tiiia. Of th for f we have Runic examples. I will only 


Fig. 1. Runic Inscription in 
St Holio'a Cave. (From a 
Drawing by J. C. Roger, 
hair size of origiusl.) 


byJ.C. Roger, lialf si 

mention one. The Northumbrian brooch in my Old Northern Runic 
MonumeJita, voL L p. 386 (p. 125 of my Hand Book just published), 
has the f in the name alcfritb, spelt with th, not with p, consequently 
we must read nikulos this ribted (cut)." I was not aware there were 
other known examples of deviation from the common rule, but never 
had the smallest doubt that the intermediate word of the "Nikulos" 
risting could be anything other than the Norse thane, Dr Wilson 
himself writes me that my cast " will scarcely suffice to convince " him 
" that any genuine Rune-raister spelled thane (t,h,a^,e.), and not, as on 
the Laws Crescent plat«, and elsewhere, with the t and h conjoined." 
It is, however, only fair to add, that this statement was volunteered by 


the learned Principal before I communicated to him the substance of 
Professor Stephens* letter on this subject. 

The drawings now submitted are copies of original sketches made by 
me more than twenty-five years ago, and, so far as my recollection 
serves, are about the size of the actual ristings graven on the rock. 


F.S.A. Soot. 

The history of this parish, like that of many others, is yet to be 
written, and now that the public records are being made fully accessible 
by Government, the materials are gradually gathered for the future 
historian. Hitherto any one writing on such subjects, especially when 
treating of the succession to land — always an interesting chapter of 
parochial history — ^has been generally obliged to resort for his authorities 
to old peerage and other books, often full of gross errors. 

These reflections occurred to me in lately reading an excellent essay, 
" Cambuslang, a Sketch of the Place and the People, by J. T. T. Brown, 
Glasgow, 1884." The account of the early landowners/ drawn from 
Crawfurd's Peerage (voce Bothwell), is however so incorrect, that it is 
worth while placing the true account from actual record in a connected 

I do not know what ground Crawfurd had for saying that Walter 
Olifard, justiciar of Lothian in the reign of Alexander IL, owned the 
barony of Drumsargard. He no doubt owned the barony of Bothwell, 
closely adjoining, being only separated by the Clyde and a part of the 
barony of Blantyre. Bothwell, with many other lands in Scotland, and 
some in England, was carried by an heiress, probably his daughter or 
grand-daughter, about the middle of the thirteenth century, into the 
family of de Moravia or Moray. For in 1293, William of Moray 

^ Pp. 18, 69. 


panetarius Seocie, lord of Bothwell, appears in some transactions regarding 
the churches of Smalham and Walston {Beg, Glasg,), He was the heir, 
and probably the son of Walter of Moray, previous owner of Bothwell, 
who by a document enrolled in the Public Records^ had given Derever- 
gulla, widow of David Olifard, the liferent of a manor in Lincolnshire. 
It may have been a transaction connected with her dower in Bothwell. 
Hence Crawfurd's further statement that Drumsaigard passed from 
Walter Olifard, with Bothwell, to the Morays, by marriage with Mary, 
daughter of Malis Earl of Stratheme, early in the fourteenth century, is 
quite erroneous. So too is his genealogy of the Lords of BothwelL He 
makes Sir William Moray of Bothwell owner of Drumsai^rd also, and 
gives him two sons— (1) Sir Andrew Moray, who (he says) was killed 
at Stirling in 1297 (leaving a son Andrew, the colleague of Wallace, 
and future regent); and (2) Sir John Moray of Drumsargard. His 
authority for this being a "MS. history in the hands of Aber- 

Whereas the real facts about Sir William Moray of Bothwell are — 
that he did homage to Edward L in 1291 and 1296, was forfeited for 
having been in arms against him, and died a prisoner on parole in 
England before November 1300, withoni heirs of his body. That he had 
a younger brother. Sir Andrew, who died shortly before him, and a 
nephew Andrew, the son of this last, who was killed at Stirling in 1297. 
The son of this younger Andrew, a posthumous child also named 
Andrew, was at Whitsunday 1300 only two years old. He was the heir 
of Bothwell, the future regent, and brother-in-law of Robert Bruce, and 
with his descendants, Bothwell remained till appropriated, there is not 
much doubt, in some illegal way, by Archibald Douglas, lord of Galloway, 
about 1361, or soon after.* 

Reverting to Drumsargard, there was no Sir '* John ** Moray, as stated 
by Crawfurd. But Sir " William " Moray of Drumsaigard was contem- 
porary with, and distinct from Sir William of BothwelL He appears 

1 Calendar of Documents (Scotland), vol. ii No. 725. 

' If the Papal records are correct, this barony was carried off from its right heirs, 
by marriage of the widow, not the daughter of Thomas Moray, last of the direct line. 
(Theiner's Vetera Monumenia. ) 


on the Bagman Roll in 1296, and can be identified by his seal, still 
existing — three mullets, 2 and 1, on a shield, with a rose at either side, 
perhaps for difference. And after making peace with Edward L (for 
he too had taken anns), he had a writ from the English Chancery on 
20th March 1303-4, to get back some lands in Northumberland. He 
thus survived Sir William of Bothwell by at least three years — ^how 
much longer I do not know. The next lord of Drumsargard appears to 
be John Moray, who is said, by Nisbet,^ to have granted a charter of the 
barony of Ballencrieff in favour of his future wife Mary, daughter of 
Malise, Earl of Stratheme. This deed appears to have no date ; but as 
Ballencrieff belonged to Sir Henry Pinkeny (brother of a claimant to the 
Crown), probably till Bannockbum, it may have been confiscated by Bruce 
about that time and given to this John Moray. Maurice Moray, perhaps 
the son of John, was owner of part of Ballencrieff about 1335,* probably 
the same person as Maurice Moray of Drumsaigard, who became Earl 
of Stratheme, and fell at the battle of Neville's Cross or Durham in 

In the reign of Kobert XL (1371-1390) two lords of Drumsargard are 
recorded, — Walter Moray, to whom that king grants a charter of 
Ardromy, in the barony of Banff, Perthshire (Robertson, IndeXy p. 117, 
No. 74) ; and Alexander Moray, who in 1375 entered into an indenture 
with Eupheme Ross, the queen, and her son David, for their assistance 
to enable him to recover his inheritance (hereditas). This deed is 
quoted in Crawfurds' Peerage (p. 42), as among the Abercaimey 
charters. Mr Riddell, who notices it in his Stewartiana (p. 89), 
ridicules the notion that this " inheritance " was BothwelL But he was 
then advocating the claim of another branch of the Morays to the chief- 
ship of Bothwell, and besides was not aware that Drumsargard was a 
distinct house before 1296, and must therefore have come off the main 
stock several generations earlier than was known, till the late republi- 
cation of the Ragman Roll in connection with the yet existing seals. 

At this point — the last quarter of the fourteenth century — I can trace 
the possessors of Drumsargard with no certainty for a generation. It 

* Heraldry, vol. i. p. 258. 

' Original RoU of Exchequer (Public Record Office). 


could not have come into the possession of the Douglases in 1370, by 
marriage of Archibald the Grim, and Johanna, daughter (or widow) of 
Thomas Moray of BothwelL^ The Douglases probably got possession 
of it in some irregular fashion, somewhat later, during the weak reign 
of Robert III. The first notice I see of their ownership, is a charter 
by Archibald, fourth Earl of Douglas, to John of Park and Janet 
Chisholme his wife, of the lands of Gilbertfield, in the barony of Drum- 
sargard. It has no date, but is granted at his Castle of Bothwell. 
Andrew Stuart, who found it in the charter chest of his relatives the 
Stuarts of Castlemilk {History p. 324), considered it to have been 
granted about 1411. The Earl was made prisoner at Homildon in 
September 1402, and was kept in England, with short intervals, for 
nine or ten years, and it may have been granted during one of these 
intervals.* The Douglases held the barony till they were forfeited in 
1455, when James, first Lord Hamilton, obtained it,^ and with the 
Hamilton family it still remains. 

Before adverting to the lands outside of the barony, it may be 
remarked, that so early as 1296, one small freeholder existed in Cam- 
buslang, who has hitherto escaped notice. This was " Hugh Croket of 
Kameslank,"* who appears on the Ragman Roll with others of Lanark- 
shire. His seal, with the punning device of a squirrel eating, is still 
preserved. Hugh is certainly the earliest known freeholder of the barony, 
and it is very likely that the tenement of " Crookedshield " within it 
took its name from him. A William Croket, of the adjoining parish of 
Kilbride, also appears on the rolL His seal is also still preserved. 

Besides these feus of Gilbertfield and Crookedshields, the next in 
point of antiquity is Lethrig or Lettrick. Sir John of St Clair, lord 
of Lethrig, is a witness to a charter by Archibald, Earl of Douglas, 
granted at Edinburgh in 12th March 1420-21, in favour of Archibald 
of Hepburn, brother german of Adam of Hepburn, lord of Hales, of 

1 As stated in Essay on Cambuslang, p. 69. 

' This deed may probably have got into the Castlemilk papers for this reason. 
Archibald Douglas, the previous Earl, was owner of the barony of Cormunnock, 
which adjoins Drumsargard on the south-west, in 1388 (Exchequer Bolls). 

• Beg. hfag. Sig. , voL it No. 601. 

^ A spelling closely resembling the local pronunciation of the word. 


the lands of Flemington, in the barony of Drumsargard. In later 
times several of these feus, with other parts of the barony, cg.y 
Newton, Westbum, Greenlees, Spital, &c., were granted to cadets of the 
Hamilton family; but I believe all have reverted to the Duke by 
purchase or otherwise, except Newton and Spital, the former 
belonging to Mr Hamilton Montgomery, the latter to the family of 
Jackson, old feuars in the adjoining barony of Blantyre. 

The other estate forming the remainder of the modem parish, but not 
within the barony, cannot be traced quite so far back. This is Coats 
aluis Nobles-farm, a £5 land of old extent, in one place called the 
East Ferme of Rutherglen. This is in the Register of Paisley (p. 107), 
where it is said that Master John of Merton, rector of Cambuslang in 
1394, had ineffectually claimed the tithes as a pertinent of the chapel 
of the B.V. Mary of Cambuslang. This evidently refers to the founda- 
tion (or augmentation) of a previous rector, William of Monypeny, who 
mortified an annualrent of 6 marks which he had acquired from Sir 
William of Dalyelle, knight, charged on the above estate, for a chaplain 
celebrating in the said chapel. Crawf urd {Remarks on Bagman Bolt) 
says that in 1467 a family called Noble had a charter of these lands. 
James V. confirmed on 14th July 1537 a charter by James Nobill of 
NobiUis-ferme, in favour of Walter Crawfurd of Ferme, and Mariota 
Maxwell his wife, of his land of Nobillis-ferme, vie, Lanark, the 
reddendo being 6 marks yearly of blench farm to the chaplain of the 
B.V. Mary of Nobillis-ferme. {Reg, Mag, Sig,, vol. iL new edition. 
No. 1688.) They subsequently passed with an heiress, Christian 
Craufurd, shortly after 1600, to her husband Sir Walter Stewart of 
Mynto, and remained with that family for fifty or sixty years, when they 
were sold to the Hamilton family, who still possess them. It seems 
more than probable that they were originally part of the parish of 
Kutheiglen, and have been at some date now unknown disjoined from 
it and added to Cambuslang. Even now a part of the boimdary of 
these two parishes is not properly defined for a considerable distance. 
A glance at Forrest's excellent map of the coimty of Lanark shows that 
the barony of Drumsargard has a well-defined water boundary at nearly 
all the points of the compass; while Coats, without a single natural 

cambuslang: some notes on its early lords. 385 

boundary except where it touches Drumsargard, has quite the look of a 
piece cut out of the parish of Rutherglen. I feel much inclined to think 
that originally, the barony of Drumsargard and the parish of Cambus- 
lang were co-extensive, notwithstanding some opinions to the contrary. 

With a word or two on the origin of the name I may close. Though 
no Graelic scholar, the derivation given in the old Statistical Account as 
the " ridge of the parched height," is far inferior, in a common-sense 
point of view, to Druim-sagart — " the priest's hill," which I see is the 
one favoured by the Rev. Mr Blair, the parish minister of Cambuslang. 
No one who knows the place can fail to see its appropriateness. On the 
gentle slopes surrounding the mound on which the old Castle once 
stood, the people of the district could with ease witness the rites of a 
worship doubtless older than Christianity; and St Cadoc, said to have 
been the first Christian missionary, may very likely have as usual 
adopted the spot where the pagans worshipped, till the lord of the land 
provided him or his successors with the site where a church has stood 
for centuries, the Kirk-hill of Cambuslang. 



On the point of land west of the present house of Bayann, and below 
Sellafirth, about the period between the years 1833-35, some ancient 
remains came to light at a spot called the ^^Tafts" (t.d, the Seats), 
stones being known to be loosely lying in the cultivated riggs above the 
brow of the cliffi Mr John Hoseason of Bayann commenced to win 
stones from here to build a new farm-house across the bum of Leoygie, 
and also to form a stone beach below the banks, on which to dry salt fish 
from Gloup fishing station. When his workmen began to raise these 
stones, many were discovered to be old knocking stones for husking here ; 
while below others, which were placed in a circle, were found stone 

VOL. XIX. 2 B 


knives, some of which were of au unusual shape, being (so far as the writer's 
memory goes in the case of one he saw) of a roughly triangular form with 
a small round hole perforated in one comer, the hole being evidently 
for a string to pass through. This specimen went afterwards to 
England. I have never heard of knives of this description having been 
found anywhere else in Shetland. No care of the remains was taken^ 
nor was there any one on the spot who took special interest in such 
discoveries. Several of the knocking-stones remained in the constructed 
beach for years afterwards and may still be there. The writer's remem- 
brance is but from a single casual visit to the place as a boy while the 
excavations were going oa Fortunately he has been able to obtain an 
account by another who saw the excavations about the same time. 

Miss Maigaret £. Jamieson, in a letter to mo dated 1st August 1883, 
states that she remembers very well the finding of these objects, though 
she was but a child at the time. The men came on a number of stones 
of a hard quality that had been hollowed out like the old Shetland 
knocking-stones for shelling or husking the here which was used instead 
of pot-barley, a luxury unknown to the poor in those days. The hollows 
in these stones, however, were different from the common form of the 
knocking-stone, inasmuch as they were oblong instead of being circular 
in outline. There were also two large quern stones found standing on 
their edges. Among the stones large quantities of ashes and a consider- 
able number of human bones were found, and a large bank of shells has 
since been laid open by the inroads of the sea at the same spot. Similar 
remains were also found opposite the Tafts, at a place called "The 
Whumblins of Cunnister," where there seems also to have been a group 
of ancient buildings, though no one showed sufficient interest in them 
to collect any of the relics. 

It may not be uninteresting at the same time to place on record the 
following memorandum of the occurrence of ancient remains at Norwick 
in Unst. Mr John Henderson, in a letter to me dated at Norwick, 17 th 
February 1885, states that he lives at the place which is marked on the 
map as the " Buins of Bartle's Kirk,'' and that the site abounds in 
broken remains of vessels of pottery and stone implements, but he has 
never seen an entire specimen of either sort. A year or two ago there 


was a stone coffin found about two feet under the surface, formed of 
five slabs, the lid being away, and the cavity nieasuring little over two 
feet square. In the bottom there was a thin layer of a brownish stuff 
resembling ashes. About four yards S.S.W. from it there was a stone 
about 4 feet in length and 9 inches in diameter, standing on its end 
with its top near the surface. The lower end of this long stone rested 
on a flat slab, underneath which was a layer of clay in which the prints 
of two human feet were distinctly visible. The footmarks were about 
10 inches in length and very broad in proportion, from which it was 
evident that the feet which made them had never been confined in 

In some MS. memoranda by the late Thomas Irvine of Midbrake, 
there is the following entry regarding Norwick : — " Kirk at Norwick, 
dedicated to St John, probably one of the earliest built in the country. 
About two or three feet high of the walls, and an arch which spanned 
the middle of the building (a very picturesque object), were standing in 
1822. The Be v. Mr William Archibald, I believe, preached in it 
Some cross-headed grave-stones are in the churchyard. A ruin called 
Bartle's Kirk is on the north side of the Bum of Troal below Vellie, 
probably dedicated to St Bartholomew, and locally said to have been 
built on the site of a heathen temple. The old manse and glebe of 
Unst was at Norwick, and was called * Virse.' " 



AMAZONAS, BRAZIL. By Pbofksbob DUNS, D.D., F.S.A. Scar. 

The fourteen sets of photographs now on the table, together with a 
work entitled Do Rio Janeiro ao Amazonas e Alto Madeira^ were 
recently presented to the Society, through R. H. Gunning, Esq. M.D., 
F.S.A. Scot., by Dr Moreing, M.I.C.E., member of the Instituto Poly- 
technico Brasilino — a gentleman who has recently been elected a 
Corresponding Member of the Society. The collection of photographs 
was made by Dr Morsing, as engineer-in-chief of the Commission for 
the Survey of the proposed route for the Madeira and Marmore railway. 
In forwarding them to Dr Gunning, Dr Morsing says : — " By looking 
carefully at the photographs, you will see that the names of the 
Brazilian naval officers, Schaw, Bessa, Laurindo, and Barbosa appear 
very often. The reason is that they made the drawings of these inscrip- 
tions when they were by Government orders sent up these rivers on 
scientific explorations. As a general rule, the inscriptions have a depth 
of J of an inch, by J an inch in width, with the edges rounded, show- 
ing great age." The mode of copying them was, by one man holding a 
paper firmly against the rock, while another followed the inscription 
with the tip of the forefinger of the left hand, and with the other hand 
used a piece of charcoal in tracing the depression made, " obtaining in 
this way an exact copy." The draftsman and photographer of the 
Survey party, Camillo Vedani, then made drawings from the rubbings, 
and with the utmost care and exactness reduced the drawings to a small 
scale, and afterwards photographed them. " These details account for 
the fineness of the lines in all the figures. During seven months of 
the year these inscriptions are under water, and the Indians during the 
floods keep in the forest, and only come to the river banks when the 
waters are low, and fish, &c., have left the laige lakes and lagoons in 
the interior." It is to be hoped that the original rubbings have found 
a place in the Bio de Janeiro Museum, as it would be interesting to 


see the effects of water-wear and weathering in connection with the 
exceptional position of these incised sculptures. Much, of course, will 
depend on the lithological character of the rocks. In Franz Keller's 
able work, The Amazon and Madeira Rivers^ London, 1874, references 
are made to rock-inscriptions in the same localities, and details are 
given which shed some light on these now before us. He says : — " On 
one of these islands (in the Madeira river), with the aid of a lantern, I 
discovered, when preparing to take astronomical observations, some flatly 
incised designs, some of them spiral lines and others semicircular, on the 
dark brown polished surface of several vertically poised slabs of rocks, 
the largest of which was 2 metres in height, with a breadth and thick- 
ness of 1 J metre. The figures, two or three centimetres high, were 
excised only 3 or 4 millimetres deep." Again, farther up the river — 
" I found in climbing over the rocks of the right shore another written- 
rock covered with spiral lines, and concentric rings evenly carved in the 

black gneiss-like material, and similar to those of the CaldeirSo 

A dark brown coat of glaze, found everywhere on the surface of the 
stones laved by the water, covers the black so uniformly, as well on the 
concave glyphs as on the parts untouched by the instrument, that many 
ages must have elapsed since some patient Indian spent long hours in 
cutting them out with his quartz chisel" Keller asks. Can these in- 
scriptions have been made by the ancient Incas of Peru in some conquer- 
ing expedition ? He thinks it little probable that a rude nation of 
hunters, like the forefathers of the Caripunas, would spend months in 
incising these figures. It will be seen that the drawing from Keller, 
now shown, gives a much better idea of the appearance in siiu of these 
sculptures than the photographs. Twelve of the photographs are devoted 
to the rock-inscriptions. These may be arranged under seven groups — 
A, including sets 1 and 2 ; B, 3 to 6 ; C, 7 and 8 ; D, 9 ; E, 10 ; F, 
11 ; and G, 12. Six of these, A to F, refer to individual localities; 
G contains examples from several different places (see the accompanying 
figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, for examples from these groups).^ 

^ The references are to illostrate groups of specimens of these rock-inscriptions, 
rather than single examples. When particular objects are noticed they will be found 
in the group referred to. 





The literature of this subject is yearly growing. Recent anthropology 
recognises the value of matenals for which it is increasingly being 
indebted to archaology, even as the latter does the value of the records 

Fig. 2. Incised Stones, right bank of the Rio Negro, 
in the territory of the Waimiri Indiana. 

of travel, with their rapidly accumulating references to the industrial 
and other remains of extinct savage tribes, and to the weapons, imple- 
ments, utensils, and habits of existing tribes. Under the terms. 



" written-rocks," " pictographs," "picture-writing," "rock-inscriptions," 
" rock-ideographs," we have much material — materia rudis, chaos informe 
— waiting for differentiation. Any attempt to face this, even though it 

Fig. 3. Incised Stones, right bank of the Rio Negro, 
in the territory of the Waimiri Indians. 

gets no farther than the recognition of its existence, is not without use. 
The very wide geographical distribution of these inscriptions is seen, 
when it is remembered that they occur in Continental Europe, the 




British Isles, Palestine, Arabia, India, Ceylon, the Andaman Islands, 
the Nicobar Islands, Japan, North and South America, Africa, Australia, 
New Zealand, Hew Guinea, Fiji, &c, and thai alt have tome figvrm 
comnum to each. What is the significance of this I Does it ahed light 
on the question of the unity of the human racet Will it help the 
anthropologist in tracing the leading tribal differentiations of the race 

Fig. 6. looiBeil Stones from Tavareta, Rio Waapes. 

up to one great group T Does it point to migrations of the chief families 
of mankind, and dooa it help to track the path of these t Do the 
ptctographs of New Zealand, the cave-pictures of the Bushmen, or 
the written-rocks of North and South America, countenance the theory 
that their authors were men whose fathers had been in contact with 
a higher condition of civilisation I And when to these questions we 
add others, even more formidable, touching the age of the writing and 


its alleged deTelopmontal stagea, we can underatand how wide the 
aphero is vrithin which hypothesia may have free and unlimited sweep, 
Nevertholesa, a comparative view of the materials even now within 

Fig. 9. locbed Stonea of Jloun. 
roach, reveala data which warrant inductions of great anthropological 
interest. As, for example, that the gift of langnage does not lie in 
the language formed, but in the po^er to form it : that where within 


one area, as say Brazil, the dialects are as numerous as the tribes, if the 
same root elements are found in all, there is prima facte evidence of 
original family unity : and that while the characteristic forces which led 
to the formation of special tribes may be lost, they may yet have been 
similar to those of which we have historical proofs in other areas. 

Ascribing a lingmstic value to the pictographs and incised characters 
in rocks, they are appealed to in support of two theories — the 
autochthonic theory of origin and the theory of immigration from 
distant centres — which opens a wide field of discussion. I refer to 
them only as they are linked with the rock-inscriptions. The former 
regarded from a purely scientific point of view seems to me reached by 
a process which itself is purely speculative. The occurrence of figures of 
animals on the rocks, or of representatives of sun, moon, stars, clouds, 
rain, &c., and last, of signs clearly derived from them (figs, as above), is 
held to point to throe stages of development — animal-worship (zootheism), 
nature-worship physitism), and spirit-worship {polytheism leading to 
monotheism), which finds expression in written language.. The scheme 
violates the first principles of scientific method, and ignores a multitude 
of facts where historical authenticity is beyond question. The immi- 
gration theory is the favourite one in Brazil. In forwarding the photo- 
graphs, Dr Gunning remarks: — **Dr Horsing's letter to me, and the 
book will help members of the Society to understand the inscriptions 
which seem to support the theory of an Oriental immigration to Mexico, 
Peru, and the Amazon region." No doubt, this theory can appeal to 
many facts, but it is doubtful if these warrant any sharply defined 
inferences as to the starting-point and ultimate course of the migra- 
tion. Should the rock-incised figures of animals, natural objects, and 
signs be ultimately found to have a true linguistic value, it might 
come to be possible to determine the centre from which the Redskins 
started, and the course by which they reached their present areas ; but 
materials are not yet in hand for this, though many hold that these 
signs and symbols bear the clearest resemblance to letters in eastern 
and north-eastern Asiatic alphabets. Some even find the starting-point of 
the early western civilisation in the South American continent. Thus 
the Abbe Brasseur de Bourbourg points to the Maya alphabets of 



Yucatan and the Quich6 of Guatemala as containing the primitive 
forms of Greek and Latin letters I light, however, ia gradually gather- 
ing round the matter. American ethnolgists are making good use of 
intelligent members of existing Indian tribes, by getting from them the 
meaning of pictographs and inscriptions still current among them, and 
by employing their knowledge of these as keys to more ancient forms. 
Much has already been done by such men as Eliot (1666), School- 
craft, Squier, Stephens, Ludwig, F. Mtiller, Hind, Powell, Holding, 
Mallery, A. H. Keane, and others. The names imply a division 
of labour, by the continuance of which alone we may hope for 
substantial scientific points in the future. The field is so very wide 
that no one's life would be long enough for an exhaustive survey. 
Keane gives a list of 1700 historical Indian tribes, each of which has 
its own linguistic idiom (" Appendix to Bates' Central and South 
America,** in Stanford's Compendium of Geography and Travel^ 1882). 
In addition to all this the polysynthetic character of many if not all 
of the dialects presents formidable difficulties from which monosyllabic 
and polysyllabic languages are free. Polysynthesis implies the presence 
of several ideas, and even, perhaps, the association of several shades of 
meaning with the same ideas, all thrown into one polysyllabic term 
pronounced as one word. And this system enters into symbol writing. 
Keane gives an example from the Iroquois. Their word for wine is 
" oTieJiaradeschoengtseragJieriey'* the ideas included being " a liquor, made 
of the juice of the grape," whose symbol might have been a linear 
finger and thumb pressing a vine berry, only the indication of man's 
agency in the preparation would have added several syllables to the 
word ! Now it is here that some of the difficulties of the Oriental 
immigration theory emerge. For example, the Eskimo dialects present 
such words as '^aanigikainianartokasuaromaryotittogog" where poly- 
synthesis, as Keane remarks, links the Eskimo with purely American 
tribes. But the Innuit dialects of Asia are closely related to the 
Eskimo, and Keane (tU supra) thinks they " imply rather an Eskimo 
migration westwards than an Asiatic migration eastwards." Over and 
above all this, it is now known that, as with the Egyptian homophones^ 
the same idea may be represented by more than one symbol. This 
introduces other elements of uncertainty. 


The fruits of a painstaking examination of the Brazilian photographs, 
and a careful companson of the figures with those of written rocks and 
rock pictographs in other localities, are not very substantial, unless, 
indeed, some value be attached to the feeling that in the face of much 
temptation to theorise the temptation has been resisted. Looking at 
the spirals (fig. 2), circles (figs. 2, 5), maze-like figures (figs. 2, 3, 4, 5), 
spectacle-like ornaments (fig. 1), cups, arrows, lines wayed, twisted, 
straight, or oblique, it was hardly to be expected that there would 
be none to remind one of the pictographs of South Africa and New 
Zealand, the incised stones of North America, the Sinaitic inscrip- 
tions, and even the rock sculptures of Northumberland and Fife. 
And so in regard to letter-like characters (figs. 1-4), if we keep firmly 
in mind that resemblance more or less marked is not identity, we 
might point out the likeness of many of the forms on the Brazilian 
rocks to those on the rocks of the Wady Mukatteb, on Punic and 
Himyaritic coins, on the Moabite stone, or among the Egyptian hiero- 
glyphs, without postulating an Oriental immigration for all the South 
American Indian tribes — ^just as the resemblance of several of these to 
Runic and to English characters is not sufficient to warrant the theory 
of an immigration from North Europe. With regard to the figures 
from Keller, the same remarks might be made. Corresponding circles 
occur in Punic inscriptions, the oblong figure with the perpendicular bar 
is met with in the enchorial, or writing of the common people, at 
Nimroud, the double eyeglass-like object is often represented in the 
Wady Mukatteb inscriptions, and the three strokes on each side of the 
segment of the circle have a strong resemblance to hieroglyphic numerals, 
according to which each three would represent 10,000 and 2. With 
even a very feeble fancy, interpretations of this sort are easily within 

To return to the photographs. Three priest-like persons (^g, 3) are 
figured in flowing robes and with a glory round the head. One of these 
has five fingers on the left hand and four on the right The other 
has the normal number on both hands. But in all the other hands 
shown in the different groups, the number of fingers is three. 
Examples of geometric ornamentation are represented in figs. 1, 2, 4. 


In set 8, group C, there are sixteen rude representations of human 
heads formed by straight lines ; and in set 10, group £, there are 
about thirty, but these are all formed by curved lines. In set 11, 
group F, there is a figure with round human head, and long, trailing, 
worm-like body (fig. 6). Is this the fabulous Minhocfto (big-worm), 
the Lorelei of the Rio Negro 1 The representatives of animals include 
three or four of the peccary (1) (figs. 3, 4) — one of the jaguar (fig. 2), 
monkeys (fig. 1), one bird, serpents, beetles, mantis, and walking-stick 
insects {Phaama). But there are no ant-eaters, no sloths, alligators, 
turtles, nor fishes. With only two doubtful exceptions, there are no 
figures of plants. Perhaps these omissions tell in favour of the symbol- 
writing hypothesis. A similar eclecticism was practised in Egypt. 
Many of the best known animals of that country have no place in the 
Egyptian monuments. But while giving full expression to all the 
elements of the imcertainty indicated above, there yet seems to be data 
for assigning to the South American Indian '^ rock-writing " a literary 
value. And if so, we may cherish the hope, that by the discovery of a 
key to them, like what the Bosetta stone was to the hieroglyphics of 
Egypt) the beasts and birds and material objects will yet be found to 
represent " the sounds of language and the expression of thoughts." 



J. BEATON, C.E., F.aA. Scot., Bangor, North Wales. 

Onnond or Lady Hill lies on the east side of the northern shore of 
the Inverness Firth, and midway between Inverness and Fortrose, 
forming one of the headlands which guard the entrance to the Bay of 
Munlochy. The highest point of the hill is 390 feet, but the knoll 
on its eastern shoulder, on which the castle stood, is only 200 feet 
above sea-leveL 

The castle is supposed to have been one of the royal erections built 
in the twelfth century, to keep in check the disloyal inhabitants of the 
district. We find it chronicled that in 1179 King William the Lion 
erected two castles in the lordship of Ardmanach [the Black Isle] ; one 
of these was Eedcastle, and Ormond Castle is supposed to be the other. 

The ancient name of Redcastle was Eddyrdor. In 1278 it was in 
possession of Sir Andrew de Boscho and his wife Elizabeth, and they 
paid two merks yearly to the monks of Beauly at their Castle of 
Eddirdovar. In 1230 it belonged to Sir John Bisset, who built the 
Beauly Priory.- In 1455 the Barony of Edderdail and the Red Castle, 
with the lordships of Ross belonging thereto, were annexed to the Crown 
by James IL; and in 1481 (5th April) James III. granted to his second 
son, the Marquis of Ormond, the lands of the lordship of Ardmannache, 
called Avauch, and Nethej*dale, with the moot hill of Ormond and the 
castle and fortalice of Redcastle. The building of Redcastle is consider- 
ably modernised, and so much changed that its original form can now 
be only conjectured. Mr Alexander Ross, architect, referring to it at 
a meeting of the Inverness Field Club, says : — " It appears to me that 
the oldest portion is the south front overlooking the firth, and that it 
constituted the keep or main tower ; the east and south fronts seem to 
form two sides of a pentagon, which may have been the form of the 
great enclosure, a plan not uncommon in our Highland castles." 


In the Onginea Parochiales ScoticB we have the followiiig : — " From 
the Castle of Avoch, known as the Castle of Ormond, Ormondy or 
Ormond Hill and Douglas Castle, Hugh of Douglas, between 1440 and 
1448, drew the style of Earl of Ormond ; and James Stewart, the second 
son of King James III., between 1460 and 1481, drew the style of 
Marquis of Ormond. In 1481, as we have seen. King James III. 
granted the lands of Avauch, with the moot-hill of Ormond, to the 
Marquis of Ormond, who about 1503 resigned the lands, but retained 
the moot-hill in order to preserve his title." 

A writer of the seventeenth century mentions " Ormond Hill south- 
ward from the church [of Avoch], with the remains of a castle," and 
elsewhere describes it as " Castletown, with the ruynes of a castle called 
the Castle of Ormond, which hath given style to sundrie earls, and last 
to the princes of Scotland." The foundations of the Castle remain on 
the top of a hill near Castletown Point, on the Bay of Munlochy, about 
200 feet above the level of the sea. They occupy a space 350 feet by 
160 feet, and the castle seems to have been built of coarse red sand- 
stone and lime, with a ditch on one side. The Hill of Castletown is 
now known as Ormond Hill or Ladyhill, — the latter name having arisen 
evidently from the dedication of its chapel. 

The following is an extract quoted in Anderson's Gutdfi to tlie High- 
lands: — 

" On a rocky mound called * Ormond * or * Ladyhill,* stood the ancient 
Castle of Avoch, to which, as related by Wyntoun, the Regent, Sir 
Andrew de Moravia, retired from the fatigues of war, and ended his 
days about the year 1338, and was buried in the 'Cathedral Kirk of 
Rosemarkin.' ^ Passing afterwards into the possession of the Earls of 
Ross, this castle was, on their forfeiture in 1476, annexed to the Crown, 
when James the Third created his second son Duke of Ross, Marquis of 

* S«e Fraser-Ty tier's History of Scotland^ vol. ii. p. 65. It apijeare strange that 
no trace of Regent Moray's grave has been discovered about the eatliedrnl tombs 
of Fortrose. Tliere arti three tombs built under the arches of the remaining aisle, 
one of which is regarded as being the tomb of a Countess of Ross, supposed to have 
been the foundress of the church ; tlie other as of its first bisliop, and probably 
tlie remains of the third may have held the Regent 

VOL. XIX. 2 



Ormond, and Earl of Edirdal, otherwise called Ardmanache ; and hence 
this district, which still bears these names, thus became one of the 
regular appanages of the royal family of Scotland." ^ 

This annexation in the time of James II. was repeated and confirmed 
by the whole Parliament on 1st July 1476, in favour of James III., 
who afterwards, on 29tli January 1487, created his second son Duke of 
Ross, Marquis of Ormondy and Earl of Edirdale otherwise called 
Ardmanache or the Black Isle ; ^ from which j>eriod the lordship of 
Ardmanache was generally considered as part of the i)atriraony of the 
king's second son {Ads of Scot, Parlianumfy Thomson's folio edition, 
pp. 42, 113, and 181). 

In October 1883 I made a survey of the top of Ormond Hill and the 
ruins of the castle, but, notwithstanding the assistance of several men, 
kindly sent by Mr Fletcher of Rosehaugh for excavating, the amount of 
debris requiring removal was so great, that we only succeeded in clearing 
one tower, marked A on plan I therefore experienced great difficulty 
in tracing the original outline as shown on the annexed plan (see fig.) ; 
the walls being so much overgrown with turf, the whole area must needs 
be excavated to obtain a thoroughly reliable ground plan. So far as 
measured, we found pretty welUletined traces of walls ; but the towers, 
which now appear as circular, may prove to be square when cleared out, 
as did the one at A on the plan, which presented a circidar appearance 
before being cleared out, but when dug to a depth of 6 feet revealed an 
inside opening 9 feet square, with substantially built walls in siindstone 
and mortar, 4 feet thick. In this tower we found a very fine sandstone 
door rybat, with the " droving " or chisel marks distinctly clear. This 
stone is now in the possession of Mr Douglas Fletcher at Rosehaugh 

The plan indicates that the castle was of an oval form, following the 

* The earldom of Ross aud lordship of Ardmauoch are appointed to be the patri- 
mony of the king's second son, James VI., par. 11, en p. 30. 

' The original appellation of the BlHck Isle waA £dderdail, or the land between 
the two arms of the sea ; some think that this name in course of time might be- 
come corrnpt«d to ** Ellandhu," which is the Gaelic for Black Isle. **Ardmea- 
nach *' signifies a height in the middle, and *' Ardmanach " the land or territory 
of the monks.— See Proe. Soc. Aniiq. Scot., June 1883, p. 477. 


contour of the hill, siiuilar in outline to many ancient places of defence. 
The summit of the hill is moderately flat, so far as occupied by the 
castle, and showing a unifonn, and rather artificial slope of about one to 
one, starting abruptly from the edge of a wall 4 feet thick which runs all 
round; while on the east side a fosse or dry <litch traverses the nose of 
the hill, running for 30 or 40 yards around the north and south sides ; 
this ditch is now 6 feet wide at the bottom, with a mound on east side 
rising 5 feet above the level of the bottom, 9 feet wide on the top, and 
sloping li to 1 on either side. The total length from east to west is 
about 470 feet and 150 feet broad at the widest part. As may be seen on 
the plan, there seems to have been a detached portion at the west end. 
I regret that a more complete plan cannot be presented on this occasion, 
but I hope after completing further excavations to present a complete 
plan of the original outline. I have only drawn on this plan what can 
now be traced, and I have dotted in such portions as remain doubtful. 

The " well " shown is merely an excavation scooped out of the con- 
glomerate rock, and being filled with stones, I could not ascertain its 
actual depth. I managed to push down a rod about 3 feet, which I 
believe is nearly its maximum deptli. Tradition has it that in the 
bottom of this well the treasures of the castle were thrown, and the 
buildings set on fire by the occupants, on seeing the ajtproach of 
Cromwell's army against it. That the materials of the building were 
removed from the site, there is abundance of evidence, for from the 
summit to the shore, the track where the stones were rolled down can 
be easily traced, and a large block of the building, still lying on the shore, 
and weighing fully 4 tons, testifies to the truth of this supposition. 

Hoard of Mat Bronze Celts found at Ladyhill, — Through the kind- 
ness of Mr Hutchison, W.S., Elgin, I am enabled to send drawings of 
two of a hoard of five bronze Celts found many years ago in the vicinity 
of Ladyhill, and presented by James Fletcher, Esq. of Rosehaugh, to the 
Elgin Museum. 

Drawing No. 1 represents — fidl size — the most perfect specimen. 
It is of the ordinary type of flat bronze Celt, 5 inches long, and 24 
inches wide at the broadest point across the cutting face. 


No. 2 is less perfect in outline, and measures 5^ inches in length 
and 2 J inches at widest part across the cutting face. The other three 
are all more or less of uniform shape, and similar in every respect to the 
two which have been described. They were discovered while trenching 
a field in the vicinity of the niins of the castle. 

Small cannon balls are also sometimes discovered in the field adjoining, 
and one weighing about 4 lbs. was found while digging a sand-pit about 
600 yards north of the castle. 

Standing Stone. — In the vicinity of the castle and a little further up 
Munlochy Bay, there stands on the terrace, on a circidar mound about 
10 feet high and 44 yards in circumference, an obelisk of red sandstone 
12 inches by 9 inches, slightly tapereil, and 8 feet 8 inches high above 
the ground. According to tradition, it was placed there by a giant who 
lived in the cave of Craigiechow, immediately opposite ; it is, however, 
most probable that it is a monument erected by the Mathesons, once 
owners of these lands of Bennetsfield, as it bears on the west face the 
initials G.MK. and date 1752, and on the opposite face I.M. E.MK., 
1755, with the Caberfeidh (stag's head) or the Mackenzie crest, and the 
name of John Matheson and Elizabeth — the surname being hid by a 
clasp of iron which binds the stone.^ Northwards from Ormond Castle, 
and within sight of it, and about | of a mile north of Avoch Church, are 
the ruins of Arkendeith Tower, called '* Airc-Eoin-dubh," or Black John's 
Ark or place of safety. Black John was a Highland reiver : making 
raids on his surrounding neighbours, and carrying his booty in safety 
to his strong fortaliced dwelling. Nothing now remains of it but the 
lower stoiy, consisting of a strong walled square room, with the arched 
or vaidted roof of the dungeon still intact ; it seems an erection contem- 
poraneous with Fairbum Tower in the west of the Black Isle, and 
{)erhaps not of so much antiquity as is generally ascribed to it In the 
Ketours (1611-18) there is mention of the Bnices of Kinloss holding the 
lands of Muireal-house and Arkindeuch. 

' Immediately below this moDument is Craigock Well, to which hundreds resort 
for its healing virtues on the first Sabbath of summer. A dripping well in Craigie- 
chow Cave is supposed to cure deafness. 



By J. RUSSELL WALKER, Architect, F.S.A. Scot. 

These recuiubeiit atones are of rare occurrence and singular type. 
By some writers they have been described as " hog backed," from the 
peculiar resemblance the curved top has to the back of a hog ; and by 
others they have been described as keel or boat shaped. The area in 
which they are found is, so far as I can find, limited to England and 
Scotland, and in each country there seems to be only a very small 
number of examples — probably thirteen or fourteen at the most. One 
or two writers have referred to them as coffin lids, but a single glance 
at their transverse sections serves to dispel that idea ; and there can be 
no doubt, I think, that they w^re used singly, and possibly in group, 
as recumbent memorials. Why they took this shai)e is a matter for 
considerable speculation. They have been called Danish, Dano-Scottish, 
Celtic, and Saxon. The period of their production may, I think, range 
from the ninth to the twelfth century. 1 will now describe those I 
have seen and made drawings of. 

The first of these monuments to l»e now noticed (fig. 1) is at Abi»r- 
com, in Linlithgowshire ; its present position is a little to the south- 
west of the interesting old church, ami it lies almost due east and west. 
It measures 6 feet 3 inches in length, and is 16 inches thick at the 
centre ; both sides curve downwards from a narrow flat ridge, which is 
not placed at what the apex of a triangle would give aa the centre of 
the stone, but to the one side, so that one side has a sharper curve than 
the other ; both sides are covered with straight rows of a regidar scale- 
like ornament, very commonly used in Romanesque architecture for the 
decoration of ciipitals, string courses, Sec. The curve of the top is not 
a regular fall to each end from the centre, but falls more quickly to one 
end, the heiglit of the stone in the middle being 2 feet 1 inch, at the 
highest end 1 foot 8 inches, and the other end 1 foot 5 inches. The 
flat ridge is regular in width from end to end, and slightly raised above 
the surface, and at each end there is a flat band al)out the same width, 

Fig. 1. Bfcunibent Monnmeiit st'Abercom. 


viz., 3 inches, running down the sides. At the botUjm of each side the 
stone is checked back about an inch, and fomis a plain undecorateil 
band from end to end of the stone ; the bottom is slightly hollowed out. 
Both ends are perfectly plain, and seem always to have been so. 
Towards the high end of the stone there are several lines drawn across 
the top and sides, intersecting each other on the ridge. So far as I can 
learn, it occupies its original position in the churchyard ; it is in excellent 
condition, and very little worn by the action of the weather. There is 
said to have been another of the same class here, but it has long since 
been lost sight of, very probably broken up or buried. 

The next example (tig. 2) is at Brechin. It is the most elaborate 
si>ecimen of the class that I have seen, the whole surface being beautifully 
covered with interlaced dragons and other figures ; four of these figures 
towanls the largest end of the stone are evidently intended to represent 
human beings. This stone does not have the peculiar outline that has 
induced several writers to give the fanciful name of "hog back" in 
writing of them. In section the stone is flat bottomed, the sides 
straight, and gradually rounding away to the top. The sculpture has 
been deeply and boldly cut. The present length of the stone is 4 feet 
8^ inches, but both ends seem t6 have been broken off; the greatest 
thickness is at the centre, where it measures 18 inches, at the smallest 
end it is barely 15 inches across; the greatest height is in the centre, 
and measures 10 inches by about 6^ inches at the small end. Its pre- 
sent position is within the ruined chancel of the fine old church, where 
it is fixed against the south wall. 

The third example (fig. 3) is at Domock, near Annnn, Dumfriesshire. 
I have had some hesitation in classing this stone as of this peculiar 
type — it may have been a coffin lid, but I can scarcely think so. It is 
triangular in section, with the sides perfectly flat ; it slightly increases 
in width towards the one end, and the top does not curve downwards 
to the ends, as is the case with other examples, but the ridge is flat and 
well developed. Each side is divided into four distinct panels by a 
small rounded l)ead, and the panels are filled in with a very peculiar leaf 
ornament, altogether different from anything in the way of ornament 
I know of in Scotland, but very similar in style and character to the 

I i^ 


SioB A. 

SiDK B. 



Cnd C 

Cnb D. 



Fig. 3. Recumbent Monument at Dornock. 


ornament on some of the capitals of the early churches at Glendalough, 
in Ireland. The ends are also ornamented — the narrow end with a fan- 
like pattern, and the other with four circles set in the arms of a cross, 
the whole being within a containing circle, raising the design above the 
rest of the stone. The length of the stone is 6 feet 8 inches, width at 
the largest end 2 feet, and at the small end 1 foot 9 inches, and the 
height 1 foot 3 inches. 

The next example (fig. 4) lies alongside that just described, and is of 
very similar character. The ends are higher than the centre, but this, I 
think, is due to mischief. Each side is divided into four equal panels, 
like the last, and filled in with raised foliated ornament. Tlie stone 
measures 6 feet 6 inches in length, by a uniform breadth of 2 feet, and 
an average height of 1 8 inches. Both of these stones are in the church- 
yard of Domock, close by the church, and easily found. 

At Govan there is a group of five of these peculiar monuments ; 
probably there are more, if the ground were carefully examined. 'I have 
made drawings of three of these, the other two are unfortunately nearly 
buried in the ground under a modern monument surrounded by a high 
railing. I understand the churchyard is to be raised and levelled when 
the new church is completed, and I may then be able to get drawings of 
them made. The first (fig. 5) is a very fine example of the class, and 
of large size. The ridge transversely is narrow and flat, and seems 
always to have been perfectly plain. The sides are divided into longi- 
tudinal bands, the upper band shows faint traces of a fret-like ornament ; 
next follow two rows with triangular spaces cut out, somewhat like 
tiles on a roof, each space having a clearly defined narrow margin or 
fillet round it. The lowest band on e;ich side is more of the panel 
shape, and filled in with a curious sort of half interlaced half fret-like 
ornament. Both sides convey the impression that the artist had either 
changed his mind pretty often during the progress of hia work, or that 
ho was working at a transitional period, when the old style was passing 
away and the new was not fully understood. On one end there is a 
small panel filled in with similar incised work ; the other end seems to 
have been meant to represent a head of some sort, but the stone is so 
worn that the indications are faint It measures 6 feet 6 inches in 

End at C. 


Fig. *. Recumbent Monument nt Dornock. 

Fig. S. Heciimlwiit Monument 


length by 2 feet 3 J inches high at the centre, the greatest thickness 
being 1 1 inches. There is a considerable curve on the base in the longi- 
tudinal direction, and its whole appearance is very much like a fisher's 
" cobble** turned upside down. 

The second monument at. Go van (fig. 6) is clearly meant to represent 
some animaL The head is well defined, and the eye prominent ; the 
back is flat on the top and plain, and slopes gently towards what we 
must call the tail end ; the sides are covered with scjuare flat scales, and 
the legs, though peculiar, are well marked. The sides below the 
decorated portion are straight and perfectly plain. The stone measures 
6 feet 8 inches long, 2 feet 5 inches high, and 15 inches at the thickest 

The third example at Govan (fig. 7) is the largest I have seen. It 
measures 7 feet 8 inches in length, 2 feet 3 J inches high, and 2 feet 
thick across the centre. The ridge is very narrow and rounded, and 
has been finished at one end with a serpent-like head, now much worn 
and defaced. Both sides are completely covered with the tile-like orna- 
ment (also seen in the first example) arranged in rows. In section this 
stone is almost a triangle, and the bottom is perfectly flat. 1 am inclined 
to think that both ends have been broken away, or at least partially 

The next example (fig. 8), in the island of Inchcolm, has had more 
attention bestowed upon it than any of the othei-s. In Stewart's 
metrical version of the History of Hector Boece^ finished about 1535, 
this so-called Danish monument is referred to. Sir Robert Sibbald, in 
his Histoi^ij of Fife^ published in 1710, gives a careful description of it. 
Pennant, in his Tour through Scotland in 1772, notices it; so also does 
Grose in 1797 ; and the late Sir James Y. Simi>son describes it in his 
paper on Inchcolm, read before the Society, and published in the Pro- 
ceedings.* The late Mr James Drummond, R.S.A., made a sketch of it 
for Sir James. Each end has terminated with a large head, but they 
are now much woni and defaced, and it is impossible to say what kind 
of creature they were meant to represent There is no defined ridge, as 
in the majority of the examples, the top rounding away into the sides, 

• Proceedings Soc. Antiq. Scot., vol. ii. p. 496. 


Fig. 6. Bfpu 111 bent Monument at Govai 

— ISf- 

Tiff ' * ' 

Fi);. 7. Kucumbeut Monument at G< 

Fig. 8. Recutubcnt Hoanment at Inchculm. 


and the whole being covered with a curious cup-like ornament regularly 
placed. One side shows on the lower central part a small square limbed 
cross, and on the other side there is the figure of a man holding what 
Pennant describes as a spear, but of which there remain now but very 
faint traces. 

Stewart's description of the monument is very interesting, because, as 
Sir J. Y. Simpson says, ** it is not only a personal observation," but also 
as showing that in the year 1535 "the recumbent sculptured *greit 
stane,' mentioned in the text, was regarded as the monument of a Danish 
leader, and that there stood beside it a stone cross, which has since un- 
fortunately dispppeared." After speaking of the burial of the Danes — 

" Into an yle callit Emonia, 
Sanct Colmis hecht now callit is this dae," 

and the great quantity of human bones still existing there, he adds : — 

" As I myself quhilk bee bene thair and sene 
Ane croce of stane thair standis on ane grene, 
Middis the feild quhair that they la ilk ane, 
Besyde the croce thair lyls ane greit stane ; 
Under the stane, in middle of the plane, 
Their chiftane lyis quhilk in the feild was slane." 

The length of the stone is only 5 feet 2 inches, thickness at the centre 
1 foot 1 inch, height 1 foot 8 inches at the highest point. It is a good 
deal weather worn. 

The next example {^g, 9) at Luss, on Lochlomond, seems to be of 
later date than any of the others. Transversely it is roof-shaped, slop- 
ing away on each side from a central ridge, and covered with the scale 
ornament seen on the Abercom example ; the sides are straight, and 
ornamented nearly along the whole length of one side with an inter- 
laced arcade of distinctly Norman character; the other side shows a 
shorter similar arcade, and three circular-shaped panels closely resembling 
the ordinary dedication crosses seen on pre-Reformation churche& One 
end has a slight resemblance to the head of a fish, the other is perfectly 
plain. Tlie length is 5 feet 1 1 inches, height at centre 1 foot 8 inches, 
and greatest thickness 18 inches. 

Fig. 9. Becnmbcnt Honnmeut at L 


The Meigle example (fig. 10) is of a peculiar shape, and differs from 
most of the others in that, viewed laterally, the top curve* from the 
height of 1 foot 1 1 inches at one end to nothing at the other end ; the 
narrow ridge is finished at the high end with a serpent-like head, and 
the sides are covered with the curious regular tile-like figures seen on 
the Go van examples, but without the narrow fillet running round the 
maigin of each. The side of the rounded ridge has been ornamented 
with an interlaced pattern, and running down the sides below the head 
there is a small panel filled with a small ornamental pattern that must, 
I think, have originally been an interlacing one. The high end is 
perfectly plain, and the flat portion of the other end filled in with the 
tile arrangement. The length is 5 feet 1 inch, greatest thickness 1 foot, 
and greatest height 1 foot 11 inches. There is a curious twist on this 
stone, the ridge being to the one side, the same as in the Abercom 
example; the bottom also is (unlike most of the others) not level, so 
that the one side is deeper than the other. 

This completes the description of the Scottish examples which I have 
drawn, and with the exception of one entirely disfigured at Go van, parts 
of two that seem to have been of the same type at St Andrews, and a 
coped stone in Orkney covered with the scale ornament,^ I know of no 
more in Scotland as yet discovered. 

Examples are to be found in England at Durham, Brompton, York, 
Bedale, Repton, Heysham, Bakewell, Hexham, and Penrith. 

The drawings of the remarkable group of monuments at Penrith were 
made by one of my assistants, Mr A. H. Crawford, during a holiday. 
Fig. 1 1 shows the stones as they lie at present, viz., two on each side, and 
a cross at the head and another at the feet ; little more than the shafts of 
the crosses remain, and they are very much worn. It is difficult to say 
whether the stones are in their original position or not, but from what 
Stewart, writing in 1535, says of the Inchcolm example, I am rather 
inclined to think they are. The people of the district call it " The 
Giant's Grave." The hog backed stones are very much worn and de- 
faced, and two of them are split into separate pieces ; the two best arc 

» Low's Tour through Orkney and Shetland in 1774 (Kirkwall, 1879), p. 65. 

Fif;. 10. Recumbent Monumitnt at Urigli 



Fi^. 12. KecumbVDt Hnnumeuts at Penrith ind Hexham. 


shown in fig. 12 (C and D with their sections) to the same scale as the 
Scottish examples ; the largest is 5 feet 1 1 inches long, and the other 
5 feet 7 J inches. The present height of the crosses is respectively 
11 feet 3 J inches and 10 feet 7 inches. 

On the same drawing (fig. 12) I am able to give a representation of 
the example at Hexham, from a sketch kindly sent me by C. C. Hodges, 
Esq., architect. This monument, which is a very characteristic specimen 
of the class, measures 4 feet 1 inch in length, and about 1 foot 1 1 inches 
in height at the centre. The bottom has a considerable curve on it in 
the longitudinal direction, and in this resembles one of the Govan 
examples. There is a fine drawing of the Hexham example in the Kev. 
E. L. Cutts's Manual for the Study of the Sepulchral Slabs and Crosses 
of the Middle Ages. He classes it under the head of eleventh century 
remains. He also gives smaller drawings of examples at Bedale and 
Durham, and states that many of them have the sides cut to " represent 
overlapping square tiles. This," he says, " overthrows the idea that 
these monuments represent Danish boats." An example at Dewsburj', 
Yorkshire, is engraved in Whittaker's Loidis, 


Aberdeenshire, Donation of Casts of Stone Balls, Cups, &c., from, . 
Abyssinian War Medal, Donation of, .... 

Achnacree, Um found in Cairn at, . 

Adam of Hepbnm, Lord of Hales, ..... 

Adipose, Circular Cake of. Donation of, . 

Agnew (R. Vans), Donation of Pebble of Sandstone, with shallow Cavities, 

Aikey Brae, Stone Circle at, . . . . . . 374, 

Allen (J. Romilly), Notes on Celtic Ornament — The Key and Spiral 

Patterns, by, , , . . . 

Altar, Roman, at Risingham, . . . 

Amazonas, Brazil, Notice of Indian Rock-Inscriptions, in the. 
Analysis of Bronze Masks dug up at Kanajor, 
Anderson (Joseph, LL.D.), Notice of an Enamelled Cup or Patera of Bronze 

found in Linlithgowshire, by, 

Notice of Bronze Age Cemetery at Shanwell, by, 

Notice of a Bronze Caldron, found with Kegs of Butter, in a Moss at 

Kyleakin, Skye, by, .... 

Angrowse, Pyrites, &c., found in Barrow at. 
Animal Remains found in St Ninian's Cave, 

found in Chambered Cairn at Unstan, 

Antiquaries of Scotland, Anniversary Meeting of Society of, 

Office-Bearers of. Elected, .... 

Members of, Deceased, . . . , 

Annual Report of, . 

Fellows of. Elected, . 

Corresponding Members of. Elected, . 

Ardmanach, Lordship of, . 

Argyle, Chambered Cairns of, 

Argyll (Countess of). Buried in St Giles' Church, 

Arkendeith Tower, near Avoch, Ross-shire, . 

Aryans, the Hill, of India, . 

Athole, Execution of the Earl of, 

(Duke of). Urns, Exhibited by, 

Anchmachar, Stone Circle at, 

VOL. XIX. 2 E 

1, 8, 51, 75, 182, 161 








376, 377 




862, 366 







247, 326 

132, 247 











Aachtermuchty, Stone Axe from, — Purchased, 

Avoch or Ormond Castle, Black Isle, Ross-shlre, Notice of, . 

Ayrshire, Fibula of Silver from, — Purchased, 

Bain (Joseph), Notes on Cambuslang and its £arly Lords, &c., by, . 
Balfour (Col. D.), Donation of Urn of Clay, from Shapinsay, Orkney, by, 

(Eustace), Donation of Circular Cake of Adipose, by, 

(Dr John Button), Obituary Notice of, 

Ballintruim, Donation of Curing Stone from, 

Banffshire, Stone Implements from, Donation of. 

Barons of Drumsargard, 

Bartle*s Church, Ruins of, . 

Bartlow, Enamelled Vase found at, . 

Bassendyne (Thomas), 

Bateman, Pyrites found in Graves, by, .... 361, 

Bay an n, Yell, Note of Excavations and Discoveries on the Tafts of, 

Bead of Blue Glass, from Brighouse, Donation of, 

Beads of Blue Glass, found at Cawdor, 

of Vitreous Paste, String of, — Purchased, 

Beaton (Angus J.), Notes on Ormond or Avoch Castle, and Notice of Bronze 

Celts, by, 
Beauly, Stone Axe from, — Purchased, 

Priory of, built by Sir John Bisset, 

Belgium, Pyrites found in Bone Caves of, 

Bellarmines, Notice of, 

Bennettsfield, Lands of, once owned by the Mathesons, 

Berwickshire, Stone Ball and Whorl from, Donation of, 

Bishopric of Orkney, Erection of the, 

Bisset (Sir John), Beauly Priory, built by, . 

Black Isle, Ross-shire, Original Name of the. 

Blackness, the Site of Bede's Giudi, 

Books for the Library, Donations of, 12, 58, 64, 82, 133, 134, 164, 166, 251 

Bothwell, Lands of, . 

Boys, Thomas de, . 

Braughing, Enamelled Cup found at, 

Brazil, Notice of Indian Rock-Inscriptions in the Amazonas, 

Notes on Weapons from, 

Brighouse, Bead of Blue Glass from. Donation of, 
Brigmilston, Pyrites, &c., found in Barrow at, 
Brittany, Spimllc from, Donation of. 
Broad Down, Pyrites found in Barrow at, 
Bronze Age Cemetery at Shan well. Notice of a, 






207, 209 
362, 366 


214, 215 




, 252, 328 

190, 191 





362, 366 



Bronze Age Cemetery, Local, at Uddingston, 

Armlet of thin, found at Melfort,— Exhibited, 

Axe, found at Durness,— Exhibited, . 

Axe, found at Watten, 

Axes of, from West of Scotland, —Purchased, 

Blade, Oval, found with Burnt Bones at Shanwell, 

Bracelet, from Fiesole, Donation of, . 

Caldron of thin, found in Moss at Kyleakin, Skye,— Purchased, 

fttid Kegs of Butter, found in n Moss at Kyleakin, Notice of 

found at Cockburnspath, 

found in the Moss of Kincardine, 

from West of Scotland, 

Rings of, found in Duddingston Loch, 

Rings of; found at Kilkerran, 

Celt, Flanged, from West of Scotland,— Purchased, 

Celt, Socketed, found at Strath, Donation of, 

Celt, Flanged, from Canon bie, Donation of, . 

Celts, found at Ciilzean, 

Celts, found at Ormond Castle, 

Enamelled Cup or Patera of, found in Linlithgowshire, — Purchased 

Notice of, . 

Fibuln (locality unknown),— Purchased. 

Masks dug up at Kanigor, Donation and Notice of, 

Medal in, of Uniyersity Tercenteuaiy, Donation of, 

Donation of, . 

Mounting, Donation of, . 

Mounting and Finger-Ring, from Dun Mac Uisneachan, Donation of, 

Ri"g, Penannular, — Purchased, 

Ring of, small Circular, with Knobs,— Purchased, 

Rings, two Spiral, — Purchased, 

Spear-head and Gouge found at Torran, Loch Awe, 

Sword and Ring from Relton, Donation of, . 

Brooch of Brass,— Exhibited, 

Highland, of Silyer,—Purchased, 

Donation of , . 

of Silver, Penannular, from Ireland,— Purchased, 
Lucken booth, —Purchased, 

Donation of, 

Brooches of Copper, from North Uist, —Purchased, . 

Broom Hall, Fife, Greek Marbles at, 

Broughty Ferry, Notice of Discovery of Ecclesiastical Gold Finger-Ring at 

Bruach. Glenlyon, Notice of Discovery of Urn at, . 

Bruce George), Donation of two Shetland Spinning Wheels, 



80, 97 
8, 332 




Brace (Rev . Dr J. C. ), Notice of Stone bearing a Roman Inscription at 

Jedburgb, ........ 821 

Braces of Kinloss, LAnds of Arkindeucb, held by, . 

Buccleuch and Queensberry (Duke of), Obituary Notice of, 

Buchan (Countess of), ... . 

Buchanan (Professor), on Bones found at XJddingston, 

Burgess (James), Donation of two Indian Weapons, 

Remarks on Bronze Masks dug up at Kanajor, by, 

Burnhouse, Langhope, Stone Axe from, Donation of, 

Bute (Marquess of). Notice of a Mannsciipt of the latter part of the Four 
teenth Century, by, ... . 

Butter, Keg of, found in a Moss at Kyleakin, Skye, — Purchased, 

Notice of, . 

Analysis of, . 

Caffraria, Digging Stone from,— Purchased, 
Cairo, Notice of an Artificial at Eriska, 

in the Beauly Firth, near Inverness, 

Chambered, of the Stone Age, at Unstan, Notice of the Excavation of, 

Cairnsmore, Kells, Kirkcudbrightshire, small Whetstone from,— Purchased, 

Calder, West, Donation of Hammerstone from. 

Cam buslang, Notts on its Early Lords, &c., 

Campbell (Lady Constance), Donations of Drawings of Bronze Objects, by 

Canada, Stone Axe from, Donation of, . 

Cannon Balls, found near Ormond Castle, .... 

Canonbie, Bronze Celt from, Donation of, . 

Carfrae (Robert), Donation of Bronze Bracelet from Fiesole, Italy, by, 

Carlops, Stone Axe from, — Purchased, 

Carriden, Earliest mention of, 

Castlemilk, Stuarts of. The, 

Cemetery, Prehistoric, at L'isle Thinic, 

at Shanwell, 

at Uddingston, 

Chapman (Thomas), Donation of old Wooden Chair, by. 

Circles, Notice of Stone, in the Parish of Old Deer, Aberdeenshire, 

Cisbury llill, Flint Implements found at, . 

Cist with Urn, Notice of, at Braach, .... 

Bronze Armlet and Necklace of Jet, found in, at Melfort, — Exhibited 

Notice of, with an Ura, &c., at Flowerbura, 

Cists with Urns of Steatite, in Orkney, Notice of, . 

Clouston (R. S.), Notice of Excavation of a Cairn at Unstan, by, 

Cochet (AbbOi on Flints found with Merovingian Interments, 
















199, 200 




Coins, DoDation of, . 

Roman, found at Cramond, . 

Roman, &c., — Purchased, 

Combs, Long-handled, of Bone, found at Howmae, . 

Conou, Circular Cake of Adipose found at, Donation of, 

Coventry (Mrs), Donation of Urn found at Shanwell, by. 

Cowan (Rev. C. J.), Donation of Bronze Sword and Ring, from Eelton, 

Craigiechow Cave, Curing Well in, . 

Craigock Well, Ross-shire, resorted to for healing, 

Cramond, Roman Coins found at, 

Crawfurd (Walter), of Ferme, 

Crichie, Upper, Stone Circle at, 

East, Stone Circle at, 

Croket (Hugh), of Eamesbank, 

-^— (William), of Kilbride, 

Cromlech at £r-Lanic, Morbiban, 

Crookedshields, Tenement of, 

Crosby Garrett, Pyrites found in Cairn at. 

Cross, Sculptured, Fragment of, found at Lethnott, 

Calbin Sands, Collections of Flint Implements from, — Purchased, 

Cursiter (J. W.)f Stone Implements from Orkney and Shetland, Exhibited by, 

Dalgetty Church, ....... 

Dalrymple (Sir John), Notes on ** Ane Informationo," drawn up by, 
Deer, Old, Notice of Stone Circles in the Parbh of, 

Origin of the Name, .... 

Devil-worship in India, .... 

Dickson (Dr W. G.), Donation of two Phalli, from Japan, 
Dolmens at Port Blane, .... 

Douglas (Archibald), .... 

Douglas (Dr John), Sculptured Stone, Exhibited by, 
Dowe Lowe, Pyrites, &c., found in Grave at, ... 361 

Drainie, Elginshire, Collection of Flint Implements from, — Purchased, 
Drummond- Moray (C. S. Home), Unpublished Letter on the Buttle of Glen 
shiel, in possession of, 

Drumsargard, the Barons of, .... 

Origin of the Name of, . 

Duddingston Loch, Bronze Caldron-Rings found in, 

Duncan (J. Dalrymple), Notes on Urns found at Uddingston, by, 

Dundas (Sir Lawrence), ..... 

(Major T.), Donation of Gold Finger-Ring, from Ireland, 

Dunfallandy, Sculptured Stone at, ... 






27, 80 














366, 368 


10, 322 



381, 882 

362, 366 


381, 382 




214, 289 


275, 278 




Dun Mac Uisneachan, Donation of Bionzo Mounting, &c., from, . . 247 
Dunrossness, Parish of, . . . 220, 222, 223, 228, 229, 234, 235, 239 

Duns (Professor J., D.D.), Notes on Brazilian Weapons, by, . . 140 

Donation of Diploma of the Kevolutioii Club, by, . . . 164 

Notice of Photographs of Indian Rock-Inscriptions from Brazil, 

by, ....... 388 

Dupont (Dr £.), on Pyrites found in Belgian Bone Caves, ... 359 

Earldom of Orkney, Compting Rental of, . 

Edderdail, Barony of, .... . 

Edinburgh, Qreek and Roman Marbles in, . 

Elginshire, Stone Implements from. Donation of, . 

Elliot (W. Scott), Donation of Bronze Palstave from Canonbie, 

(Sir W.), Notice of Bronze Masks dug up at Eantgor, Province of 

Maisur, India, by, . 
EUson (Ralph Carr), Obituary Notice of, 
Elton Moor, Pyrites found in Barrow at. 
Enamel, Champlev^ found in Dun Mac Uisneachan, 
Enamelled Cup, found in Linlithgowshire, Notice of, 

Metal-Work, Spiral Patterns on. 

Enamelling, Origin of, . . . 

Engclhardt on Pyrites found at Thorsbjei^, 
Erittka, Notice of an Artificial Mound or Cairn at, 
Eskimo Dialects, Polysyn thesis in, . 
Evans (Dr J.), on Flint Strike-Lights, 

' on Use of Pyrites for Pigment, 

Eyemouth, Jar filled with Quicksilver, found at. 

Eandowie, Little, Cup-marked Stone at, 

Eat-gnid, Duty of, , 

Fetlar, Jar filled with Quicksilver, found at. 

Fibula, Double Cup-shaped, of Gold, Cast of, — Purchased, 

of Silver, Harp-shaped, from Ayrshire, — Purchased, 

Fiesole, Italy, Bronze Bracelet from, Donation of, . 
Fife, Arrow-head of Flint from, — Purchased, 

• — Stone Axes from, — Purchased, 

Findhorn Sands, Collection of Flint Implements from,— Purchased 

Fiudowie Hill, Stone Circle at, . 

Flag of Glasgow Volunteers, — Purchased, . 

Flemington, Lauds of, . . . 

Flowerburn, Cinerary Urn, &c, from. Donation of, . 




361, 366 




















Flowerbum, Notice of Cist, with Urn and Strike-LigLt of Flint and Pyrites, 

found at, . 
Font or Holy Water Stoup iu St Ninian's Cave, 

iu St Clement's Church, ..... 

Fraser, Execution of Simon, ...... 

Galloway, Notice of a Collection of Stone Implements from, 

Galloway (Earl of), Tomb of, iu St Giles' Chuich, . 

Garson (Dr J. G.), on the Bones found at Unstan, . 

Gaval, Stone Circle at, ..... . 

Gilbertfield, Feu of, . 

Gillon (Capt. W.), Donation of Highland Biooch of Brass, . 

Giudi, the Site of Bedo's Ancient City of, . 

Glasgow, Flag of Volunteers of, — Purchased, 

Glenshiel, Note on an Unpublished Letter on the Battle of. 

Gold, Double Cup-shaped Fibula of, Cast of, — Purchased, . 

Goldsmid (Edmund), Donation of Medal by, ... 

Gordon (Rev. Dr A.), Donation of Stone Implements from Elginshire and 

Banffshire, by, . . . . . . 

Goudie (Gilbert), Notice of Rentals of liordship of Shetland aud Earldom 

and Bishopric of Orkney, by, .... 

Gow (J. M. ), Notice of Stone Circles and Cup-marked Stones in Strath 

braan, by, ....... 

Green Lowe, Pyrites, &c, found in Grave at, . . . 

Greenwell (Canon) on Nodules of Iron Pyrites found in Graves, 
Greig (David), Donation of Mounting in Bronze, 
Guinea, New, Stone Adze-head from, — Purchased, . 

Halidon Hill, Battle of, ..... . 

Halkett (Sir Arthur), Donation of Tattooed Head of New Zealand Chiif, by, 
Hepburn (Archibald) of, ..... . 

(Adam) of, . 

Hermiston, Axe of Gi-eenstone from, — Purchased, . 
Hildebrand (Dr Bror Emil), Obituary Notice of, . 
Himalayas, Steel for Flint from the, — Purchased, . 
Hoare (Sir R. C), Flint and Pyrites, &c., found in Barrows, by, . 
Holland, Bellarmiues still made iu, . 

North Ronaldshay, Kitchen Midden at, . 

Hos Tribes of India, Religion of, . 
Howmae, North Ronaldshay, Excavations at, 

Long-handled Combs of Bone found at, . 

Hutcheson (A.), Nutice of Antique Ecclesiastical Gold-Finger Ring, by, 








345, 851 












36 J , 366 














India, Devil- Worship in, . 

Weapons from, Donation of two, 

Innuit Dialects of Asia, ..... 
Inscriptions, Notice of Indian Rock, Amazonas, Brazil, 
Inverness-shire, Stone Axe from, — Purchased, 

Whorls of Stone from, — Purchased, . 

Ireland, Gold Finger-Ring from, Donation of, 

Penannular Brooch of Silver from, — Purchased, 

Iron, Spiked Collar of, or " Witches Bridle," — Purchased, . 

I^agger Blade of, found in Dun Mac Uisneachan, Donation of, 

Key of, from Lamington, — Purchased, 

— Donation of, . 

Irvine (J. T. ), Note of Excavations on the Tafts of Bayann, by, 
Irdne (Dr W.), Donation of *' Curing Stone," by, . 

Japan, Donation of two Phalli from, 

Jedburgh, Donation of Casts of Sculptured Stones from, 

Notice of Stone bearing a Roman Inscription at, 

Jeffrey (Thomas), Donation of Statuette of Mercury in Bronze, by, 

Kamcsbank (Hugh Croket) of, ... . 

Eanajor, Donation of Bronze Masks from, . 

Keller on Brazilian Rock-Inscriptions, 

Kelly, Castle, Ireland, Double Cup-shaped Fibula of Gold, found at,— Pur 

chase of Cast of, . 
Kelton, Castle-Douglas, Fragments of Bronze Sword and Bronze Ring fouud at, 
Kent's Cavern, ..... 

Key, old Iron, from Lamington,— Purchased, 

Donation of, . 

Kilbride, Parish of, . 

Kilkerran, Bronze Caldron Rings found at . 

Kincardine, Moss of, Bronze Caldron found in, 

Kincraigie, Urns found at, — Exhibited, 

Kirkcolm, Stone Implements from, — Exhibited, 

Kirkcowan, Stone Axe from, — Purchased, . 

Kirkhope, Sculptured Stone found at, — Exhibited, . 

Kirk-Session of the West Kirk, Donation of Information for the Poor, 

against Henry Nisbet of Dean, , . . . 

Kitchen ^lidden at Holland, North Ronaldsay, 
Kyleakin, Skye, Caldron of thin Bronze found in Moss at, — Purchased, 

. Keg of Butter found in Moss at, — Purchased, 

Notice of Bronze Caldron and Kegs of Butter found in a Moss at, 































220, 222, 226 

148, 149 

Lamborae Down, Pyntes, &c. found in Barrow at, . 
Lamington, Stone Axe and Iron Key from, — Parcliased, 
Landmaills in Shetland, &c., . . . 219 

Jjanguages, American, PolysyntbesU in, 
Largie, Urn found in Cairn at, 
Latin Inscriptions in Kirk of Weem, 

on Cross found at Lethnott, 

on Panel in Netherbow, 

on Roman Altars, 

Leanger Duty, 

Leenow, Orkney, Collection of rude Stone Implements from, — Purchased, 

Leges inter Brettos et Scottos, Proposed Correction of the Text of, . 

Lepsius (Professor Karl Richard), Obituary Notice of, 

Lethnott, Discovery of Stone Coffin and Celtic Cross at, 

Linlithgowshire, Enamelled Cup or Patera of Bronze found in, — Purchased 

Notice of Enamelled Cup of Bronze found in, 

Locks, Wooden, from North Konaldsay, 

Lorimer (George), Donation of Leaves from The Buik of the West Kirk — MS 

Notes on **Ane Informatione," drawn up by Sir John 

Dalrymple, by, .... . 

Lome (Marquis of)i Annular Brooch of Brass, Exhibited by, 
Lothian (Marquess of). Donation of Costs of Sculptured Slabs from Jed 

burgh, by, . 
Loudon Wood, Pitfour, Stone Circle at, . 
Luckenbooth Brooch, of Silver, — Purchased, 
Luffncss Links, Donation of Urn found at, . 
Lumbden (A.), Donation of Wedge-shaped Stone Hammer of Whinstoue, 

Mackay and Chisholm, Donation of Case of Balance Covers of Old Watches 

by, . 
Mackenzie (Major Colin), Donation of Cinerar/jUm, Sculptured Stones, &c. 
Notice of Cist, with Urn and Strike-Light of Flint and 

Pyrites, at Flowerbum, by, 
Mackenzie (John Whitefoord), Obituary Notice of, 

Mackenzie (Thomas), Donation of Socketed Celt of Bronze, and Coins, &c 
Maclellan (Mrs. K.), Jet Necklace and Armlet of thin Bronze found in Cist 

at Melfort, Exhibited by, 
Macleod (R. B. JE.), Donation of Collection of Drawings, Engravings, &c, 

illustrative of the Diviiia Cammedia of Dante, by, 
M*Meekin (John), Donation of Block of Sandstone with incised Cross, 
Collection of Stone Implements from Galloway, Exhibited 

oy, ....•••• 




234, 235 



150, 151 



321, 325 

225, 227 







20, 21 




374, 375 













Maliae (Earl of Stratherae), ...... 

Maltbeck, Deumark, Euamelled Cup found at, . . . 

Man, Figure of, in Brass, Donation of, . 
Manuscript of the latter part of the Fourteenth Century, Notice of. 
Manuscripts, Irish, Dates of, ..... 

Photographs of Celtic, — Purchased, .... 

Marbles, Ancient, in National Museum of Antiquities, Ediubuigh, Notice of, 

Match -lock superseded by Wheel-lock, 

Mathesons, Owners of Lands of Bennettsfield, 

Maxwell (Sir H. £.), Notice of Excavation of St Ninian's Cave, Glasser 

ton, by, ....... 

Medal, Victory of Admiral Vernon, — Purchased, 

of University Tercentenary, Donation of, . 

in Bronze, Napoleon Emp. Descente in Angleterre, Donation of, 

Abyssinian War, Donation of, . ... 

Melfort, Bronze Armlet and Jet Necklace found at, — Exhibited, 

Mercury, Statuette of. Donation of, . 

Merovingian Interments, Pyrites found with, 

Merton (John) of, . 

Metal- Work, Celtic, Dates of Specimens, .... 

Michaelis (Prof. A.)) Notice of Ancient Marbles, &c., in the National 

Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh, by, . 
Miller (A. H.), Notes on the Battle of Glenshiel, by, 

Notice of Mural Monument in Kirk of Weem, by, . 

(Peter), Suggestious respecting the Site of Bede's Ancient City 

Giudi, .... 
Note respecting the Earl of Moray's Tomb and its contents 

in St Giles* Church, by. 
Monument, Mural, in Kirk of Weem, Notice of. 
Monuments, Sculptured, Irish, Dates of, 

Sculptured, of Scotland, 

Recumbent, Notes on a peculiar Class of, 

Moray (Alexander), .... 

(Sir Andrew), 

(John), Lord of Drumsargard, 

(Maurice), Part Owner of Ballencrieflf, 

(Walter), .... 

(Sir William), of Bothwell, 

Moray, the Tomb of the Earls of, in St Giles' Church, 

Morham (Herbert de), ...... 188 

(Sir Thomas de), 

Morrison (Hew), Notice of Stone Coffin and Celtic Cross at Lethnott, 












381, 382 

190, 191 



Morriiiou (Rev. J.)> Donation of Flint Implements, from Urqoliart, 
Mound or Cairn, Notice of an Artificial, at Eriaka, . 
Mount, Brazil, Incised Stones of, . 
Muir (T. S.)» Remarks on St Clement's Church, Kowdill, by, 
Mulrhead (A.), Donation of Figure of a Man in Cast Brass, 
Mundas Tribes of India, Religion of, ... 

Munlochy Bay, Ross-shire, Standing Stone at, 
Munro (Dr Robert), Notice of an Artificial Mound or Cairn on the Island 
of £riska, by, . . . . . 

Donation of Spindle from Brittany, by, 

Mylue (J.), Donation of Photograph of Card with Medal, . 

Napier and Ettrick (Lord), Sculptured Stone, Exhibited by, 
Necklace of Jet, found at Melfort,— Exhibited, 
Netherbow, the so-called Roman Heads at, . 
New Zealand Chief, Donation of Tattooed Head of, . . . 
Norwick, Unst, Ancient Remains at, . . . 

Olifard (Walter), Justiciar of Lothian, 

Orkney, Notice of Unpublished Rentals of the Earldom and Bishopric of, 

Stone Implements from, — Exhibited, 

Ormond or Avoch C^astle, Black Isle, Ross-shire, Notice of, . 

Bronze Celts found at, ... . 

Ornament, Celtic, Notes on, ..... 

Characteristics of, . 

Key Patterns in, . 

Spiral Patterns in, . 

Localities of Key and Spiral Patterns in, 

Interlaced, Classical, 

Paiiton (G. A.)> Donation of Leaves from the Buik of the West Kirk — MS. 
Parker (John Henry), Obituary Notice of, .... 
Passio Scotorum Peijuratorum, Notice of an old Manuscript entitled, 
Ptttera, Enamelled, found in Linlithgowshire, — Purchased, . 

Notice of, . 

Penicuik, Stone Axe from, — Purchased, .... 

Percival (S. G.), Donation of Bead of Blue Glass from Brighouse, Logic, 

Peter (Rev. J.), Notice of Stone Circles in the Parish of Old Deer, by. 

Phalli, from Japan, Donation of two, 

Photographs of Celtic Manuscripts, — Purchased, 

Pinkeny (Sir Henry), ...... 







880, 381 

254, 293 








Pistol, Highland,— Purchased, .... 

with Wooden Stock, — Purchased, 

Pistols, Highland, of Steel (by Murdoch), — Purchased, 
Pitfour, Stone Circle at Loudon Wood, 
Polysynthesis in American Languages, 

in Eskimo Dialects, ..... 

Pottery, Vessels of, found at Stenabreck, 

Mediffival, ...... 

mentioned by Classical Writers, 

Powell (Mrs M. ), Donation of Stone Axe from Canada, 
Purchases for Museum and Library, — Exhibited, , 
Pyrites, Nodules of, found in Graves, &c. , on the Continent, 

found in Cist at Flowerbum, 

found in British Graves, . . 361, 862, 363, 364 

Pyrmont, Enamelled Cup found at, ... 

Quicksilver, Jar found full of, at Fetlar, 

Bae (John), Donation of Casts of Stono Balls, Cups, Ac, found in 

Aberdeenshire, ..... 
Redcastle, Ross-shire, ..... 

Eeid (John J.), Notice of two Vessels of grey Stoneware, one found full of 

Quicksilver in Shetland, the other at Eyemouth, by 
Rental, Compting, of the Earldom of Orkney, 

of the Bishopric of Orkney, .... 

Rentals, Unpublished, of ancient Lordship of Shetland, and Earldom and 

Bishopric of Orkney, Notice of, . . 

Orkney and Shetland, List of, . 

Revolution Club, Diploma of. Donation of, . 
Ring, Antique Ecclesiastical Gold, Notice of, 

Gold Finger, from Ireland, Donation of. 

Rings, two Spiral, of Bronze, — Purchased, . 
Risingham, Stone with Roman Inscription at, 

Roman Altar at, .... . 

Robenhausen, Pyrites found in Lake Dwelling at, . 

Robertson (George), Donation of Whorl of Claystone and Ball of Greenstone, 

(William), Donation of Celt of Granite (American), 

Roger (J. C. ), Notes on two additional Runic Ristings in St Molio*s Cave 

Holy Isle, Arran, by, ... . 

Roman Heads (so-called), of the Netherbow, Notice of, 

Heads (so-called), of the Netherbow, Date of the, . 

Remains found in Edinburgh and Neighbourhood, . 




374, 375 







8, 329 


356, 366 

365, 366 










Rosemarkie, Scnlptared Stone at, . . . 272, 283 

Sculptured Stones from, Donation of, ... . 828 

Ro88 (Alexander), Notice of St Clements Church at Rowdill, Harris, by, . 118 

Rowland (J. W.), Donation of Stone Axes from African Gold Coast, . 249 

Rudstone, Yorkshire, Nodule of Pyrites and Strike-Light found at, . 868 

Runic Inscriptions in St Molio*8 Cave, ..... 879 

Russell (Rev. James), Donation of polished Axe of Granite, from Langhope, 827 

Rntherglen, Parish of, ..... . . 884, 885 

StCadoc, ......... 885 

St Clair (Sir John) of, ....... 888 

St Clement's Church, Rowdill, Notice of, . . . . . 118 

St Giles' Church, Note respecting the Earl of Moray's Tomb in, . . 210 

St Molio's Cave, Notes on Runic Ristings in, ... . 378 

St Ninian's Cave, Notice of the Excavation of, . . . . 82 

Sanderson (R. C), Donation of two Masks of Bronze dug up at Kanajor, by, 80 

Sandwick, Notice of Discovery of two Cists at, . . . . 160 

Scatt Book for Parishes in Shetland, ..... 289 

Secondi, Stone Axes from, Donation of, . . . . 249 

Shan well, Notice of Small Bronze Age Cemetery at, . . . 114 

Donation of Cinerai-y Urn found at, . . . . .80, 114 

Shapinsay, Urn of Clay from, Donation of, . . . . 248 
Shetland, Spinning Wheels from, Donation of, . . . .183 

Jar filled with Quicksilver, found in, .... 34 

Stone Implements from, — Exhibited, .... 136 

Notice of Unpublished Rentals of Ancient Lordship of, . . 218 

Shoe- Buckles, Twelve Pairs, — Purchased, ..... 8 
Silver, Highland Brooches of,— Purchased, . . . .8, 832 

Fibula of, from Ayrshire, — Purchased, . • . . 882 

Luckenbooth, Brooch of, — Purchased, .... 10 

Penannular Brooch of, from Ireland,— Purchased, . . . 882 

Sinclair (Henry, I/)rd), ....... 216, 219 

Skat Book, The, of Zetland, ...... 218 

Skelmuir Hill, Stone Circle on, ..... . 877 

Smalham, Church of, ....... 881 

Smith (Miss J. K. ), Donation of Objects found at Dun Mac Uisneachan, by, 247 

(Dr R. Angus) Obituary Notice of, . . . . . 6 

Snuffbox of Walrus-tooth, — Purchased, ..... 880 
Spindle from Brittany, Donation of, . .249 

Spinning- Wheels, Donation of two Shetland, .... 133 

Stair (Earl oQ) Stone Implements, Exhibited by, . 886 

Steel for Flint from the Himalayas, — Purchased, 10 



Stenabreck, North Ronaldsay, Notice of Excavations at, . 
Stevens (George H.)i Donation of Urn of Food- Vessel Type, by, 
Stevenston Sands, Flint Implements fonnd in, 
Stewart (Charles), Notice of Cist with Urn at Bmach, Glenlyon, by 
Stone, Adze-head of Flinty Slate, from New Gninea,— Purchased, 

Axe of Flinty Slate, from Auch term nchty,— Purchased, 

Axe of Flint, from Bcauly,— Purchased, 

Axe from Burnhouse, Langhope, Donation of, 

Axe from Canada, Donation of, 

Axe of Granite from Carlops, — Purchased, 

Axe of Porphyry, from Fife, — Purchased, 

Axe of Granite, Donation of, 

Axe of Diorite, — Purchased,. 

Axe of Greenstone, from Hermiston, — Purchased, 

Axe of Serpentine, from Inverness-shire,— Purchased 

Axe of Felstone, from Kirkcowan,— Purchased. 

Axe of Felstone, from Lamington,— Purchased, 

Axe of Quartz, from Penicuik,— Purchased, 

Axes of Basalt, from Fife,— Purchased, 

— — Axes from African Gold Coast, Donation of, 

Arrow-head of Flint, from Fife,- Purchased 

Arrow-heads, Scrapers, &c., from Urquhart, Donation of, 

Arrow-heads found in Cairn at Unstan, 

Balls, Cups, &c., from Aberdeenshire, Donation of Casts of, 

Circle at Aikey Brae, 

Circle at Auchmachar, 

Circle at East Crichie, 

Circle at Upper Crichie, 

Circle at Fandowie, . 

Circle at Gaval, 

Circle at Loudon Wood, Pitfonr, 

Circle on Skelmuir Hill, 

Circle at Strichen, 

Circle, White Cow Wood, 

Circles in Strathbraan, Notice of 

Coffin and Celtic Cross, found at Lethnott, Notice of, 

Cruisie-Mould, from North Uist,— Purchased, 

Cup-marked, Donation of, . 

. at Fandowie, .... 

at Strathbraan, 

at Tomnagaim, 

Rounded Pebble, formerly used ae a Curing Stone, Donation of. 










376, 377 

374, 876 




44, 45 




stone, Perforated, Spherical* Digging, from Caffraria, — Parcbaned, 

Flaking Tool of Flint, foand in Cairu at Unstan, 

Hammer of Whinstone, from West Calder, Donation of, 

Implements of Flint, found at Cisbury Hill, Sussex, 

from Culbin Sands, — Purchased, 

— of Flint, from Drainie, — Purchased, . 

— of Flint, Steyenston Sands, . 

— Flint, &c., from Unstan, — Purchased, 

— from Elginshire and Banffshire, Donation of, 

— from Findhom Sands, — Purchased, . 

— from Galloway, Notice of, . 

— from Kirkcolm, — Exhibited, . 
-— Ck>llection of Rude, from Leenow, Orkney, — Purchased, 

from Orkney and Shetland, — Exhibited, 

Incised, with Cross from Chapel Donnan, Donation of, 

with Cross, from near Chapel Donnan, Donation of, 

with Cross, found in St Ninian's Cave, 

of Moura, Brazil, .... 

on the Rio Negro, Brazil, 

from Tavarete, Rio Waupes, 

Kniyes of Porphyry, from Shetland, — Purchased, . 

Knife of Flint, found in Cairn at Unstan, . 

Knocking, found at Bayann, . . . . 

Pounder of Sandstone, found in Cairn, at Unstan, . 

— Quern, from Barlockhart Loch, Donation of, 

Roman, Inscribed, at Jedburgh, Notice of, . 

— Inscribed, at Risingham, 

Rubbing, from Machermore, Donation of, . 

Scraper of Flint, found in Cairn, at Unstan, 

Strike-Light of Flint and Pjrrites, kc , Arom Flowerbom, Donation 

Oi, . ..•••• 

Sculptured, Donation of Casts of, from Jedburgh, . 

from Kirkhope, — Exhibited, . 

from Roeemarkie, Donation of, 

from Wigtownshire, — Exhibited, 

Standing, near Ormond Castle, 

Whetstone of Quartzite, from Cairnsmore, — Purchased, 

Whorl and Stone Ball, from Berwickshire, Donation of, 

Whorls, from Inyemess-shire, — Purchased, . 

Strath, Skye, Donation of Bronze Axe from, 

Strachan (J. M.), Donation of Bronze Spear-head and Oouge, 

Strathbraan, Notice of Stone Circles and Cup-marked Stones at. 






10, 332 






90, 91, 93 
831, 332 
385, 386 

















Strichen, Stone Circle at, . 

Stuart (Francis), Tomb of, in St Giles' Church, 

(Sir Walter), of Mynto, 

Stuarts of Castlemilk, 

Swastica, The, Localities where it occurs, 

Thomas (Capt F. W. L.), Proposed Correction of the Text of "Leges inter 



Urquhart, Flint Implements from. Donation of, 

Uyea, Shetland, Knives of Porphyry from, —Purchased, 

Urns of Steatite from, — Purchased, . 

Brettos et Scottos," by, . 
Thomson (Robert), Donation of Cinerary Urns from Uddingston, by, 
Thorsbjerg, Pyrites found at, .... 

Tbrosk, Donation of Statuette of Mercury, found at, 
Tomnagaim, Cup-marked Stone at, . 

Torran, Loch Awe, Bronze Spear-head and Gouge from, Donation of, 
Traill (Dr Wm.), Notice of Excavations in North Ronaldsay, by, 
Tyneside Farm, Minto, Flint Strike-Light found at, 

Uddingston, Notice of Urns found at, . . . 

Donation of Urns from, .... 

Uist, North, Crusie Mould of Stone from, — Purchased, 

Copper Brooches from, — Purchased, . 

Umboth Duties, ...... 

University of Edinburgh, Donation of Medal of Tercentenary, by the 

Senatus of, . 
Unstan, Notice of the Excavation of a Chambered Cairn of the Stone Age 

Collection from, — Purchased, 

Urn, Notice of Discovery of, at Bruach, 

from Flowerbum, Donation of, . 

of Stone Age, found in Cairn at Largie, 

Food- Vessel Type, from Luffhess, Donation of, 

Cinerary, found at Shanwell, Donation of, . 

from Shapiusay, Donation of, . , . 

Urns, Stone Age, found in Cairn at Achnacree, 

of Food- Vessel Type, found at Kincraigie, — Exhibited, 

found at Shanwell, ..... 

Cinerary, found at Uddingston, Notice of, . 

Donation of, . 

found at Unstan, ..... 

of Steatite, from Uyea, — Purchased, . 



859, 369 


44, 45 



356, 362, 866 





229, 242 












116, 117 






331, 332 




Vernon (Admiral), Medal of, —Purchased, . 
Volunteers, Flag of Glasgow,— Purchased, . 

Wadmell Duty, ..... 

Waimiri Indians, Incised Stones in the TeiTitory of the. 
Walker (J. Russell), Notes on a peculiar Class of Recur 

oy, ...... 

Wallace (Charles), Donation of Slab with incised Cross, 

Watches, Balance Covers of Old, Donation of. 

Watt (W. G. T.), Noti.e of two Cists with Urns of Steatite 

Orkney, by, .... 

Watten, Caithness, Bronze Axe found at, 
Wattle, Duty, in Shetland, .... 
Weapons, Indian, Donation of two, . 
Wcem, Notice of Mural Monument in Kirk of. 
Wells, Curing, ..... 

West Kirk, Leaves from the Buik of the, Donation of, 
Whelan (Francis), Donation of Abyssinian War Medal, by, 
White Cow Wood Stone Circle, 
Whumblins of Cunnister, The, 
Wigtownshire, Sculptured Stone from, —Exhibited, . 
Wilson (R^^v. G.), Note on Stone Implements from Gallowc 

Donation of Quern Stones, &c., 

(Dr D. Wilson), on the so-called Roman Heads of 

uy, ...... 

•* Witches Bridle," or Spiked Collar of Iron, — Purchased, 
Woorare Poison of Brazilian Indians, 

Yetland, Rentall of, . 

Young (Professor), on Bones found at Uddingston, . 

Ystad, Sweden, Discovery of Antiquities at, 

Zetland, The Skut Book of, . 

(Earl of,, ..... 

Scatt Rental, ..... 


• • 






■ • 



■ • 



ent Monuments, 

• • 


• • 


• ■ 


te, in Sand 



• • 


• • 


■ • 


■ • 


• ■ 


• « 


• • 




• • 


• • 


• • 


»y, by, . 


• ■ 


the Netlierbow 

■ • 


• • 


• • 


• » 





• • 


• • 




242, 246 

, ^ 




2 F